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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916453

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in mandatory masking of patients and physicians during outpatient visits. This study evaluated the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) according to mask use. @*Methods@#This prospective study enrolled 30 healthy volunteers (60 eyes). IOP was measured via Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) for the subjects wearing one of four commonly used masks: dental, bi-folding Korean Filter (KF)94, tri-folding KF94, and dust masks. Subjects with IOP measurement errors of more than 5 mmHg were rechecked with another GAT type. @*Results@#The mean IOP measured via GAT before mask wearing was 13.7 ± 1.7 mmHg. It was 13.5 ± 2.1, 14.0 ± 2.3, 14.3 ± 2.5, and 13.8 ± 1.6 mmHg with the dental, bi-folding KF94, tri-folding KF94, and dust masks, respectively. There were no significant differences in IOP according to mask type (p = 0.635). IOP errors above 5 mmHg were detected in three subjects who had contact between the GAT feeler arm and tri-folding KF94 mask during IOP measurement. @*Conclusions@#The IOP as measured via GAT is artificially elevated by mechanical interference from the tri-fold KF94 mask. To minimize such mask-induced artifacts in GAT measurements, compress the patient’s mask or change the mask type to prevent any contact during measurement.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916388

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the effects of an educational intervention using an eye drop chart and supplementary education on glaucoma patients’ adherence. @*Methods@#In this multicenter prospective study, medically treated glaucoma patients were educated on the administration of eye drops using an eye drop chart. At the time of recruitment, all of the patients completed a questionnaire on demographic characteristics and adherence. Three months after the initial educational intervention, the patients were randomly divided into two groups: an education group and a control group. The education group received supplementary education. Immediately thereafter and at 6 months, all of the patients completed the questionnaire on adherence again. Changes in instillation behavior, the relationship between the adherence score and demographic characteristics, and factors contributing to an improvement in adherence and intraocular pressure were then analyzed. @*Results@#The adherence scores were significantly higher in patients with fewer medications, a higher annual income and higher educational level, and an urban residence (p = 0.038, p = 0.033, p = 0.041 and p = 0.047, respectively). Education on the administration of eye drops and use of the eye drop chart improved adherence scores from 23.05 ± 3.52 to 21.30 ± 3.95 (p = 0.021) and significantly reduced the average intraocular pressure from 14.3 ± 2.9 to 12.4 ± 3.1 mmHg (p < 0.001). Working indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 5.47, p = 0.032) and supplementary education at 3 months (OR = 4.53, p = 0.030) were also correlated with improved adherence. @*Conclusions@#An eye drop chart is an effective tool for improving adherence and intraocular pressure control in glaucoma patients. Improvement in adherence was especially notable in patients whose work predominantly involved indoor activity. The effectiveness of the eye drop chart was improved by supplementary education.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913695

ABSTRACT

Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug and has anticancer effects on various cancers. Several studies have suggested that metformin reduces cell proliferation and stimulates cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the definitive molecular mechanism of metformin in the pathophysiological signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis and metastasis is not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on the cell viability and apoptosis of human cervical HeLa and endometrial HEC-1-A and KLE cancer cells. Metformin suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and dramatically evoked apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells, while apoptotic cell death and growth inhibition were not observed in endometrial (HEC-1-A, KLE) cell lines. Accordingly, the p27 and p21 promoter activities were enhanced while Bcl-2 and IL-6 activities were significantly reduced by metformin treatment. Metformin diminished the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K and 4E-BP1 by accelerating adenosine monophosphateactivated kinase (AMPK) in HeLa cancer cells, but it did not affect other cell lines. To determine why the anti-proliferative effects are observed only in HeLa cells, we examined the expression level of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) since metformin and LKB1 share the same signalling system, and we found that the LKB1 gene is not expressed only in HeLa cancer cells. Consistently, the overexpression of LKB1 in HeLa cancer cells prevented metformin-triggered apoptosis while LKB1 knockdown significantly increased apoptosis in HEC-1-A and KLE cancer cells. Taken together, these findings indicate an underlying biological/physiological molecular function specifically for metformin-triggered apoptosis dependent on the presence of the LKB1 gene in tumorigenesis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874929

