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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903869

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903858

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896165

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896154

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.METHODS: Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.RESULTS: These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.CONCLUSION: The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Regional , Books, Illustrated , Cadaver , Education , Humans , Internet , Learning , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Volunteers
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.@*METHODS@#Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.@*CONCLUSION@#The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.@*METHODS@#Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.@*CONCLUSION@#The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764886

ABSTRACT

The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE–660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46.6–48.3) and Trichuris trichiura (EPG, 32.8–62.1) eggs, the species commonly detected among Korean populations until just prior to the 1970s. These findings show that soil-transmitted parasitic infection among the Silla nobility might not have been uncommon. This is the first-ever report on the presence of ancient parasite eggs in the samples obtained from a Three Kingdom period tomb; and it also presents the earliest positive results for any of the ancient South Korean tombs paleoparasitologically examined to date.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Eggs , Humans , Ovum , Parasites , Sacrum , Soil , Trichuris
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713561

ABSTRACT

Although commercialization of mobile phones has raised much concerns about the effects of radiofrequency radiation on the human body, few experimental studies have been conducted on the effects of radiofrequency radiation on physiological homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, we presently investigated the effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation on spontaneous wheel exercise, hormone and cytokines levels in the plasm of mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups as control, exercise, radiofrequency radiation, radiofrequency radiation & exercise group. The body weight, corticosterone and blood cytokine levels were checked for 10 weeks. Followed by the exposure to radiofrequency radiation for 6 hours a day, the more increase in body weight was observed in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group than in the spontaneous exercise group. When the amount of spontaneous exercise was measured for 10 weeks, the amount of exercise was increased in the both control and spontaneous exercise group, while the amount of exercise was decreased in the radiofrequency radiation group. To determine whether the homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses are indirectly affected by radiofrequency radiation exposure, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), TNF-α, IFNγ, and GM-CSF were measured by ELISA kit, respectively. As a result, the blood levels of IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α in the spontaneous exercise group were higher than that of control group, and each cytokine levels in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group were lower than that of control group. However, the corticosterone, IL-1β, IFNγ and GM-CSF didn't show statistically significant differences in all groups. It has been confirmed that exposure to high frequency electromagnetic waves for a long time can affect the amount of exercise, body weight, and some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Cell Phone , Corticosterone , Cytokines , Electromagnetic Radiation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Homeostasis , Human Body , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Radiation Exposure
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713559

ABSTRACT

During routine dissection, additional muscular head of extensor digitorum brevis muscle attaching to the third toe and accessory muscle perforated by the branch of the deep peroneal nerve were observed in the right foot of a 71-year-old male cadaver. The additional muscular head originated from the dorsal surface of cuboid bone, and ran parallel with the third tendon of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle. It was conjoined with the third tendon of extensor digitorum brevis at the middle of its course. The accessory muscle was a small muscle which was covered with the muscle belly of the extensor hallucis brevis muscle. It originated from the dorsal surface of the calcaneus, and inserted to the lateral one-third of transverse retinacular band. These two variants were innervated by the branches of deep peroneal nerve. The branches of deep peroneal nerve were compressed under the tendon of extensor hallucis brevis and around the site where the nerve branch perforated the small muscle. The clinical significances of these variations and tendon of extensor hallucis brevis muscle were discussed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cadaver , Calcaneus , Foot , Head , Humans , Male , Peroneal Nerve , Tarsal Bones , Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome , Tendons , Toes
12.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 306-309, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47821

ABSTRACT

A human skull was discovered at the 16th-century drainage channel of market district ruins, one of the busiest streets in the capital of Joseon kingdom. By anthropological examination, we noticed the cut mark at the right occipital part of the cranium. Judging from the wound property, it might have been caused by a strong strike using a sharp-edged weapon. As no periosteal reaction or healing signs were observed at the cut mark, he might have died shortly after the skull wound was made. We speculated that this might have been of a civilian or soldier victim who died in a battle or the decapitated head of prisoner. This is the first report about the discovery of the skull damaged by sharp-edged weapon at the archaeological sites in the capital city of Joseon Kingdom.


