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1.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 128-135, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914029

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent reports suggest that the biliary self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) is highly effective for maintaining hemostasis when endoscopic hemostasis fails in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related bleeding. We compared whether temporary SEMS offers better efficacy than angioembolization for refractory immediate ERCP-related bleeding. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent SEMS placement or underwent angioembolization for bleeding control in refractory immediate ERCP-related bleeding were included in the retrospective analysis. We evaluated the hemostasis success rate, severity of bleeding, change in hemoglobin levels, amount of transfusion, and delay to the start of hemostasis. @*Results@#A total of 27 patients with SEMS and 13 patients who underwent angioembolization were enrolled. More transfusions were needed in the angioembolization group (1.0±1.4 units vs. 2.5±2.0 units; p=0.034). SEMS failure was successfully rescued by angioembolization. The partially covered SEMS (n=23, 85.1%) was generally used, and the median stent-indwelling time was 4 days. The mean delay to the start of angioembolization was 95.2±142.9 (range, 9–491) min. @*Conclusions@#Temporary SEMS had similar results to those of angioembolization (96.3% vs. 92.3%; p=0.588). Immediate SEMS insertion is considered a bridge treatment modality for immediate refractory ERCP-related bleeding. Angioembolization still has a role as rescue therapy when SEMS does not work effectively.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 474-482, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925027

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) provides high-resolution images and is superior to computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing small pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As a result, the use of EUS for early detection of PDAC has attracted attention. This study aimed to identify the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with PDAC diagnosed by EUS but not found on CT scan. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients diagnosed with PDAC at 12 tertiary referral centers in Korea from January 2003 to April 2019 were reviewed. This study included patients with pancreatic masses not clearly observed on CT scan but identified on EUS. The clinical characteristics and radiological features of the patients were analyzed, and survival analysis was performed. @*Results@#A total of 83 patients were enrolled. The most common abnormal CT findings other than a definite mass was pancreatic duct dilatation, which was identified in 61 patients (73.5%). All but four patients underwent surgery. The final pathologic stages were as follows: IA (n=31, 39.2%), IB (n=8, 10.1%), IIA (n=20, 25.3%), IIB (n=17, 21.5%), III (n=2, 2.5%), and IV (n=1, 1.4%). The 5-year survival rate of these patients was 50.6% (95% confidence interval, 38.8% to 66.7%). Elevated liver function testing and R1 resection emerged as significant predictors of mortality in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Conclusions@#This multicenter study demonstrated favorable long-term prognosis in patients with PDAC diagnosed by EUS but indeterminate on CT scan. EUS should be considered for patients with suspected PDAC but indeterminate on CT scan.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 459-465, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898466

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recently, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) proposed criteria for “difficult biliary cannulation” during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This study aimed to investigate the clinical relevance of the ESGE criteria from the perspective of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). @*Methods@#An ERCP database was prospectively maintained between November 2014 and December 2015 across six teaching hospitals in South Korea. The ESGE criteria (biliary cannulation time, the number of cannulation attempts, and inadvertent pancreatic duct [PD] manipulation) were recorded in this database as well as other technical factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for PEP. Then, the PEP prediction model was investigated using decision tree analysis. @*Results@#We analyzed 1,067 consecutive patients with naïve papilla. The overall rate of PEP was 6.6%. Multivariate analysis revealed that female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.860; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.124 to 3.078), a selective biliary cannulation duration >5 minutes (OR, 3.282; 95% CI, 1.641 to 6.566), and inadvertent PD manipulation (OR, 2.614; 95% CI, 1.480 to 4.617) were significant factors affecting PEP. Decision tree analysis revealed that biliary cannulation time (χ2 =49.857, p5 minutes, and >5 minutes with inadvertent PD manipulation, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Biliary cannulation time and inadvertent PD manipulation could be relevant indicators of PEP, and 5 minutes might be used as a cutoff value for the implementation of the rescue cannulation technique.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 354-374, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898451

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a task force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

5.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 161-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897748

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in 8 categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 73-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903564

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

7.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 124-131, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903148

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that primarily causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. It can also cause various infections in immunocompetent patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis involving the lymph node is relatively rare in immunocompetent patients. In this report, a previously healthy 17-year-old girl presented with high-grade fever and persistent cough. Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an anterior mediastinal conglomerate mass that expanded to the right supraclavicular area. Ultrasound-guided gun biopsy revealed histological evidence of cryptococcosis. Immunological screening tests did not identify immunodeficiency. She recovered completely with a combination therapy of amphotericin B and flucytosine for 2 weeks, followed by fluconazole for 8 months. The characteristics of cryptococcosis involving the mediastinal lymph node and the lung should be understood, and the possibility of cryptococcosis even in immunocompetent hosts should be considered.