ABSTRACT

Objective@#. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by chronic diffuse pain and enhanced pain response to stimuli and is caused by central sensitization. Tinnitus also is related to central sensitization. So we investigated the impact of tinnitus on FM. @*Methods@#. We included 22 FM patients with tinnitus and 25 FM patients without tinnitus. We assessed a range of symptoms using the Widespread Pain Index; Symptom Severity Score scale; Visual Analogue Scale of pain; and the Korean versions of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Insomnia Severity Index, and the Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Information about the severity of tinnitus in FM patients was evaluated using the Korean version of the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ-K). @*Results@#. There were significant differences between the group that had mild tinnitus (THQ<38) and the group that had moderate-to-severe tinnitus (THQ≥38) for FIQ score (p=0.025) and for the physical functioning (p=0.003), social functioning (p=0.035), and mental health (p=0.017) components of the SF-36. Also, after dividing patients into 2 groups according to insomnia severity, significant differences were observed in FIQ score (p=0.002) and in body pain (p=0.001), general health (p=0.008), vitality (p=0.003), social functioning (p=0.003), role limitation due to emotional condition (p=0.001), and mental health (p<0.001) components of the SF-36. @*Conclusion@#. The FM patients with severe tinnitus had more functional impairments and lower quality of life than those with mild tinnitus. Severe insomnia also was accompanied by worse health status and lower quality of life.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874923

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disorder that impairs patients’ overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of adalimumab in Korean patients with active RA on HRQOL. @*Methods@#Patients included in the study had moderate to severe active RA that did not respond to conventional drugs with a Disease Activity Score of 28 joints >3.2 and were biologics-naïve. All patients received adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every other week and were followed for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in baseline Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score at week 24. Secondary endpoints were changes in the EuroQol 5-dimension 3-Level (EQ-5D-3L) baseline score and Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) domain scores at weeks 12 and 24 and change in baseline HAQ-DI score at week 12. @*Results@#In total, 91 Korean patients were included. Ninety-three percent of patients were in high disease activity with a baseline mean DAS28 value of 6.1 within all patients. The mean change from baseline in HAQ-DI scores were −0.46 at week 12 and∼0.67 at week 24 (p<0.0001). Additionally, EQ-5D-3L score at weeks 12 and 24 had significantly improved (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. SF-36 at weeks 12 and 24 had significantly improved (p<0.0001, p=0.0001) compared to baseline. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adalimumab resulted in significant improvement in HAQ-DI, EQ-5D-3L, and SF-36 scores at 12 and 24 weeks in Korean RA patient.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874136

ABSTRACT

Background@#Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a useful biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) prediction. However, studies on whether using both plasma NGAL (PNGAL) and urine NGAL (UNGAL) can improve AKI prediction are limited. We investigated the best approach to predict AKI in high-risk patients when using PNGAL and UNGAL together. @*Methods@#We enrolled 151 AKI suspected patients with one or more AKI risk factors. We assessed the diagnostic performance of PNGAL and UNGAL for predicting AKI according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) status by determining the areas under the receiver operating curve (AuROC). Independent predictors of AKI were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#In the multivariate logistic regression analysis for all patients (N = 151), Model 2 and 3, including PNGAL (P = 0.012) with initial serum creatinine (S-Cr), showed a better AKI prediction power (R2 = 0.435, both) than Model 0, including S-Cr only (R2 = 0.390). In the non-CKD group (N = 135), the AuROC of PNGAL for AKI prediction was larger than that of UNGAL (0.79 vs 0.66, P = 0.010), whereas in the CKD group (N = 16), the opposite was true (0.94 vs 0.76, P = 0.049). @*Conclusions@#PNGAL may serve as a useful biomarker for AKI prediction in high-risk patients. However, UNGAL predicted AKI better than PNGAL in CKD patients. Our findings provide guidance for selecting appropriate specimens for NGAL testing according to the presence of CKD in AKI high-risk patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904167

