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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914215

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is not known which type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients would most benefit from dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment. We aimed to investigate the predictors of response to DPP-4 inhibitors considering degree of DPP-4 inhibition. @*Methods@#This study is a post hoc analysis of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial that compared the efficacy and safety of a DPP-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin vs. sitagliptin) in patients with T2DM. Subjects were classified into tertiles of T1 <65.26%, T2=65.26%–76.35%, and T3 ≥76.35% by DPP-4 inhibition. We analyzed the change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) according to DPP-4 inhibition with multiple linear regression adjusting for age, ethnicity, body mass index, baseline HbA1c, and DPP-4 activity at baseline. @*Results@#The mean age was greater in the high tertile group compared with the low tertile group (T1: 49.8±8.3 vs. T2: 53.1±10.5 vs. T3: 55.3±9.5, P<0.001) of DPP-4 inhibition. Although HbA1c at baseline was not different among tertiles of DPP-4 inhibition (P=0.398), HbA1c after 24-week treatment was lower in the higher tertile compares to the lower tertile (T1: 7.30%±0.88% vs. T2: 7.12%±0.78% vs. T3: 7.00%±0.78%, P=0.021). In multiple regression analysis, DPP-4 enzyme inhibition rate was not a significant determent for HbA1c reduction due to age. In subgroup analysis by tertile of DPP-4 inhibition, age was the only significant predictor and only in the highest tertile (R2=0.281, B=–0.014, P=0.024). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that HbA1c reduction by DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with increasing age, and this association was linked with higher DPP-4 inhibition.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938264

ABSTRACT

Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are increasingly being recognized as significant threats to global health. Pharmacological treatments are required in patients in whom lifestyle modifications fail to achieve an individual’s target body weight.Current Concepts: Currently available short-term anti-obesity drugs, including phentermine, diethylpropion, and mazindol (all sympathetic nerve agents) serve as appetite suppressants. Prescription anti-obesity drugs currently approved for long-term use in Korea include orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide. Semaglutide (2.4 mg) has recently been authorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of obesity. Research is underway to introduce novel drugs that are likely to revolutionize the global anti-obesity drug market. Representative examples include tirzepatide, a dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and cagrilintide, an amylin analogue. These drugs have shown excellent weight-loss effects with tolerable adverse effects in phase II or III clinical trials, with significantly greater effectiveness than that of currently available medications.Discussion and Conclusion: Despite the introduction of a variety of anti-obesity drugs, these agents are not currently widely used in all patients with obesity owing to high costs, adverse effects, and unsatisfactory effectiveness. Further research is warranted to determine the effects and adverse effects of combinations of available drugs, including tirzepatide and cagrilintide, along with the development of newer agents that may show a different mechanism of action.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938093

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, the product of fasting triglycerides and glucose, is a useful and cost-effective marker of insulin resistance (IR). Furthermore, the TyG index is a known IR screening tool in healthy young adults but not in those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the TyG index as a predictor of CVD in healthy young adults. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 6,675,424 adults aged 20–39 years without CVD from the National Health Information Database. We categorized them by TyG index quartile from 2009–2017. The study outcomes were stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and mortality. All outcomes were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis while controlling for baseline covariates. @*Results@#During a mean 7.4 years of follow-up, 8,506 cases of stroke, 12,312 cases of MI, and 22,667 deaths were recorded. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for participants in the highest TyG index quartile demonstrated that they were at higher risk for stroke (HR, 1.253; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.167–1.346), MI (HR, 1.258; 95% CI, 1.187–1.334), and mortality (HR, 1.151; 95% CI, 1.104–1.200) than those in the lowest TyG index quartile independent of age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, body mass index, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The HRs for outcomes in the highest quartiles were higher when the TyG index was applied than when triglyceride or fasting glucose alone was applied. @*Conclusion@#TyG index, a simple measure reflecting IR, can predict CVD and mortality in young and healthy populations.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924930

