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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914877

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose While excessive daytime sleepiness can predate Parkinson’s disease in late-life, its association with parkinsonian-like (P-L) symptoms in middle age are unknown. Since neurodegeneration can appear decades before a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, identifying clinical features associated with this early progression is important. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of daytime sleepiness with P-L symptoms in a population-based sample of middle-aged Korean adults. @*Methods@#During 2013 and 2014, daytime sleepiness and P-L symptoms were assessed in 2,063 males and females aged 50–64 years who were participating in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. The severity of daytime sleepiness was quantified by the score on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Self-reported P-L symptoms included nine motor disorders commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease. Participants with parkinsonism and related conditions are excluded. @*Results@#The prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS score >10) was 7.0%. The frequencies of P-L symptoms ranged from 0.5% (for “trouble buttoning buttons”) to 18.4% (for “handwriting smaller than it once was”). After adjustment for covariates and multiple testing, the relative odds of P-L symptoms comparing the 80th and 20th percentiles of ESS scores was 1.6 (p=0.001) for “voice is softer than it once was,” 2.1 (p<0.001) for “balance when walking is poor,” and 1.5 (p=0.002) for “loss of facial expression.” The prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness increased from 6.3% to 19.8% when the number of symptoms increased from zero to three (p=0.004). @*Conclusions@#In Korean adults aged 50–64 years, daytime sleepiness is significantly associated with P-L symptoms. Whether coexisting daytime sleepiness and P-L symptoms predate extrapyramidal and other impairments in later life warrants further investigation.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893199

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is known as a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease with a m.3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene. Here, we report a case of targeted temperature management in a MELAS patient who had a cardiac arrest and severe lactic acidosis after recurrent seizures.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874681

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Identifying changes in the prevalence, disability, and management patterns of migraine is important for reducing the burden of this disease. However, data on the changes in these variables are scarce. @*Methods@#We compared data obtained in the 2009 Korean Headache Survey and the 2018 Korean Sleep-Headache Survey. @*Results@#The 1-year migraine prevalence did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2009 [5.2% (114/2,200) vs. 6.0% (91/1,507), p=0.492]. The number of days with missed activity due to headache during the previous 3 months was larger in the 2018 survey than in the 2009 survey [1.1±2.9 vs. 0.3±1.0 days (mean±standard deviation), p=0.013]. The number of days with reduced productivity during the previous 3 months did not differ significantly between the two surveys (0.8±2.8 vs. 1.4±1.4 days, p=0.679). The proportion of subjects with a substantialto-severe headache impact (Headache Impact Test-6 score ≥56) was marginally larger in the 2018 survey than in the 2009 survey [42.1% (48/114) vs. 29.7% (27/91), p=0.066]. The rate of lifetime medical consultations did not differ between the 2018 and 2009 surveys [34.2% (39/ 114) vs. 30.8% (28/91), p=0.615]. @*Conclusions@#Migraine prevalence was stable over the 9-year period between the surveys, but disability due to missed activity was greater in 2018 than in 2009 in Korea.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900903

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is known as a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease with a m.3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene. Here, we report a case of targeted temperature management in a MELAS patient who had a cardiac arrest and severe lactic acidosis after recurrent seizures.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833670

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes transient visual field defects, but only scattered anecdotes are available in the literature. @*Methods@#We report a patient with homonymous superior quadrantanopsia due to nonketotic hyperglycemia and provide a systematic literature review of the clinical features of 40 previously reported patients (41 in total, including our case) with homonymous visual field defects in association with nonketotic hyperglycemia. @*Results@#The typical visual field defect was congruous (84.6%), homonymous hemianopsia (87.8%) with macular splitting (61.5%) or sparing (38.5%). It was transient and repetitive in 54.5% of the patients, but it developed as a persistent form in the remainder. Positive visual symptoms such as hallucinations and phosphenes developed in 73.2% of patients. Brain MRI revealed corresponding abnormalities in most patients (84.8%), characterized by a low-intensity white-matter signal or a high-intensity gray-matter signal on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images with diffusion restriction or gadolinium enhancement. Most (97.0%) patients recovered completely, with 48.5% treated by glycemic control alone and the remainder also receiving antiepileptic agents. @*Conclusions@#Nonketotic hyperglycemia should be considered a possible cause of transient visual field defects, especially when it is associated with repetitive positive visual symptoms and typical MRI findings in hyperglycemic patients.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836302