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endobronchial ultrasound‒guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a standard diagnostic method for mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Although rare, fatal infectious complications can occur following EBUS-TBNA. However, to date, there is a lack of effective preventive strategies to reduce these complications. We started a trial to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinse on the prevention of microbial contamination during EBUS-TBNA. @*Methods@#This study is a single-center, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT). We will enroll 112 adult participants undergoing EBUS-TBNA using a convex probe, and randomly assign them to two groups at a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group will gargle for 1 minute with 100 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate before EBUS-TBNA, while the control group will have no mouthrinse before the procedure. Immediately after completion of EBUS-TBNA on all targeted lesions with an aspiration needle, a needle wash sample will be taken by instilling 5 mL of sterile saline into the used needle. The primary outcome is colony forming unit (CFU) counts in aerobic cultures of the needle wash samples. Secondary outcomes are CFU counts in anaerobic cultures, fever within 24 hours after EBUS-TBNA, and infectious complications within 4 weeks after EBUS-TBNA. @*Conclusion@#This trial was designed as the first RCT to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinse on the prevention of microbial contamination during EBUS-TBNA. Results from this trial can provide clinical evidence for a simple, safe, and cost-effective strategy to prevent infectious complications following EBUS-TBNA (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04718922, registered on 22 January 2021).

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897322

ABSTRACT

The imprinted tumour suppressor NOEY2 is downregulated in various cancer types, including ovarian cancers. Recent data suggest that NOEY2 plays an essential role in regulating the cell cycle, angiogenesis and autophagy in tumorigenesis. However, its detailed molecular function and mechanisms in ovarian tumours remain unclear. In this report, we initially demonstrated the inhibitory effect of NOEY2 on tumour growth by utilising a xenograft tumour model. NOEY2 attenuated the cell growth approximately fourfold and significantly reduced tumour vascularity. NOEY2 inhibited the phosphorylation of the signalling components downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase (PI3K), including phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1), tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC-2) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), during ovarian tumour progression via direct binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Particularly, the N-terminal domain of NOEY2 (NOEY2-N) had a potent anti-angiogenic activity and dramatically downregulated VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), key regulators of angiogenesis. Since no X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance structures is available for NOEY2, we constructed the threedimensional structure of this protein via molecular modelling methods, such as homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulations. Thereby, Lys15 and Arg16 appeared as key residues in the N-terminal domain. We also found that NOEY2-N acts as a potent inhibitor of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. These findings provide convincing evidence that NOEY2-N regulates endothelial cell function and angiogenesis by interrupting the VEGFR-2/PDK-1/GSK-3β signal transduction and thus strongly suggest that NOEY2-N might serve as a novel anti-tumour and anti-angiogenic agent against many diseases, including ovarian cancer.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896463

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endobronchial ultrasound‒guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a standard diagnostic method for mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Although rare, fatal infectious complications can occur following EBUS-TBNA. However, to date, there is a lack of effective preventive strategies to reduce these complications. We started a trial to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinse on the prevention of microbial contamination during EBUS-TBNA. @*Methods@#This study is a single-center, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT). We will enroll 112 adult participants undergoing EBUS-TBNA using a convex probe, and randomly assign them to two groups at a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group will gargle for 1 minute with 100 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate before EBUS-TBNA, while the control group will have no mouthrinse before the procedure. Immediately after completion of EBUS-TBNA on all targeted lesions with an aspiration needle, a needle wash sample will be taken by instilling 5 mL of sterile saline into the used needle. The primary outcome is colony forming unit (CFU) counts in aerobic cultures of the needle wash samples. Secondary outcomes are CFU counts in anaerobic cultures, fever within 24 hours after EBUS-TBNA, and infectious complications within 4 weeks after EBUS-TBNA. @*Conclusion@#This trial was designed as the first RCT to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinse on the prevention of microbial contamination during EBUS-TBNA. Results from this trial can provide clinical evidence for a simple, safe, and cost-effective strategy to prevent infectious complications following EBUS-TBNA (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04718922, registered on 22 January 2021).