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off values of visceral fat area (VFA) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) for predicting incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#A total of 10,882 individuals (6,835 men; 4,047 women) free of T2DM at baseline aged between 30 and 79 years who underwent abdominal computed tomography scan between 2012 and 2013 as a part of routine health check-ups were included and followed. VFA, subcutaneous fat area, and VSR on L3 vertebral level were measured at baseline. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 730 (8.1% for men; 4.3% for women) incident cases of T2DM were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values of VFA and VSR for predicting incident T2DM were 130.03 cm2 and 1.08 in men, respectively, and 85.7 cm2 and 0.48 in women, respectively. Regardless of sex, higher VFA and VSR were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2DM. Compared with the lowest quartiles of VFA and VSR, the highest quartiles had adjusted odds ratios of 2.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 3.97) and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.14 to 2.11) in men, respectively, and 32.49 (95% CI, 7.42 to 142.02) and 11.07 (95% CI, 3.89 to 31.50) in women, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Higher VFA and VSR at baseline were independent risk factors for the development of T2DM. Sex-specific reference values for visceral fat obesity (VFA ≥130 cm2 or VSR ≥1.0 in men; VFA ≥85 cm2 or VSR ≥0.5 in women) are proposed for the prediction of incident T2DM.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937421

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) are novel anti-diabetic drugs whose glucose-lowering effect and cardiovascular and renal benefits were evidenced in clinical trials. We investigated the real-world efficacy and safety of the combination of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. The medical records of 104 patients who maintained the combination for at least 1 year were retrospectively reviewed. The change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) after 6 months and 1 year of treatment was evaluated. The mean age was 51 years, and 41% were female. The mean baseline HbA1c, body mass index, and duration of diabetes were 9.0%, 28.8 kg/m2, and 11.7 years, respectively. Compared with baseline, the HbA1c decreased by 1.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 1.74; P<0.001) after 6 months and by 1.4% (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.70; P<0.001) after 1 year. Over 1 year, the bodyweight change was −2.8 kg (95% CI, −4.21 to −1.47; P<0.001). The combination of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA is effective and tolerable in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in real-world practice.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897016

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels and enhance the function of pancreatic βcells. Yet, it is unknown whether posttransplant administration of DPP4 inhibitors is beneficial for pancreas transplant recipients. @*Methods@#We thus retrospectively analyzed the records of 312 patients who underwent pancreas transplantation between 2000 and 2018 at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) and compared the metabolic and survival outcomes according to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment. @*Results@#The patients were divided into the no DPP-4 inhibitor group (n = 165; no treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors or treated for <1 month) and the DPP-4 inhibitor group (n = 147; treated with DPP-4 inhibitors for ≥1 month). There were no significant differences in levels of glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin between the 2 groups during 36 months of follow-up. However, the level of C-peptide was significantly higher in the DPP-4 inhibitor group at 1, 6, and 24 months posttransplant (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the DPP-4 inhibitor group had significantly higher rates of overall (log-rank test, P = 0.009) and death-censored (log-rank test, P = 0.036) graft survival during a 15-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#Posttransplant DPP-4 inhibitor administration may help improve the clinical outcomes including β cell function after pancreas transplantation.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1042-1054, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914261

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is metabolically heterogeneous in terms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, the triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index has been considered for identifying metabolic health and future risk of T2D. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident T2D according to obesity status and metabolic health, categorized by four different criteria and the TyG index. @*Methods@#The study included 39,418 Koreans without T2D at baseline. The risk of T2D was evaluated based on four different definitions of metabolic health and obesity status and according to the baseline TyG index within each metabolic health and obesity group. @*Results@#During the median follow-up at 38.1 months, 726 individuals developed T2D. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) group with low TyG index, the MHO group with high TyG index showed increased risk of T2D in all four definitions of metabolic health with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76 to 3.75), 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15 to 6.43), 4.13 (95% CI, 2.67 to 6.38), and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.24 to 4.15), when defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, Wildman, Karelis, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) criteria, respectively. @*Conclusion@#MHO subjects with high TyG index were at an increased risk of developing T2D compared with MHNO subjects, regardless of the definition of metabolic health. TyG index may serve as an additional factor for predicting the individual risk of incident T2D in MHO subjects.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914196