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study is to evaluate relationship of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with chronotype along with quality and quantity of sleep in Korean middle adults. @*Methods@#Data was derived from the nationwide, cross-sectional study on sleep surveyed 2,501 representative adult Koreans. We collected data from 1,435 participants aged ≥35 years and <65 years to represent Korean middle adults. The Chronotype Questionnaire was used to assess phase and distinctiveness of the circadian rhythm. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Quantity of sleep was investigated by questions regarding sleep habits during workdays and free days. EuroQol-5D 3-level version was used to measure HRQoL. @*Results@#On univariable analyses, eveningness is associated with younger age (47.7±8.2 vs. 51.3±8.1 years, p<0.001), and higher PSQI total score (4.3±2.7 vs. 3.6±2.2, p<0.001) compared with morningness. Strong distinctiveness also associated with higher PSQI total score (4.2±2.3 vs. 3.6±2.5, p< 0.001) compared with weak distinctiveness. Age was not different between the two groups of distinctiveness. On multivariable analyses, strong distinctiveness is an independent factor predicting impairment of pain/discomfort [odd ratio (OR) 1.589, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.182–2.130] and depression/anxiety (OR 1.412, 95% CI 1.003–1.987). Poor sleep quality was the most powerful independent factor predicting impairments in all five domains of the HRQoL. @*Conclusions@#Sleep quality is an important factor independently related to the HRQoL. Among chronotype variables, only distinctiveness has an independent relation with the HRQoL.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sufficient sleep is an essential part of good health and well-being. Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headache and has negative impacts on the quality of life and work performance. We aimed to determinethe relationship between TTH and insufficient sleep in the general population. METHODS: This study used data from the Korean Headache Sleep Study, which was a population-based survey about headache and sleep among Korean adults. Insufficient sleep was defined when the discrepancy between sleep need and average sleep duration was at least 1 hour. RESULTS: Among the 2,695 included subjects, 570 (21.2%) and 727 (27.0%) were classified as having TTH and insufficient sleep, respectively. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was significantly higher among subjects with TTH than among those without headaches (28.8% vs. 20.4%). For subjects with TTH, the scores on a visual analogue scale (4.7±1.8 vs. 4.3±1.9, mean±SD) and the Headache Impact Test-6 (44.9±7.0 vs. 43.6±6.1) were much higher in subjects with insufficient sleep than in those without insufficientsleep. Multivariable analyses revealed that insomnia [odds ratio (OR)=2.1], poor sleep quality (OR=1.7), and short sleep duration (OR=6.9) were significantly associated with insufficient sleep in subjects with TTH. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that insufficient sleep is prevalent among subjects with TTH and is linked to an exacerbation of TTH. Therefore, the proper evaluation and management of sleep may lead to the better management of TTH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Epidemiology , Headache , Humans , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Sleep Deprivation , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Tension-Type Headache , Work Performance
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. METHODS: The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous month. The question regarding sleep need was "How much sleep do you need to be at your best during the day?" Unmet sleep need was calculated as sleep need minus habitual sleep duration. Participants with a score of >10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered to have EDS. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of EDS was 11.9%. Approximately one-third of the participants (31.9%) reported not getting at least 7 hours of sleep. An unmet sleep need of >0 hours was present in 30.2% of the participants. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant excess risk of EDS in the groups with unmet sleep needs of ≥2 hours [odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-2.54] and 0.01-2 hours (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). However, habitual sleep duration was not significantly related to EDS. CONCLUSIONS: EDS was found to be associated with unmet sleep need but not with habitual sleep duration when both factors were examined together. We suggest that individual unmet sleep need is more important than habitual sleep duration in terms of the relation to EDS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Prevalence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35724

ABSTRACT

Wilson's disease shows considerably various symptoms that sometimes timely diagnosis is delayed when patient shows vague clinical presentation. We present a female patient whose initial symptom was hypersomnia and severe fatigue. She was initially diagnosed as depression. Because initial hepatic function test was unremarkable, it was not easy to come to think about relationship between hepatic function and hypersomnia. Her final diagnosis was Wilson's disease. This case suggested that hypersomnia otherwise unexplained could be the presenting symptom of Wilson's disease.


Subject(s)
Depression , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Fatigue , Female , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Humans
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) might be useful to predict the prognosis of acute hypoxic encephalopathy. The aim of our study was to test whether the early change and extent of DWI abnormalities can be an indicator of the clinical outcome of hypoxic encephalopathy. METHODS: Forty-four patients who were diagnosed as hypoxic encephalopathy due to the cardiorespiratory arrest were retrospectively identified. Clinical variables were determined, and the DWI abnormalities were counted by four areas: cortex, subcortical white matter, cerebellum and deep grey matter, and were divided into three groups by the extent of lesions. Prognosis was classified as 'poor' (Glasgow coma scale (GSC) at 30 days after arrest or =9). RESULTS: GCS at day 3 (p<0.001), presence of seizure (p=0.01), and presence of lesion (p<0.001) were significantly different in prognosis, but statistically there is no association with the extent of lesions and prognosis (p=0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of early DWI changes could predict the clinical outcome of hypoxic encephalopathy after cardiorespiratory arrest.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum , Coma , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213036

