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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914214

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the efficacy and safety of two insulin self-titration algorithms, Implementing New Strategies with Insulin Glargine for Hyperglycemia Treatment (INSIGHT) and EDITION, for insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300) in Korean individuals with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a 12-week, randomized, open-label trial, individuals with uncontrolled T2DM requiring basal insulin were randomized to either the INSIGHT (adjusted by 1 unit/day) or EDITION (adjusted by 3 units/week) algorithm to achieve a fasting self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the range of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals achieving a fasting SMBG ≤5.6 mmol/L without noct urnal hypoglycemia at week 12. @*Results@#Of 129 individuals (age, 64.1±9.5 years; 66 [51.2%] women), 65 and 64 were randomized to the INSIGHT and EDITION algorithms, respectively. The primary outcome of achievement was comparable between the two groups (24.6% vs. 23.4%, P=0.876). Compared with the EDITION group, the INSIGHT group had a greater reduction in 7-point SMBG but a similar decrease in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The increment of total daily insulin dose was significantly higher in the INSIGHT group than in the EDITION group (between-group difference: 5.8±2.7 units/day, P=0.033). However, body weight was significantly increased only in the EDITION group (0.6±2.4 kg, P=0.038). There was no difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased in the INSIGHT group (P=0.014). @*Conclusion@#The self-titration of Gla-300 using the INSIGHT algorithm was effective and safe compared with that using the EDITION algorithm in Korean individuals with uncontrolled T2DM (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03406663).

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1121-1130, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914258

ABSTRACT

Background@#Heart rate (HR) monitored by a wearable device (WD) has demonstrated its clinical feasibility for thyrotoxicosis subjects. However, the association of HR monitored by wearables with hypothyroidism has not been examined. We assessed the association between serum thyroid hormone concentration and three WD-HR parameters in hypothyroid subjects. @*Methods@#Forty-four subjects scheduled for radioactive iodine therapy (RAI Tx) after thyroid cancer surgery were included. Thirty subjects were prepared for RAI Tx by thyroid hormone withdrawal (hypothyroidism group) and 14 subjects by recombinant human thyrotropin (control group). Three WD-HR parameters were calculated from the HR data collected during rest, during sleep, and from 2:00 AM to 6:00 AM, respectively. We analyzed the changes in conventionally measured resting HR (On-site rHR) and WDHR parameters relative to thyroid hormone levels. @*Results@#Serum free thyroxine (T4) levels, On-site rHR, and WD-HR parameters were lower in the hypothyroid group than in the control group at the time of RAI Tx. WD-HR parameters also reflected minute changes in free T4 levels. A decrease in On-site rHR and WD-HR parameters by one standard deviation (On-site rHR, approximately 12 bpm; WD-HR parameters, approximately 8 bpm) was associated with a 0.2 ng/dL decrease in free T4 levels (P<0.01) and a 2-fold increase of the odds ratio of hypothyroidism (P<0.01). WD-HR parameters displayed a better goodness-of-fit measure (lower quasi-information criterion value) than On-site rHR in predicting the hypothyroidism. @*Conclusion@#This study identified WD-HR parameters as informative and easy-to-measure biomarkers to predict hypothyroidism.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874549

ABSTRACT

Significant progress in pituitary and adrenal diseases was made in 2020. This review presents major translational and clinical advances in research on pituitary and adrenal diseases, encompassing their epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical management. We address the controversy regarding the nomenclature of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors, omics-based molecular classification of pituitary adenomas, and novel drugs for Cushing’s disease in the field of pituitary diseases. In the field of adrenal diseases, we cover big data-driven epidemiology of adrenal tumors, steroid profiling as a new diagnostic tool, and the utility of scoring systems in the decision-making process of managing primary aldosteronism. This brief article will broaden readers’ understanding of pituitary and adrenal diseases.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898197