ABSTRACT

Dulaglutide, a weekly injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has demonstrated effectiveness when combined with basal insulin. We examined whether the efficacy of dulaglutide is comparable to that of prandial insulin in kidney transplant (KT) recipients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy. Thirty-seven patients, who switched from MDI therapy to basal insulin and dulaglutide, were retrospectively analyzed. Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, body weight, and basal insulin dose were evaluated over 6 months. Dulaglutide was comparable to three injections of prandial insulin in terms of glycemic control (HbA1c 7.1% vs. 7.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], –0.53 to 0.28; P=0.53). The basal insulin and dulaglutide combination resulted in a reduction in FPG levels by 9.7 mg/dL (95% CI, 2.09 to 41.54; P=0.03), in body weight by 4.9 kg (95% CI, 2.87 to 6.98; P<0.001), and in basal insulin dose by 9.52 IU (95% CI, 5.80 to 3.23; P<0.001). Once-weekly dulaglutide may be an effective alternative for thrice-daily prandial insulin in KT recipients with T2DM currently receiving MDI therapy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889312

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels and enhance the function of pancreatic βcells. Yet, it is unknown whether posttransplant administration of DPP4 inhibitors is beneficial for pancreas transplant recipients. @*Methods@#We thus retrospectively analyzed the records of 312 patients who underwent pancreas transplantation between 2000 and 2018 at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) and compared the metabolic and survival outcomes according to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment. @*Results@#The patients were divided into the no DPP-4 inhibitor group (n = 165; no treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors or treated for <1 month) and the DPP-4 inhibitor group (n = 147; treated with DPP-4 inhibitors for ≥1 month). There were no significant differences in levels of glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin between the 2 groups during 36 months of follow-up. However, the level of C-peptide was significantly higher in the DPP-4 inhibitor group at 1, 6, and 24 months posttransplant (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the DPP-4 inhibitor group had significantly higher rates of overall (log-rank test, P = 0.009) and death-censored (log-rank test, P = 0.036) graft survival during a 15-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#Posttransplant DPP-4 inhibitor administration may help improve the clinical outcomes including β cell function after pancreas transplantation.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on reported results of three large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), we aimed to investigate the overall effect of GLP-1 RAs on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and to identify subpopulations exhibiting the greatest cardiovascular (CV) benefit. METHODS: Three CVOTs reporting effects of long-acting GLP-1 RAs were included: LEADER (liraglutide), SUSTAIN-6 (semaglutide), and EXSCEL (exenatide once weekly). In all studies, the primary endpoint was three-point MACE, comprising CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. Overall effect estimates were calculated as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model; subgroup analyses reported in the original studies were similarly analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, statistically significant risk reductions in MACE and CV death were observed. Subgroup analysis indicated a significant racial difference with respect to CV benefit (P for interaction <0.001), and more substantial risk reductions were observed in subjects of African origin (relative risk [RR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and in Asians (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.32). However, post hoc analysis (Bonferroni method) revealed that only Asians exhibited a significantly greater CV benefit from treatment, compared with white subjects (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Long-acting GLP-1 RAs reduced risks of MACE and CV deaths in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings of a particularly effective reduction in CV events with GLP-1 RA in Asian populations merits further exploration and dedicated trials in specific populations.


Subject(s)
Asians , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Incretins , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of adding basal insulin to initiating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and metformin and/or sulfonylurea (SU) in achieving the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This was a single-arm, multicenter, 24-week, open-label, phase 4 study in patients with inadequately controlled (HbA1c ≥7.5%) T2DM despite the use of DPP-4 inhibitor and metformin. A total of 108 patients received insulin glargine while continuing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of subjects achieving HbA1c ≤7.0%. Other glycemic profiles were also evaluated, and the safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs) and hypoglycemia. RESULTS: The median HbA1c at baseline (8.9%; range, 7.5% to 11.1%) decreased to 7.6% (5.5% to 11.7%) at 24 weeks. Overall, 31.7% subjects (n=33) achieved the target HbA1c level of ≤7.0%. The mean differences in body weight and fasting plasma glucose were 1.2±3.4 kg and 56.0±49.8 mg/dL, respectively. Hypoglycemia was reported in 36 subjects (33.3%, 112 episodes), all of which were fully recovered. There was no serious AE attributed to insulin glargine. Body weight change was significantly different between SU users and nonusers (1.5±2.5 kg vs. −0.9±6.0 kg, P=0.011). CONCLUSION: The combination add-on therapy of insulin glargine, on metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors with or without SU was safe and efficient in reducing HbA1c levels and thus, is a preferable option in managing T2DM patients exhibiting dysglycemia despite the use of OADs.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin Glargine , Insulin , Metformin , Morinda
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 67-76, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcopenia has emerged as an important risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although aging is the main cause of sarcopenia, the longitudinal association between age-related body composition changes and NAFLD development has not been fully investigated. Thus, we evaluated whether age-related increased fat mass or decreased muscle mass is an independent risk factor for incident NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving 4,398 initially NAFLD-free subjects who underwent routine health examinations during 2004 to 2005 and returned for a follow-up during 2014 to 2015. Their body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fatty liver was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. RESULTS: At the 10-year follow-up, 591 out of 4,398 participants (13.4%) had developed NAFLD. In men and women, both increased fat mass and decreased appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) with aging were significantly associated with incident NAFLD after adjustment. A subgroup analysis according to the baseline obesity status showed that increased fat mass was significantly associated with incident NAFLD in obese and nonobese subjects. However, decreased ASM was significantly associated with incident NAFLD in nonobese but not in obese subjects. According to ΔASM tertiles (decrease of ASM), the odds ratios for incident NAFLD in nonobese subjects were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.84) for the second tertile and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.34 to 2.45) for the third tertile after adjustment (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A progressive increase in fat mass and a loss of ASM with aging were significantly associated with incident NAFLD. This association was more prominent in nonobese subjects.