ABSTRACT

Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces (HFUF) is a rare disorder in which unfamiliar faces seem familiar. We report one case of HFUF syndrome. A 34-year-old woman was admitted as encephalitis with seizure. She repeatedly reported to her husband that all faces around her looked familiar. Our case supports the studies that show a differential contribution of two hemispheres in face recognition. Here we report this case for the first time in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anorexia , Cachexia , Encephalitis , Eye Abnormalities , Facies , Female , Humans , Korea , Seizures , Skin Diseases , Spouses
14.
Korean Diabetes Journal ; : 191-199, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a role in the response to metabolic stress in type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of rosiglitazone on inflammation of skeletal muscle have not been fully examined in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the effects of the insulin-sensitizing anti-diabetic agent, rosiglitazone, on the progression of skeletal muscle inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) type 2 diabetic rats. We examined the expression of serologic markers (serum glucose, insulin and free fatty acid) and inflammatory cytokines (tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta and IL-6) in OLETF rats from early to advanced diabetic stage (from 28 to 40 weeks of age). RESULTS: Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased in rosiglitazone-treated OLETF rats compared to untreated OLETF rats. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly decreased the concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines from 28 to 40 weeks of age. The mRNA expression of various cytokines in skeletal muscle was reduced in rosiglitazone-treated OLETF rats compared with untreated OLETF rats. Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment resulted in the downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-kappaB expression in the skeletal muscle of OLETF rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that rosiglitazone may improve insulin sensitivity with its anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Glucose , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Interleukins , Muscle, Skeletal , NF-kappa B , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF , RNA, Messenger , Stress, Physiological , Thiazolidinediones
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial impairment is a linking mechanism between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases. Profiles of endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflect the degree of endothelial impairment. The aims of this study were to measure the levels of EMPs and progenitor cells in OSA, determine the correlations between these factors and OSA severity and the degree of atherosclerosis, and document any changes in these factors after therapy. METHODS: Subjects with (n=82) and without (n=22) OSA were recruited prospectively. We measured the number of colony-forming units (CFU) in cell culture as the endothelial progenitor cell index, and the number of EMPs using flow cytometry with CD31 [platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)], CD42 (platelet glycoprotein), annexin V, and CD62E (E-selectin) antibodies at baseline and after 4-6 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was regarded as a marker of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: The levels of PECAM+CD42- (p<0.001), PECAM+annexin V+ (p<0.001), and E-selectin+ microparticles (p=0.001) were higher in OSA subjects than in non-OSA subjects. The number of CFU did not differ between the two groups. OSA severity independently predicted the levels of PECAM+CD42- (p=0.02) and PECAM+annexin V+ (p=0.004). Carotid IMT was correlated with OSA severity (p<0.001), PECAM+CD42- (p=0.03), and PECAM+annexin V+ (p=0.01). Neither OSA severity nor carotid IMT was correlated with either the number of CFU or E-selectin+. CPAP therapy decreased the occurrence of E-selectin+ (p<0.001) in 21 of the OSA subjects, but had no effect on the other microparticles of the number of CFU. CONCLUSIONS: OSA led to the overproduction of EMPs, which moderately correlated with OSA severity and the degree of atherosclerosis, and partly responded to therapy. The endothelial impairment might contribute to future cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Annexin A5 , Antibodies , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cell Culture Techniques , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Flow Cytometry , Prospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Stem Cells
16.
Korean Diabetes Journal ; : 375-381, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals are characterized by hyperphagia due to deficiencies of insulin and leptin. Forkhead box-containing protein of the O subfamily-1 (FoxO1) regulates energy homeostasis by regulating energy expenditure and food intake as well as mediating insulin and leptin signals in the hypothalamus. To identify the mediator of diabetic hyperphagia, we examined the effects of insulin or leptin on hypothalamic FoxO1 expression in a diabetic animal model. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in mice (C57BL/6) by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Stainless steel cannula was implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain in each mouse. After three weeks, the mice were administered saline, insulin or leptin via intracerebroventricular (ICV) route. The medial hypothalamus was isolated to evaluate the mRNA expressions of FoxO1 and neuropeptides. RESULTS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice exhibited significant elevations of blood glucose and food intake and significantly low levels of serum insulin and leptin. The levels of hypothalamic FoxO1 mRNA were significantly increased in diabetic mice. The hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA was increased, but the expression of preproopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was decreased in diabetic mice. ICV administration of insulin or leptin attenuated the upregulation of hypothalamic FoxO1 mRNA, and resulted in downregulation of NPY mRNA and upregulation of POMC mRNA in diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: We observed that the expression of hypothalamic FoxO1 mRNA was increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and that it was significantly attenuated by central