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890493

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A premeal load of protein can increase satiety and reduce energy intake. Dietary fiber also conveys metabolic benefits by modulating energy intake. We made a protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB) and aimed to investigate its effects on food intake and gut hormone secretion in healthy individuals.METHODS: Twenty subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled. On three separate visits, the subjects received, in a randomized order, one of the following: a PFB containing 73 kcal with 10.7 g of protein and 12.7 g of dietary fiber; a usual bar (UB) containing the same calories as the PFB but only 0.9 g of protein and no dietary fiber; or water (control). After 15 minutes, the subjects had ad libitum intake of a test meal. Food consumption, appetite, and plasma gut hormone levels were measured.RESULTS: Total energy intake, including the bar and the test meal, was significantly reduced with the PFB preload compared to the water (904.4±534.9 kcal vs. 1,075.0±508.0 kcal, P=0.016). With the UB preload, only the intake of the test meal was reduced (P=0.044) but not the total energy intake (P=0.471) than the water. Fullness was also significantly increased after the PFB. In addition, postprandial glucose levels decreased and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels increased with the PFB compared with both the UB and water.CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals, a premeal supplementation of PFB reduced total energy intake and decreased postprandial glucose excursion. This finding necessitates long-term studies regarding clinical use in obesity.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Dietary Fiber , Eating , Energy Intake , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , Meals , Obesity , Peptide YY , Plasma , Water
12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 139-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766252

ABSTRACT

Patients with hyperglycemia are at a high risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Diabetes patients also have poor outcomes after cerebrovascular disease development. Several classes of drugs are used for diabetes management in clinical practice. Thiazolidinedione (TZD) was introduced in the late 1990s, and new antidiabetic agents have been introduced since 2000. After issues with rosiglitazone in 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration strongly recommended that trials investigating cardiovascular risk associated with new antidiabetic medications should be conducted before drug approval in the United States, to prove the safety of these new drugs and to determine their superiority to previous medications. Currently, results are available from two studies with TZD focusing on cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, and from 12 cardiovascular outcome trials focusing on major adverse cardiovascular events associated with new antidiabetic agents (four with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, three with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and five with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues). These studies showed different results for primary cardiovascular outcomes and stroke prevention. It is important to determine whether prescription of TZD or new antidiabetic medications compared to conventional treatment, such as sulfonylurea or insulin, is better for stroke management. Furthermore, it is unclear whether drugs in the same class show greater safety and efficacy than other drugs for stroke management.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Approval , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Prescriptions , Stroke , Thiazolidinediones , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112713

ABSTRACT

In the original article, the legend of Fig. 1 was incorrect. The solid line was noninsulinoma, and the dotted line was insulinoma.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182835

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to develop a new ginseng (Panax ginseng) flower buds extract with the high concentration of ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, Rh1 and F4, the Red ginseng special component. Chemical transformation from the ginseng saponin glycosides to the prosapogenin was analyzed by the HPLC. The ginseng flower buds were processed at the several treatment conditions of the ultrasonication (Oscillator 600W, Vibrator 600W) and vinegar (about 14% acidity). The result of UVGFB-480 was the butanol fraction of ginseng flower buds that had been processed with ultrasonication and vinegar for 480 minutes gained the highest amount of ginsenoside Rg5 (3.548%), Rh1 (2.037%), Rk1 (1.821%), Rg3 (1.580%) and F4 (1.535%). The ginsenoside Rg5 of UVGFB-480 was found to contain 14.3 times as high as ginseng flower buds extracts (GFB, 0.249%).


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers , Glycosides , Panax , Saponins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147136