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889618

ABSTRACT

The imprinted tumour suppressor NOEY2 is downregulated in various cancer types, including ovarian cancers. Recent data suggest that NOEY2 plays an essential role in regulating the cell cycle, angiogenesis and autophagy in tumorigenesis. However, its detailed molecular function and mechanisms in ovarian tumours remain unclear. In this report, we initially demonstrated the inhibitory effect of NOEY2 on tumour growth by utilising a xenograft tumour model. NOEY2 attenuated the cell growth approximately fourfold and significantly reduced tumour vascularity. NOEY2 inhibited the phosphorylation of the signalling components downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase (PI3K), including phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1), tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC-2) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), during ovarian tumour progression via direct binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Particularly, the N-terminal domain of NOEY2 (NOEY2-N) had a potent anti-angiogenic activity and dramatically downregulated VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), key regulators of angiogenesis. Since no X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance structures is available for NOEY2, we constructed the threedimensional structure of this protein via molecular modelling methods, such as homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulations. Thereby, Lys15 and Arg16 appeared as key residues in the N-terminal domain. We also found that NOEY2-N acts as a potent inhibitor of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. These findings provide convincing evidence that NOEY2-N regulates endothelial cell function and angiogenesis by interrupting the VEGFR-2/PDK-1/GSK-3β signal transduction and thus strongly suggest that NOEY2-N might serve as a novel anti-tumour and anti-angiogenic agent against many diseases, including ovarian cancer.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837372

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is not evident that the attributable risk of smoking on mortality in Korea has decreased. We investigated the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality and estimated the attributable risk of smoking in Korean adults. @*Methods@#Those aged ≥20 years with smoking history in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007–2015 were enrolled. We categorized the participants into three groups as follows: never smoker, <20 pack-years (PY) smokers, and ≥20 PY smokers. We applied inverse probability weighting using propensity scores to control various confounders between the groups. All-cause mortality risks were compared between the groups using the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test. The effects of smoking-attributable risks (ARs) on mortality were also calculated. @*Results@#A total of 50,458 participants were included. Among them, 19,334 (38.3%) were smokers and 31,124 (61.7%) were never smokers. Those with a smoking history of 20 PY or more (≥20 PY smokers), those with a smoking history of less than 20 PY (<20 PY smokers), and never smokers were 18.1%, 20.2%, and 61.7%, respectively, of the study population. Smokers had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to never smokers (log-rank test p<0.01). The ARs of smoking were 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%–37.9%) and 9.0% (95% CI, 6.1%–12.0%) in males and females, respectively. ARs decreased from 24.2% to 19.5% in males and from 9.5% to 4.1% in females between 2007–2010 and 2011–2015. @*Conclusion@#Our study using KNHANES IV–VI data demonstrated that smoking increased the risk of all-cause mortality in a dose-response manner and the ARs of smoking on mortality were 21.8% in males and 9.0% in females during 2007– 2015. This suggests that the ARs of smoking on mortality have decreased since around 2010.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832364

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are limited data on the impact of diabetes control on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. @*Methods@#We analyzed 6,434 consecutive asymptomatic individuals without previous history of coronary artery disease who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) (mean age, 53.7±7.6 years and 4,694 men [73.0%]). The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. A cardiac event was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. Study participants were categorized as normal (n=5,319), controlled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7%, n=747), or uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥7%, n=368), respectively. @*Results@#Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of for any atherosclerotic plaque (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.38; p=0.086) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.42; p=0.583) in controlled diabetic individuals. In contrast, uncontrolled diabetic individuals had consistently higher risks of any atherosclerotic plaque (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.70 to 2.75; p<0.001) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 2.52 to 4.43; p<0.001) than normal individuals. During a follow-up of median 5.4 years, there was no significant difference in cardiac events between normal and controlled diabetic individuals (p=0.365). However, uncontrolled diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events compared with normal individuals (P<0.001) and controlled diabetic individuals (p=0.023). @*Conclusion@#Asymptomatic uncontrolled diabetes was associated with significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis with subsequent high risk for cardiac events.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite increasing awareness of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, knowledge regarding gender differences in COPD outcomes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether COPD outcomes, including exacerbations, lung , and symptoms differ by gender. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with COPD from two Korean multicenter prospective cohorts. After propensity score matching, the main outcome, the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. We also assessed changes in lung function and symptom scores including the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C), COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score. @*Results@#After propensity score matching, 74 women and 74 men with COPD were included. The incidence rates of exacerbations in women and men were not significantly different (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 2.54). There was no significant difference in the incidence rates adjusted for medication possession ratios of long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting β-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids during the follow-up period (incidence rate ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.52). Rates of decline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity did not differ between women and men during 48 months of follow-up. The changes in scores on the SGRQ-C, CAT, and mMRC Questionnaire in women were also similar to those in men. @*Conclusions@#We observed no gender differences in the rate of exacerbations of COPD in a prospective longitudinal study. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in the general COPD population.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830937