Subject(s)
Aging , Body Composition , Cohort Studies , Electric Impedance , Fatty Liver , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714109

ABSTRACT

Korea's National Healthcare Program, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), a government-affiliated agency under the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, covers the entire Korean population. The NHIS supervises all medical services in Korea and establishes a systematic National Health Information database (DB). A health information DB system including all of the claims, medications, death information, and health check-ups, both in the general population and in patients with various diseases, is not common worldwide. On June 9, 2014, the NHIS signed a memorandum of understanding with the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) to provide limited open access to its DB. By October 31, 2017, seven papers had been published through this collaborative research project. These studies were conducted to investigate the past and current status of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications and management in Korea. This review is a brief summary of the collaborative projects between the KDA and the NHIS over the last 3 years. According to the analysis, the national health check-up DB or claim DB were used, and the age category or study period were differentially applied.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718929

ABSTRACT

Lowering serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the mainstay for reduction of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the second most common cause of death in Korea. The 2015 Korean guidelines for management of dyslipidemia strongly recommend the use of statins in patients at risk of CVD. Statin therapy, which is the gold standard for CVD, reduces LDL-C level by 40% to 60% and is generally well tolerated. However, many patients are intolerant to statins and discontinue therapy or become nonadherent to therapy because of actual/perceived side effects. The most common of these side effects is the statin-associated muscle symptom (SAMS). Discontinuation and repetitive re-challenge with statins can help identify SAMS. If serum creatinine kinase level is more than 10 times the upper limit of normal, statin therapy must be stopped immediately, and the physician should identify possible causes including rhabdomyolysis and treat appropriately. In other patients, it might help to switch to a less potent statin or to use statins at intermittent non-daily dosing. To achieve target LDL-C level, non-statin lipid-lowering therapies such as dietary modifications, ezetimibe, and bile acid sequestrants may be added. Several new drugs have recently been approved for lowering LDL-C level. Alirocumab and evolocumab are monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and both drugs cause large reductions in LDL-C, similar to statins. Lomitapide and mipomersen are orphan drugs used as adjuncts to other lipid-lowering therapies in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bile , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Cholesterol , Creatinine , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Korea , Lipoproteins , Orphan Drug Production , Phosphotransferases , Proprotein Convertases , Rhabdomyolysis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127713

ABSTRACT

The morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications impose a huge socioeconomic burden worldwide. Therefore, the ultimate goal of managing diabetes mellitus (DM) is to lower the risk of macrovascular complications and highly morbid microvascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Potential benefits of incretin-based therapies such as glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the diabetic macrovascular complications have been recently suggested, owing to their pleiotropic effects on multiple organ systems. However, studies primarily investigating the role of these therapies in diabetic microvascular complications are rare. Nevertheless, preclinical and limited clinical data suggest the potential protective effect of incretin-based agents against DN and DR via their anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic properties. Evidence also suggests that these incretin-dependent and independent beneficial effects are not necessarily associated with the glucose-lowering properties of GLP-1 RAs and DPP-4 inhibitors. Hence, in this review, we revisit the preclinical and clinical evidence of incretin-based therapy for DR and DN, the two most common, morbid complications in individuals with DM. In addition, the review discusses a few recent studies raising concerns of aggravating DR with the use of incretin-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Diabetic Retinopathy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Mortality
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220157