ABSTRACT

Statins have been shown to be very effective and safe in numerous randomized clinical trials, and became the implacable first-line treatment against atherogenic dyslipidemia. However, even with optimal statin treatment, 60% to 80% of residual cardiovascular risk still exists. The patients with familial hypercholesterolemia which results in extremely high level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and the patients who are intolerant or unresponsive to statins are the other hurdles of statin treatment. Recently, new classes of lipid-lowering drugs have been developed and some of them are available for the clinical practice. The pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexintype 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor increases the expression of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in hepatocytes by enhancing LDL receptor recycling. The microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP) inhibitor and antisense oligonucleotide against apolipoprotein B (ApoB) reduce the ApoB containing lipoprotein by blocking the hepatic very low density lipoprotein synthesis pathway. The apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) mimetics pursuing the beneficial effect of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and can reverse the course of atherosclerosis. ApoA1 mimetics had many controversial clinical data and need more validation in humans. The PCSK9 inhibitor recently showed promising results of significant LDL-C lowering in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients from the long-term phase III trials. The MTP inhibitor and antisesnse oligonucleotide against ApoB were approved for the treatment of homozygous FH but still needs more consolidated evidences about hepatic safety such as hepatosteatosis. We would discuss the benefits and concerns of these new lipid-lowering drugs anticipating additional benefits beyond statin treatment.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I , Apolipoproteins , Apolipoproteins B , Atherosclerosis , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Hepatocytes , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Lipoproteins , Receptors, LDL , Recycling , Triglycerides
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) who have a high 1-hour postload plasma glucose level (> or =155 mg/dL; NGT 1 hour-high) have been shown to be at higher risk for type 2 diabetes than subjects with NGT 1 hour-low postload plasma glucose level (<155 mg/dL). We compared beta-cell function in subjects with NGT 1 hour-high, NGT 1 hour-low, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: We classified subjects into NGT 1 hour-low (n=149), NGT 1 hour-high (n=43), and IGT (n=52). The beta-cell function was assessed based on insulinogenic index (IGI), oral disposition index (DI), and insulin secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). RESULTS: Insulin sensitivity was comparable between the subjects with NGT 1 hour-high and NGT 1 hour-low. The beta-cell function with/without adjusting insulin sensitivity was significantly different among the three groups. The IGI (pmol/mmol) was 116.8+/-107.3 vs. 64.8+/-47.8 vs. 65.8+/-80.6 (P=0.141), oral DI was 3.5+/-4.2 vs. 1.8+/-1.4 vs. 1.8+/-3.1 (P<0.001), and ISSI-2 was 301.2+/-113.7 vs. 213.2+/-67.3 vs. 172.5+/-87.5 (P<0.001) in NGT 1 hour-low, NGT 1 hour-high, and IGT, respectively. Post hoc analyses revealed that oral DI and ISSI-2 were significantly different between NGT 1 hour-low and NGT 1 hour-high but comparable between NGT 1 hour-high and IGT. CONCLUSION: Among Korean subjects with NGT, those who have a higher 1-hour postload glucose level have a compromised insulin-sensitivity adjusted beta-cell function to a similar degree as IGT subjects.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Insulin , Insulin Resistance
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all P<0.001). The cut-off values for plasma ACTH, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 5.3 pmol/L, 33.3%, and 61.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma ACTH measurement were 84.2% and 94.3%, those of serum cortisol were 95.8% and 90.6%, and those of UFC after the HDST were 97.9% and 96.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant overlap in plasma ACTH levels was seen between patients with adrenal CS and those with CD. The HDST may be useful in differentiating between these forms of the disease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cushing Syndrome , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate , Dexamethasone , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion , Plasma , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 706-710, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155266

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome presents with various clinical features, including seizures, stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy, myopathy, cardiac involvement, and diabetes. However, due to its clinical heterogeneity, the diagnosis of MELAS syndrome is complex and difficult. The present report describes an 18-year-old male who was diagnosed with MELAS syndrome following the onset of type 1 diabetes. The patient had suffered from ataxia, mental retardation, and recurrent headaches for several years; following hospitalization for loss of consciousness, he was treated for cerebellar atrophy and Wolf-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Although the patient had no history of lactic acidosis, the recent onset of type 1 diabetes and his medical history of encephalopathy and WPW syndrome suggested MELAS syndrome. The diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was confirmed by molecular genetic testing, which revealed a point mutation (A3243G) in the patient's mitochondrial DNA.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic , Adolescent , Ataxia , Atrophy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , Headache , Hospitalization , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , MELAS Syndrome , Molecular Biology , Muscular Diseases , Point Mutation , Population Characteristics , Seizures , Unconsciousness , Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the various diagnostic criteria for insulinoma, the ratio criteria have been controversial. However, the amended insulin-glucose ratio exhibited excellent diagnostic performance in a recent retrospective cohort study, although it has not yet been validated in other patient cohorts. We examined the diagnostic performance of the current criteria of the Endocrine Society, insulin-glucose ratio, C-peptide-glucose ratio, and amended ratios in terms of differentiating insulinomas. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent evaluation for hypoglycemia from 2000 to 2013. Fourteen patients with histopathologically confirmed insulinoma and 18 patients without clinical evidence of insulinoma were included. The results of a prolonged fast test were analyzed according to the abovementioned criteria. RESULTS: Fulfilling all three Endocrine Society criteria-plasma levels of glucose ( or =8 pmol/L), and C-peptide (> or =0.2 nmol/L)-exhibited 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Fulfilling the glucose and C-peptide criteria showed 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity, while fulfilling the glucose and insulin criteria showed 100% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Among the ratio criteria, the insulin-glucose ratio [>24.0 (pmol/L)/(mmol/L)] gave the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity. CONCLUSION: Fulfilling the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide criteria of the Endocrine Society guidelines exhibited the best diagnostic performance for insulinoma. Nonetheless, the insulin-glucose ratio may still have a role in the biochemical diagnosis of insulinoma.


Subject(s)
C-Peptide , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Glucose , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Insulinoma , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
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