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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878983

ABSTRACT

To determine the content of extracts in different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and the content of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, in order to study the effect of different proces-sing methods on the alcohol-soluble extract and the content of six ingredients of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. The extract was determined according to the alcohol-soluble extract determination method set forth in item 2201 of the 2020 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Ⅳ; the content was determined by using Agilent TC-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) for gradient elution, with acetonitrile(A)-0.5% acetic acid solution(B) as the mobile phase; the column temperature was at 30 ℃; the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), the detection wavelength was 285 nm; and the injection volume was 10 μL. Compared with Chuanxiong Rhizoma, the extracts of processed products all increased significantly; by the degree of increase, the order was stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction; the HPLC method was convenient and reliable, with a high linear relationship of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, and a high precision, repeatability, stability and the sample recovery rate in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its processed products. There were 15 chromatographic peaks before and after processing, eight of them were identified. Compared with the pre-processing, two chromatographic peaks were added after the stir-frying with honey and rice wine; and four chromatographic peaks were added after the processing with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction; the contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, and ligustilide in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine were all reduced. Except for the content of ferulic acid that increased, the content of the other five components decreased in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey, stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction, and stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction. Rice wine, honey, decoction of tea and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix could all promote the dissolution of chemical components in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and increase the content of extract; the changes in the contents of six components of different processed products could provide a certain basis for studying chemical composition and efficacy of different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether Ershen Pill (ESP, ) could alleviate the symptom of Pi (Spleen)-Shen (Kidney) yang deficiency (PSYD)-induced diarrhea in rat model and explore its anti-diarrhea mechanism.@*METHODS@#Seventy-five Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups by a random number table, including control, positive, model, low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) ESP groups, 15 rats in each group. All the rats, except those in the control group, were developed PSYD induced-diarrhea based on its pathology and etiology. The rats in positive, LD and HD ESP groups were treated with Shenling Baizhu Pill (), LD (1.05 g/kg) or HD (3.50 g/kg) ESP petroleum ether extract once a day for 2 weeks, respectively. Body weight change and diarrhea index were measured. The histology scores of the kidney were evaluated via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression in the colon was analyzed by immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, oral administration of LD and HD ESP prevented body weight loss and inhibited diarrhea after 2-week treatment (P<0.05). Kidney deterioration was impeded, and the histology score in LD and HD ESP groups were 8.2 and 10.5, respectively, which were both higher than those in the model group (P<0.05). In addition, ESP treatment alleviated rat colitis, and HD ESP significantly improved the AQP3 positive staining intensity in the colon tissue compared with the model group. The result from Western blot revealed that AQP3 protein synthesis in colon tissue of LD and HD ESP groups increased by 2.1- and 5.9-fold compared with the model group (P<0.05). qRT-PCR result showed that AQP3 gene expression in the HD ESP group was also up-regulated by 2.5-fold normalized to the model group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ESP extract effectively alleviates the symptoms of PSYD and relieves PSYD-induced diarrhea by improving AQP3 synthesis in the colon.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802042

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the difference of effect of raw and wine-processed products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma extract on brain protection of rats with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) and the connotation of the theory of "wine processing could promote efficacy" of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Method:Wistar male rats were used to establish the ICH model,extracts of raw and wine-processed products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were used for intervention,and these rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(blank group,sham-operated group,model group,raw Rhei Radix et Rhizoma group,wine-processed Rhei Radix et Rhizoma group and Angong Niuhuangwan group).Then the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) assay.The expression of zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) and vascular endothelial cadherin-2(VE-cadherin-2) in the hemorrhagic brain tissue was detected by immunohistochemical assay.The expression of reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH) oxidase 2(NOX2) and tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene-6(TSG-6) in the hemorrhagic brain tissue was detected by Western blot.The content of glutathione(GSH) in the serum of ICH rats was detected by automatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems.Through these above methods,we investigated the differences between raw products and wine-processed products on brain protection of ICH rats. Result:Compared with the sham-operated group,the apoptosis index of the hippocampal neurons in the model group were increased significantly(PPPPPPPPPPPPConclusion:The raw and wine-processed products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma all have brain protective effect on ICH rat model,but the protective effect of wine-processed products is slightly better than that of raw products.The result of this study provides experimental basis for exploring the theory of "wine processing could promote efficacy" of this herb.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801804

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma on intestinal microflora of normal and type 2 diabetic rats before and after being steamed with rice wine based on 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Method: The type 2 diabetic rat model was established by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Normal and model rats were given the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma or Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine every day (0.8 g·kg-1, according to raw drug quantity), the positive drug group was given metformin solution every day (0.25 g·kg-1), continuous administration for 30 d. Blood glucose was measured once a week and oral glucose tolerance was measured on the 27th day of administration. On the 30th day, feces were taken and the rats were anesthetized. Blood was taken for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Colon was dissected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, the alpha diversity, beta diversity, abundance and composition, and the correlation with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of intestinal microflora were comprehensively analyzed and evaluated. Result: After giving normal rats Coptidis Rhizoma or Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine, there were some inflammatory reactions, imbalance of oxidation-antioxidant system, pathological damage of colon and changes of intestinal microflora, which showed some toxic and side effects, but the toxic and side effects of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine were lower than those of Coptidis Rhizoma. Coptidis Rhizoma could reduce fasting blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats before and after steaming. Although the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine had an increasing trend, there was no significant difference between before and after processing. Type 2 diabetic rats appeared mild inflammation and imbalance of oxidation-antioxidant system, characterized by significant increase of contents of interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB and malondialdehyde (MDA) (PPPConclusion: Coptidis Rhizoma can treat type 2 diabetic rats by regulating intestinal microflora before and after steaming with rice wine, and the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine is better. The toxic and side effects of Coptidis Rhizoma on intestinal flora are reduced by steamed with rice wine. The processing mechanism of increasing efficacy and decreasing toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine is closely related to intestinal microflora.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775322