ABSTRACT

Changing trends in anticancer research have altered the treatment paradigm to the extent that it is difficult to investigate any anticancer drugs without mentioning immunotherapy. Thus, we are finally contemplating tumour regression using magic bullets known as immunotherapy drugs. This review explores the possible options and pitfalls in tumour regression by first elucidating the features of cancer and the importance of tumour microenvironments. Next, we evaluated the trends of anticancer therapeutics regulating tumour microenvironment. Finally, we introduced the concept of tumour regression and various targets of tumour microenvironment, which can be used in combination with current immunotherapy for tumour regression. In particular, we emphasize the importance of regulating the neurological manifestations of tumour microenvironment (N) in addition to inflammation (I) and hypoxia (H) in cancer.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899725

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD), comprising structural and functional changes in arteries or end organs, is a marker of cardiovascular (CV) disease.However, there are limited data on evaluation of risk of CV disease regarding HMOD, especially in Asians. We sought to investigate the association between CV events and HMOD, and we tried to determine the most important diagnostic marker among the component of HMOD for prevention of mortality and CV events in treated Korean hypertensive patients. @*Methods@#From January 2008 to December 2010, a total of 35,000 hypertensive Vietnamese War veterans who consecutively visited our hospital for medical check-up were reviewed, and 6,158 patients without established CV disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: HMOD group (n = 766) and non-HMOD group (n = 5,392). The primary outcome was all-cause death. @*Results@#Median age was 63.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 61.4–65.4), and median follow-up was 6.6 years (IQR, 5.9–7.2). Patients with old age, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were more prevalent in the HMOD group than in the non-HMOD group (all P < 0.05).The lipid profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Nephropathy was the most prevalent (54.7%) organ damage in the HMOD group. The 6-year incidence of all-cause death was higher in the HMOD group than in the non-HMOD group (22.5% vs.9.0%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.00; P = 0.04). The incidence of cardiac death, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were also significantly higher in the HMOD group than in the non-HMOD group (P < 0.05, respectively). In multivariate analysis, proteinuria (adjusted HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.52–3.20; P < 0.001) was the most powerful independent risk factor to predict all-cause death among components of HMOD. As the degree of proteinuria increased, the rate of all-cause death also increased (long-rank P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#HMOD was associated with increased risk of mortality and CV events.Proteinuria was the most powerful independent risk factor for all-cause death, and the degree of proteinuria and mortality rate were proportional. Our data suggest that monitoring of the proteinuria is important to predict long-term CV events in hypertensive patients.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892021