8.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 125-147, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902372

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 795-796, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914367

ABSTRACT

no abstract available

10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 73-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895860

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues.This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice

11.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 124-131, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895444

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that primarily causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. It can also cause various infections in immunocompetent patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis involving the lymph node is relatively rare in immunocompetent patients. In this report, a previously healthy 17-year-old girl presented with high-grade fever and persistent cough. Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an anterior mediastinal conglomerate mass that expanded to the right supraclavicular area. Ultrasound-guided gun biopsy revealed histological evidence of cryptococcosis. Immunological screening tests did not identify immunodeficiency. She recovered completely with a combination therapy of amphotericin B and flucytosine for 2 weeks, followed by fluconazole for 8 months. The characteristics of cryptococcosis involving the mediastinal lymph node and the lung should be understood, and the possibility of cryptococcosis even in immunocompetent hosts should be considered.

12.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 125-147, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894668

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 459-465, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890762

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recently, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) proposed criteria for “difficult biliary cannulation” during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This study aimed to investigate the clinical relevance of the ESGE criteria from the perspective of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). @*Methods@#An ERCP database was prospectively maintained between November 2014 and December 2015 across six teaching hospitals in South Korea. The ESGE criteria (biliary cannulation time, the number of cannulation attempts, and inadvertent pancreatic duct [PD] manipulation) were recorded in this database as well as other technical factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for PEP. Then, the PEP prediction model was investigated using decision tree analysis. @*Results@#We analyzed 1,067 consecutive patients with naïve papilla. The overall rate of PEP was 6.6%. Multivariate analysis revealed that female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.860; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.124 to 3.078), a selective biliary cannulation duration >5 minutes (OR, 3.282; 95% CI, 1.641 to 6.566), and inadvertent PD manipulation (OR, 2.614; 95% CI, 1.480 to 4.617) were significant factors affecting PEP. Decision tree analysis revealed that biliary cannulation time (χ2 =49.857, p5 minutes, and >5 minutes with inadvertent PD manipulation, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Biliary cannulation time and inadvertent PD manipulation could be relevant indicators of PEP, and 5 minutes might be used as a cutoff value for the implementation of the rescue cannulation technique.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 354-374, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890747

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a task force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in eight categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 161-181, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890044

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor requires a strict recommendation for its proper use in clinical practice because of its technical difficulty and invasiveness. The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) appointed a Task Force to draft clinical practice guidelines for EUS-guided tissue acquisition of pancreatic solid tumor. The strength of recommendation and the level of evidence for each statement were graded according to the Minds Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Development 2014. The committee, comprising a development panel of 16 endosonographers and an expert on guideline development methodology, developed 12 evidence-based recommendations in 8 categories intended to help physicians make evidence-based clinical judgments with regard to the diagnosis of pancreatic solid tumor. This clinical practice guideline discusses EUS-guided sampling in pancreatic solid tumor and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use, technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., needle type, needle diameter, adequate number of needle passes, sample obtaining techniques, and methods of specimen processing), adverse events of EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and learning-related issues. This guideline was reviewed by external experts and suggests best practices recommended based on the evidence available at the time of preparation. This guideline may not be applicable for all clinical situations and should be interpreted in light of specific situations and the availability of resources. It will be revised as necessary to cover progress and changes in technology and evidence from clinical practice.

16.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 35-38, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837192

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic renal hypouricemia is a hereditary disease characterized by abnormally high renal uric acid clearance. A defect in the SLC22A12 genes, which encodes the renal uric acid transporter, URAT1, is the known major causes of this disorder. Most patients are clinically silent, but exercise-induced acute kidney injury, urolithiasis or hematuria may develop. The patient presented with azotemia, decreased urine output and abdominal pain without vigorous exercise past history. He was diagnosed with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis at admission, but low serum uric acid level was persisted. Since the diagnosis of the patient was familial renal hypouricemia, we performed sequence analysis of the SLC22A12 gene in all family members. We report a case of 17-year-old boy with severe acute kidney injury with familial renal hypouricemia confirmed by genotyping of SLC22A12 .