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with a reduced life expectancy, largely because obese individuals are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Much interest has recently focused on the concept of “all obesity is not created equally.” Obese individuals without the metabolic abnormalities that commonly accompany excess adiposity, a condition known as metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), account for a substantial proportion of the obese adult population. Numerous possible mechanisms underlying MHO have been suggested, including adipose tissue distribution and inflammation. However, the prognostic value of MHO is controversial and considerably challenging. The lack of a standard definition for metabolic health and obesity as well as the dynamic properties of MHO may have contributed to these inconsistent results. This review aimed to present several current issues regarding MHO including its definition, epidemiology, natural course, suggested mechanisms, and clinical implications in the context of patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Friends , Humans , Inflammation , Life Expectancy , Obesity , Obesity, Metabolically Benign , Prognosis
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175107

ABSTRACT

The management of dyslipidemia is one of the crucial components in the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Recently, the task force for the management of dyslipidemias of the ESC (European Society of Cardiology) and the EAS (European Atherosclerosis Society) updated their clinical guideline for the first time in 5 years. Although the new guideline maintained the previous recommendations in almost every aspect, there were some updates and modifications in the risk categorization and therapeutic modalities. In this review, I'd like to summarize the updated recommendations and differences compared to the previous version.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze cost-effectiveness of two most-commonly used statins from the perspective of the Korean national health system. METHODS: The scope of the analysis included rosuvastatin (5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg). Effectiveness was defined as percentage (%) and absolute (mg/dL) reductions of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from the baseline. They were derived from published randomized controlled studies for rosuvastatin and atorvastatin. Effectiveness was defined as reductions in LDL-C levels per mg dose of the drugs. The annual direct medical costs including drug acquisition costs and monitoring costs over the one-year time horizon were calculated for each alternative. The average cost-effectiveness ratios (ACERs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each statin dose were calculated. RESULTS: The ACERs for all doses of rosuvastatin (5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg) were lower than those for all doses of atorvastatin (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg). Rosuvastatin 10 mg was the most cost-effective statin for LDL-C reduction. In cost-effectiveness analyses for corresponding doses of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin, rosuvastatin was the superior strategy which suggests both higher effectiveness and lower costs than atorvastatin. However, we have to consider this analysis is highly influenced by current price of statins in each market. CONCLUSIONS: For reduction of LDL-C levels in Korean patients with dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin 10mg is the most cost-effective statin in the current Korean market.


Subject(s)
Acer , Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Lipoproteins , Rosuvastatin Calcium
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein (Apo) B-48 is an intestinally derived lipoprotein that is expected to be a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a vascular-specific inflammatory marker and important risk predictor of CVD. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of pitavastatin treatment and life style modification (LSM) on ApoB-48 and Lp-PLA2 levels in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients at relatively low risk for CVD, as a sub-analysis of a previous multi-center prospective study. METHODS: We enrolled 75 patients with MS from the PROPIT study and randomized them into two treatment groups: 2 mg pitavastatin daily+intensive LSM or intensive LSM only. We measured the change of lipid profiles, ApoB-48 and Lp-PLA2 for 48 weeks. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ApoB-100/A1 ratio were significantly improved in the pitavastatin+LSM group compared to the LSM only group (P≤0.001). Pitavastatin+LSM did not change the level of ApoB-48 in subjects overall, but the level of ApoB-48 was significantly lower in the higher mean baseline value group of ApoB-48. The change in Lp-PLA2 was not significant after intervention in either group after treatment with pitavastatin for 1 year. CONCLUSION: Pitavastatin treatment and LSM significantly improved lipid profiles, ApoB-100/A1 ratio, and reduced ApoB-48 levels in the higher mean baseline value group of ApoB-48, but did not significantly alter the Lp-PLA2 levels.


Subject(s)
1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase , Apolipoprotein B-48 , Apolipoproteins , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Humans , Life Style , Lipoproteins , Prospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126427

ABSTRACT

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Endothelium, Vascular , Glucagon , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Incretins , Insulin , Myocardium , Proglucagon
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