administration of insulin or leptin. These results suggest that hypothalamic FoxO1 is the direct mediator of diabetic hyperphagia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Brain , Catheters , Diabetes Mellitus , Down-Regulation , Eating , Energy Metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Homeostasis , Hyperphagia , Hypothalamus , Hypothalamus, Middle , Insulin , Lateral Ventricles , Leptin , Mice , Negotiating , Neuropeptide Y , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , RNA, Messenger , Stainless Steel , Streptozocin , Up-Regulation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insomnia is a common complaint in adults. However, large epidemiologic studies of insomnia involving Asian populations are rarely reported. We performed an epidemiologic study of insomnia in a large Korean adult population. METHODS: A total of 5,000 subjects (2,470 men and 2,530 women) were interviewed by telephone. A representative sample of subjects aged 20 to 69 years was constituted according to a stratified, multistage random sampling method. Insomnia was defined as either any difficulty getting to sleep or getting back to sleep after waking in the night. RESULTS: More than one fifth (n=1,141, 22.8%) of the 5,000 subjects complained of insomnia, with the prevalence being significantly higher in women (25.3%) than in men (20.2%, p4.5 million Korean won than in those with an income of <1.5 million Korean won (OR=0.689, 95% CI=0.523-0.906, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia is a common complaint in Korean adults, and its prevalence is similar to that in adults in Western countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Prevalence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Telephone
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between OSA and cardiovascular diseases in adult. METHODS: We recruited 718 consecutive subjects (611 male, 44.8+/-12.7 years old) diagnosed as OSA based on overnight polysomnography. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and stroke was defined and compared with that in general adult population (the Third Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, KNHANES III 2005). Correlation between the prevalence and OSA severity was analyzed after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Prevalence of vascular diseases was higher in OSA than general population. Prevalence of hypertension was 39.0% (13.0% from KNHANES III), diabetes 8.2% (5.2%), myocardial infarction 3.0% (0.6%) and stroke 7.2% (1.6%). Apnea-hypopnea index as the marker of OSA severity significantly correlated with hypertension (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular diseases were more prevalent in OSA. Prevalence of hypertension increased proportionally to OSA severity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Polysomnography , Prevalence , Respiration , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Vascular Diseases
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be an independent risk for cardiovascular diseases. The carotid intima.media thickness (IMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to measure the carotid IMT in subjects with or without OSA and quantify its correlation with OSA severity. METHODS: Subjects were categorized into OSA and non-OSA groups based on polysomnography findings. The carotid IMT was considered a marker of atherosclerosis. The independent relationship between carotid IMT and OSA severity was analyzed using multiple linear regression. The presumed confounders were age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, blood lipid and glucose profiles, smoking and alcohol drinking statuses, medications, being overweight, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia. RESULTS: The carotid IMT was larger in OSA subjects (n=82, 0.620+/-0.096 mm [mean+/-SD]) than in non-OSA subjects (n=22, 0.551+/-0.078 mm; p=0.006), and was independently correlated with OSA severity (p<0.001). However, it was not affected by any of the other variables investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with OSA showed an increased IMT, with the thickness being correlated with the OSA severity. This finding suggests that accelerated atherosclerosis in OSA is the mechanism linking OSA and future cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Hypoxia , Atherosclerosis , Biomarkers , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucose , Hypertension , Linear Models , Overweight , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Smoke , Smoking , Ultrasonography, Doppler
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have some deficits in attention and frontal functions. The pathophysiology of the cognitive dysfunction is still controversial. We investigated the cognitive performances of OSAS patients, and the relationship of cognitive functioning and nocturnal respiratory findings and daytime sleepiness. METHODS: Neuropsychological testing, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were administered to 35 patients with OSAS and to 31 normal controls. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, OSAS patients had significant impairment on the Korean mini mental state examination (K-MMSE), semantic and phonemic fluency, the time and number of correct on the Korean Stroop color word test, the Digit cancellation test and delayed response on the Seoul verbal learning test (SVLT). ESS was significantly correlated with K-MMSE, trail making A, the time and number of correct on the Korean Stroop color word test, delayed recall of SVLT and Rey figure test and number of fulfilled categories on the Wisconsin card sorting test in OSAS patients. The Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly correlated with the copy of the Rey figure test. Arousal index, total time slept with oxygen saturation below 90% and the lowest oxygen saturation were not correlated with any neuropsychological parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OSAS have cognitive impairment concerning attention, executive function and retrieval of memory. The cognitive impairment may be attributed not to nocturnal hypoxemia, but to subjective daytime sleepiness.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Arousal , Depression , Executive Function , Humans , Memory , Neuropsychological Tests , Oxygen , Polysomnography , Semantics , Seoul , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Verbal Learning , Wisconsin
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