Subject(s)
Drainage , Head , Humans , Korea , Military Personnel , Prisoners , Prisons , Seoul , Skull , Strikes, Employee , Weapons , Wounds and Injuries
13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 214-218, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50230

ABSTRACT

We found the changed distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins in the skin during rat development. At 15 days of gestation, GLUT1 and 2 proteins were expressed in the stratum corneum of epidermal cells. In postnatal skin, however, GLUT1 and 2 exhibit different expression patterns. While GLUT1 expression becomes more restricted to the stratum basale with development, GLUT2 was found mainly in stratum spinosum and granulosum, but not being localized in the stratum basale at any stages of perinatal skin development. Considering all these, it can be speculated that each GLUT protein plays its specific role in different epidermal layers and that the glucose used in mammalian skin in utero could be originated from the amniotic fluid during skin development.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Epidermis , Female , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Immunohistochemistry , Pregnancy , Rats , Skin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218577

ABSTRACT

We found calcified pulmonary nodules in a middle-aged female mummy discovered from 350-yr-old Joseon tomb of Korea. In the CT scan, we found six radiopaque nodules in right lung, through the levels of thoracic vertebrae 1 to 6. We also found presumptive pleural adhesions in right thoracic cavity of CT images. We re-confirmed radiological findings by our post-factum dissection on the same mummy. By the differential diagnosis, we speculate that the radiopaque calcification nodules and associated pleural adhesion could have been caused by tuberculosis. This is the first-ever report on the pulmonary tuberculosis identified in archaeologically obtained, pre-modern Korean samples.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Mummies/diagnostic imaging , Republic of Korea , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17706

ABSTRACT

Five medical students in the fourth-year took anatomy as their elective courses for 1 month. They dissected one cadaver, and investigated Digital Report, under the course subjects as follows; (1) the shape of thyroid gland and the location of its isthmus, (2) the branches of left and right coronary arteries, (3) the number of blood vessels and bronchi on the hilum of lung, (4) topographical relationship of the renal vessels and ureter, and the shape of the renal pelvis, (5) the location and attachment of the appendix, (6) the penetration of median nerve through the pronator teres, (7) the sensory nerves and the extensor tendons on the dorsum of hand, (8) the branches of deep femoral artery. The pancreatic and live samples were processed and stained with H&E, for LM observation, since the individual had suffered from pancreatic cancer and got a Pylorus preserving pancreatico-duodenectomy (PPPD). At the last step of the elective course, students wrote small articles following the conventional method for writing manuscript. From the viewpoint of professor, the anatomy course for the fourth-year students were definitely different from that for first-year students, and had many positive effects in terms of anatomy education.


Subject(s)
Appendix , Blood Vessels , Bronchi , Cadaver , Coronary Vessels , Education , Femoral Artery , Hand , Humans , Kidney Pelvis , Lung , Median Nerve , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pylorus , Students, Medical , Tendons , Thyroid Gland , Ureter , Writing
16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 151-151, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40879

ABSTRACT

The author's name and the institutional affiliation of the authors were published incorrectly.


Subject(s)
Cemeteries , Seoul , Skeleton
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36878

ABSTRACT

Harappan Civilization is well known for highly sophisticated urban society, having been flourished in extensive regions of northwestern part of Pakistan and northeastern part of Afghanistan as its heyday around 4500 years ago. Most archaeologists agree on the periodization of this civilization as three different phases (Early, Mature and Late), which represent its cultural process of origin, development and decline. From the Harappan sites, one can note that there were about more than fifty burial sites discovered so far related with the civilization. In this article, we are trying to introduce the brief picture of the Harappan burials from the archaeological as well as anthropological perspectives.


Subject(s)
Afghanistan , Anthropology , Archaeology , Burial , Civilization , Humans , India , Pakistan
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51150

ABSTRACT

Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Ascariasis/diagnosis , Ascaris/classification , Base Sequence , Cytochromes b/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Female , Fossils/history , History, Ancient , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mummies/history , Ovum/chemistry , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
19.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 213-217, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81736

ABSTRACT

To date, there are still very few reports on benign-tumor cases based on East Asian skeletal series, even though other regions and continents have been well represented. In our study on the Joseon Human Skeletal Series, we identified benign bone tumors in two skeletons (cases Nos. 75 and 96). Our radiological analyses showed both cases to be homogeneous sclerotic bone masses aligned with the cranial vault suture. In a subsequent series of differential diagnoses, we determined both cases to be osteoma, the most common bone-tumor type reported for archaeological samples. Our study is the osteoarchaeological basis for this, the first-ever report on benign bone neoplasm in a pre-modern East Asian population.


Subject(s)
Asians , Bone Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Korea , Osteoma , Paleopathology , Skeleton , Skull , Sutures
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16940

ABSTRACT

Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) to detect large deletions or duplications has been widely used as a diagnostic tool for various disease clinically. As this method requires only a small amount of template DNA and is very simple and high throughput, it has numerous advantages for the analysis of the human specimen obtained from archaeological sites. In this study we therefore tried to perform MLPA analysis for detecting any of duplications or deletions in mummy samples (n=4) from medieval Joseon tombs of Korea. Of them, we could not get any authentic data from 3 samples by MLPA method while only one case (HD2) showed the possible presence of duplications or deletions during her lifetime. Although the current report reveal that MLPA is a promising tool for anthropological study in South Korea, more studies are still needed to make up for the validity problem of commercial MLPA kit used in this study.


Subject(s)
DNA , Humans , Korea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mummies
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