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD), comprising structural and functional changes in arteries or end organs, is a marker of cardiovascular (CV) disease.However, there are limited data on evaluation of risk of CV disease regarding HMOD, especially in Asians. We sought to investigate the association between CV events and HMOD, and we tried to determine the most important diagnostic marker among the component of HMOD for prevention of mortality and CV events in treated Korean hypertensive patients. @*Methods@#From January 2008 to December 2010, a total of 35,000 hypertensive Vietnamese War veterans who consecutively visited our hospital for medical check-up were reviewed, and 6,158 patients without established CV disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: HMOD group (n = 766) and non-HMOD group (n = 5,392). The primary outcome was all-cause death. @*Results@#Median age was 63.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 61.4–65.4), and median follow-up was 6.6 years (IQR, 5.9–7.2). Patients with old age, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were more prevalent in the HMOD group than in the non-HMOD group (all P < 0.05).The lipid profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Nephropathy was the most prevalent (54.7%) organ damage in the HMOD group. The 6-year incidence of all-cause death was higher in the HMOD group than in the non-HMOD group (22.5% vs.9.0%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.00; P = 0.04). The incidence of cardiac death, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were also significantly higher in the HMOD group than in the non-HMOD group (P < 0.05, respectively). In multivariate analysis, proteinuria (adjusted HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.52–3.20; P < 0.001) was the most powerful independent risk factor to predict all-cause death among components of HMOD. As the degree of proteinuria increased, the rate of all-cause death also increased (long-rank P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#HMOD was associated with increased risk of mortality and CV events.Proteinuria was the most powerful independent risk factor for all-cause death, and the degree of proteinuria and mortality rate were proportional. Our data suggest that monitoring of the proteinuria is important to predict long-term CV events in hypertensive patients.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Snoring is the cardinal symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Snoring and upper airway obstruction associated with major oxygen desaturation may occur in populations undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.@*METHODS@#To evaluate the prevalence of patients at a high risk of having OSA among patients undergoing bronchoscopy with sedation and to investigate whether snoring during the procedure predicts patients who are at risk of OSA, we prospectively enrolled 517 consecutive patients who underwent the procedure with moderate sedation. Patients exhibiting audible snoring for any duration during the procedure were considered snorers. The STOP-Bang (Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure-Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference and Gender) questionnaire was used to identify patients at high (score ≥3 out of 8) or low risk (score <3) of OSA.@*RESULTS@#Of the 517 patients, 165 (31.9%) snored during bronchoscopy under sedation. The prevalence of a STOP-Bang score ≥3 was 61.9% (320/517), whereas 200 of the 352 nonsnorers (56.8%) and 120 of the 165 snorers (72.7%) had a STOP-Bang score ≥3 (p=0.001). In multivariable analysis, snoring during bronchoscopy was significantly associated with a STOP-Bang score ≥3 after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, and stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–2.89; p=0.002).@*CONCLUSION@#Two-thirds of patients undergoing bronchoscopy with moderate sedation were at risk of OSA based on the screening questionnaire. Snoring during bronchoscopy was highly predictive of patients at high risk of OSA.

19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 160-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the treatment of choice in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) patients. However, a substantial number of elderly patients refuse AVR and treated medically. We investigated their long-term prognosis.@*METHODS@#From January 2005 to December 2016, we analyzed elderly patients with severe symptomatic AS who refused to have AVR.@*RESULTS@#After screening of total 534 patients, we analyzed total 180 severe symptomatic AS patients (78±7 years old, 96 males). Hypertension was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (72%) and the most common symptom was dyspnea (66%). Calculated aortic stenosis area was 0.73±0.20 cm2 and mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 57.8±12.2%. Total 102 patients died during follow-up period (39.1±31.0 months). One-, 3-, and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Of them, 87 died from cardiac causes, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year cardiac mortality rate was 18.0±2.9%, 38.2±3.8%, and 50.7±4.3%, respectively. Their all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality were significantly higher than those of controls. Univariate analysis showed that age, anemia, LVEF, and Log N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were significant parameters in all-cause mortality (p < 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.039, and p=0.047, respectively) and in cardiac mortality (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p=0.046, and p=0.026, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In elderly severe symptomatic AS patients who treated medically, their 1-, 3- and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.

20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 160-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the treatment of choice in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) patients. However, a substantial number of elderly patients refuse AVR and treated medically. We investigated their long-term prognosis. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2016, we analyzed elderly patients with severe symptomatic AS who refused to have AVR. RESULTS: After screening of total 534 patients, we analyzed total 180 severe symptomatic AS patients (78±7 years old, 96 males). Hypertension was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (72%) and the most common symptom was dyspnea (66%). Calculated aortic stenosis area was 0.73±0.20 cm2 and mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 57.8±12.2%. Total 102 patients died during follow-up period (39.1±31.0 months). One-, 3-, and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Of them, 87 died from cardiac causes, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year cardiac mortality rate was 18.0±2.9%, 38.2±3.8%, and 50.7±4.3%, respectively. Their all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality were significantly higher than those of controls. Univariate analysis showed that age, anemia, LVEF, and Log N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were significant parameters in all-cause mortality (p < 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.039, and p=0.047, respectively) and in cardiac mortality (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p=0.046, and p=0.026, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly severe symptomatic AS patients who treated medically, their 1-, 3- and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anemia , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Aortic Valve , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Mass Screening , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stroke Volume
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