ABSTRACT

As one of the three pillars of Chinese medicine industry, traditional Chinese medicines prepared in ready-to-use forms are important raw materials for clinical medication and production of Chinese patent drugs. By considering the literature of Curcumae Radix, a multi-source Chinese herb and the situation of market investigation, the modern evaluation method based on traditional grading was introduced for comprehensive evaluation of the processed Curcumae Radix. The correlation between traditional grading method and modern evaluation index was explored to establish the grading standard of Curcumae Radix. According to the comprehensive evaluation, Curcumae Radix was divided into four grades: superior, first, second and third grades under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a new idea for the grading of multi-source processed Chinese medicine, achieving high quality and good price, which is helpful to improve the clinical efficacy.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246088

ABSTRACT

The metabonomics method was used to study the intervention effect of Psoraleae Fructus and Myristicae Semen in "Ershen pill" on the changes in serum endogenous metabolites in spleen-kidney Yang deficiency diarrhea rats before and after processing, screen out differentiated metabolites related to spleen-kidney Yang deficiency diarrhea and explore the metabolic patterns related to spleen-kidney Yang deficiency diarrhea and the processing synergy mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus and Myristicae Semen in "Ershen pill". Efforts were made to detect SOD and MDA of each group, test rat serum metabolic fingerprints in different stages by using GC-MS, analyze by PCA and PLS-DA methods and screen out potential biomarks through VIP and t test. The results revealed that "Ershen pill" could enhance the level of SOD and decrease the level of MDA and identified 10 differentiated metabolites related to spleen-kidney Yang deficiency diarrhea. Compared with the model group, all of metabolites recovered to varying levels after being intervened with "Ershen pill", with the best effect shown in the "Ershen pill" IV group (salt-processed Psoraleae Fructus + bran-roasted Myristicae Semen). It is speculated that that Psoraleae Fructus and Semen Myristicae in "Ershen pill" show a synergistic effect by inhibiting peroxide, improving aglucolipid, amino acids and energy metabolism, with multiple target sites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Diarrhea , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Kidney , Metabolism , Male , Metabolomics , Myristicaceae , Chemistry , Psoralea , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spleen , Metabolism , Yang Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305365

ABSTRACT

Spleen kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD) diarrhea is a common syndrome in tranditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Until now, there is not an ideal SKYD diarrhea rat model for the research. In this study, we compared single factor way (method I, injecting hydrocortisone and gavaging Sennae Folium) with compound factors way(method II, gavaging adenine, improper diet, exhaustion, and gavaging Sennae Folium) on establishing SKYD diarrhea rat model. After modelling, diarrhea index, D-xylose excretory rate, NOS/cGMP signal transduction system, organ index and histopathology examination were used to evaluate the two ways. The results showed that, compared with health group, all the assessment criterias of method I and method II had significant differences (P < 0.01, 0.05). In addition, the index such as diarrhea index, NOS/cGMP signal transduction system, organ index (kidney, testis and thymus) and histopathology examination had significant differences (P < 0.01, 0.05) between method I and method II. In conclusion, the compound factors modelling method better conforms to the symptom of diarrhoea model caused by SKYD. This new modelling method provides a basis for studying on TCM astringents warming and tonifying the spleen and kidney, relieving diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Kidney , Pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spleen , Pathology , Xylose , Metabolism , Yang Deficiency , Metabolism , Pathology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300220

ABSTRACT

Untargeted metabolomics analysis of rhubarb and stewed rhubarb samples shows that the determined samples clearly clustered in to two groups, indicating that the processing procedures caused changes in the composition and/or content of components in rhubarb. Ten components were identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and references, which intensity declined in rhubarb after processing. Targeted metabolomics analysis of rhubarb and stewed rhubarb samples indicated that aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin and physcion were detected with lower intensity in stewed rhubarb samples than in rhubarb samples. Metabolomics analysis of rhubarb and stewed rhubarb indicated the various components of rhubarb changed after processing.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Emodin , Food Handling , Methods , Food Preservation , Methods , Metabolomics , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Principal Component Analysis , Rheum , Chemistry , Metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 636-640, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354578

ABSTRACT

To study the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides Rg1 and its metabolites after iv and oral administration in Wistar rats, the LC-MS/MS method was selected to determine ginsenosides Rg1 and its metabolites in plasma and their pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. After oral administration of ginsenosides Rg1 to rats, ginsenosides Rg1, Rh1, F1 and protopanaxatriol (Ppt) could be detected in plasma. Their Tmax were 0.92, 3.64, 5.17, and 7.30 h, respectively; MRT were 2.68, 5.06, 6.65, and 5.33 h, respectively; AUC(o-t), were 2 363.5, 4 185.5, 3 774.3, and 396.2 ng x mL(-1) x h, respectively. After iv administration of ginsenosides Rg1 to rats, ginsenosides Rg1, Rh1 and FI could be detected in plasma. Their T1/2betaS were 3.12, 5.87, and 6.87 h, respectively; MRTs were 1.92, 5.99, and 7.13 h, respectively; AUCo-tS were 1 454.7, 597.5, and 805.6 ng x mL(-1) x h, respectively. So, it can be concluded that after oral administration, the amounts of metabolites were higher than the prototype in vivo, and the distribution and elimination of the metabolites were relatively slow. After iv administration, the amount of prototype were higher than that of the metabolites in vivo, and the distribution and elimination of the metabolites were relatively slow.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Area Under Curve , Chromatography, Liquid , Female , Ginsenosides , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sapogenins , Blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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