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 257-264, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833134

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Few studies have addressed the relationship between the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and hospital case volume or endoscopist’s experience with inconsistent results. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of hospital case volume and endoscopist’s experience on the AEs associated with ERCP and to analyze patient- and procedure-related risk factors for post-ERCP AEs. @*Methods@#From January 2015 to December 2015, we prospectively enrolled patients with naïve papilla who underwent ERCP at six centers. Patient- and procedure-related variables were recorded on data collection sheets at the time of and after ERCP. @*Results@#A total of 1,191 patients (median age, 71 years) were consecutively enrolled. The overall success rate of biliary cannulation was 96.6%. Overall, 244 patients (20.5%) experienced post-ERCP AEs, including pancreatitis (9.0%), bleeding (11.8%), perforation (0.4%), cholangitis (1.2%), and others (0.9%). While post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) was more common when the procedure was performed by less experienced endoscopists, bleeding was more common in high-volume centers and by less experienced endoscopists. Multivariate analysis showed that a less experience in ERCP was significantly associated with PEP (odds ratio [OR], 1.630; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.050 to 2.531; p=0.030) and post-ERCP bleeding (OR, 1.439; 95% CI, 1.003 to 2.062; p=0.048). @*Conclusions@#Our study demonstrated that overall AEs following ERCP were associated with the experience of the endoscopist. To minimize post-ERCP AEs, rigorous training with a sufficient case volume is required, and treatment strategies should be modified according to the endoscopist’s expertise.

18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 213-218, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Determining the cause of suspected biliary stricture is often challenging in clinical practice. We aimed to compare the diagnostic yields of endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue sampling (EUS-TS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-guided tissue sampling (ERCP-TS) in patients with suspected biliary stricture at different primary lesions. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent same-session EUS- and ERCP-TS for the evaluation of suspected biliary stricture. Forceps biopsy and/or brush cytology of intraductal lesions and fine-needle aspiration for solid mass lesions were performed during ERCP and EUS, respectively. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients treated at our institution between January 2011 and September 2016, were initially considered for the study. However, 32 patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up (n=8) and ERCP-TS on the pancreatic duct (n=20) or periampullary lesions (n=4). Of the 93 patients included, 86 had a malignant tumor including cholangiocarcinoma (n=39), pancreatic cancer (n=37), and other malignancies (n=10). Seven patients had benign lesions. EUS-TS had higher rate of overall diagnostic accuracy than ERCP-TS (82.8% vs. 60.2%, p=0.001), and this was especially true for patients with a pancreatic lesion (84.4% vs. 51.1%, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: EUS-TS was found to be superior to ERCP-TS for evaluating suspected biliary strictures, especially those caused by pancreatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Endosonography , Follow-Up Studies , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Surgical Instruments
19.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 124-131, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742151

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms arising from the pancreatic islet of Langerhans and can be functioning or non-functioning based on the clinical symptoms caused by hormonal secretions. PNETs are the second most common tumor of the pancreas and represent 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. The incidence of pNETs appears to be rising and the prognosis seems to be improving, likely due to the improved treatment options. Recent updates of the World Health Organization classification and grading separate pNETs into 2 broad categories according to the histopathologic criteria, including the Ki-67 proliferative index and mitotic counts: well-differentiated NET and poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The classification also incorporates a new subcategory of well-differentiated high-grade NEC (grade 3) to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management. The treatment of advanced or metastatic pNETs may include surgical resection, liver-directed therapies, and/or systemic treatments. In unresectable patients, the goals of these therapies are to palliate the tumor-related symptoms and prolong the lifespan. Systemic therapy consists of the following broad modalities: somatostatin analogues, molecular targeted therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. In conclusion, pNETs are diagnosed increasingly throughout the world, usually with metastatic disease and requiring systemic therapy. Each patient should be evaluated thoroughly and discussed individually by a multidisciplinary and dedicated NET-expert team, which might consider all treatment options, including ongoing clinical trials before selecting the appropriate treatment sequence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Classification , Drug Therapy , Incidence , Islets of Langerhans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Patient Care , Prognosis , Receptors, Peptide , Somatostatin , World Health Organization
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 161-168, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CEH-EUS) is a promising imaging modality that can differentiate subepithelial tumors (SETs) by detecting the degree of enhancement. However, whether CEH-EUS alone can predict the malignancy risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of CEH-EUS by using perfusion analysis software for distinguishing among SETs and predicting the malignancy risk of GISTs. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with SETs who underwent preoperative CEH-EUS. In this study, 44 patients with histologically proven GISTs and benign SETs were enrolled. Perfusion analysis was performed using perfusion quantification software. Peak enhancement (PE), wash-in rate (WiR), wash-in perfusion index (WiPI), and wash-in and wash-out areas under the time-intensity curve (WiWoAUC) were calculated and compared between the GISTs and benign SETs. RESULTS: When we allocated the enrolled patients into the leiomyoma group and low- and high-grade malignancy GIST groups, significant statistical differences in PE (p<0.001), WiR (p=0.009), WiPI (p<0.001), and WiWoAUC (p<0.001) were identified in the high-grade malignancy group compared with the leiomyoma group. CONCLUSIONS: CEH-EUS with perfusion analysis using perfusion analysis software could be a quantitative and independent method for predicting malignancy risk in gastrointestinal SETs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endosonography , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Leiomyoma , Methods , Perfusion , Retrospective Studies
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