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1.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 250-259, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999327

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was designed to determine the feasibility of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in patients with clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent surgery for clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer between January 2008 and December 2016 were included. Patients were divided into PCRT and non-PCRT groups. Non-PCRT patients underwent radical resection or local excision (LE) according to the surgeon’s decision, and PCRT patients underwent surgery according to the response to PCRT. Patients received 50.0 to 50.4 gray of preoperative radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. @*Results@#Of 127 patients enrolled, 46 underwent PCRT and 81 did not. The mean distance of lesions from the anal verge was lower in the PCRT group (P=0.004). The most frequent operation was transanal excision and ultralow anterior resection in the PCRT and non-PCRT groups, respectively. Of the 46 patients who underwent PCRT, 21 (45.7%) achieved pathologic complete response, including 15 of the 24 (62.5%) who underwent LE. Rectal sparing rate was significantly higher in the PCRT group (11.1% vs. 52.2%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in 3- and 5-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival regardless of PCRT or surgical procedures. @*Conclusion@#PCRT in clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer patients increased the rectal sparing rate via LE and showed acceptable oncologic outcomes. PCRT may be a feasible therapeutic option to avoid abdominoperineal resection in clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 109-118, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and prognostic significance of the high-risk feature (HRF) in patients with T3N0 colon cancer. @*Methods@#We included 1,205 patients with pT3N0 colon cancer treated with curative radical resection between 2012 and 2016. HRF was defined as lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, poorly/undifferentiated histology, margin involvement, and preoperative obstruction. We investigated the relationships between the number and type of HRF and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), as well as the effect of adjuvant treatment. @*Results@#A total of 751 of the patients (62.3%) had more than 1 HRF and 515 of the patients (42.7%) underwent adjuvant treatment. Patients who had more than 2 HRFs had a significantly worse 5-year RFS and OS compared to patients who had neither HRF nor even one HRF. According to the findings of the multivariate analysis, the presence of multiple HRFs was a risk factor for a lower RFS and OS. When the quantity and type of HRF were taken into consideration in the multivariate analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy was not found to be linked with RFS or OS in patients with pT3N0 colon cancer. @*Conclusion@#In the present study, adjuvant treatment based on the current guideline of treatment indication was unable to enhance the prognosis of patients with pT3N0 colon cancer. The role of adjuvant treatment in T3N0 colon cancer must be examined with the HRF count in mind.

3.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 72-81, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925432

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Ulcerative colitis (UC) is known to have an association with the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and UC-associated CRC does not follow the typical progress pattern of adenoma-carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate molecular characteristics of UC-associated CRC and further our understanding of the association between UC and CRC. @*Methods@#From 5 patients with UC-associated CRC, matched normal, dysplasia, and tumor specimens were obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples for analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted and whole exome sequencing was conducted to identify somatic variations in dysplasia and tumor samples. Statistical analysis was performed to identify somatic variations with significantly higher frequencies in dysplasia-initiated tumors, and their relevant functions were investigated. @*Results@#Total of 104 tumor mutation genes were identified with higher mutation frequencies in dysplasia-initiated tumors. Four of the 5 dysplasia-initiated tumors (80.0%) have TP53 mutations with frequent stop-gain mutations that were originated from matched dysplasia. APC and KRAS are known to be frequently mutated in general CRC, while none of the 5 patients have APC or KRAS mutation in their dysplasia and tumor samples. Glycoproteins including mucins were also frequently mutated in dysplasia-initiated tumors. @*Conclusion@#UC-associated CRC tumors have distinct mutational characteristics compared to typical adenoma-carcinoma tumors and may have different cancer-driving molecular mechanisms that are initiated from earlier dysplasia status.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1451-1461, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902510

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adequate methods of combining T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess complete response (CR) to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer are obscure. We aimed to determine an algorithm for combining T2WI and DWI to optimally suggest CR on MRI using visual assessment. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 376 patients (male:female, 256:120; mean age ± standard deviation, 59.7 ± 11.1 years) who had undergone long-course CRT for rectal cancer and both pre- and post-CRT high-resolution rectal MRI during 2017– 2018. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated whether a tumor signal was absent, representing CR, on both post-CRT T2WI and DWI, and whether the pre-treatment DWI showed homogeneous hyperintensity throughout the lesion. Algorithms for combining T2WI and DWI were as follows: ‘AND,’ if both showed CR; ‘OR,’ if any one showed CR; and ‘conditional OR,’ if T2WI showed CR or DWI showed CR after the pre-treatment DWI showed homogeneous hyperintensity. Their efficacies for diagnosing pathologic CR (pCR) were determined in comparison with T2WI alone. @*Results@#Sixty-nine patients (18.4%) had pCR. AND had a lower sensitivity without statistical significance (vs. 62.3% [43/69]; 59.4% [41/69], p = 0.500) and a significantly higher specificity (vs. 87.0% [267/307]; 90.2% [277/307], p = 0.002) than those of T2WI. Both OR and conditional OR combinations resulted in a large increase in sensitivity (vs. 62.3% [43/69]; 81.2% [56/69], p < 0.001; and 73.9% [51/69], p = 0.008, respectively) and a large decrease in specificity (vs. 87.0% [267/307]; 57.0% [175/307], p < 0.001; and 69.1% [212/307], p < 0.001, respectively) as compared with T2WI, ultimately creating additional false interpretations of CR more frequently than additional identification of patients with pCR. @*Conclusion@#AND combination of T2WI and DWI is an appropriate strategy for suggesting CR using visual assessment of MRI after CRT for rectal cancer.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1451-1461, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894806

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adequate methods of combining T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess complete response (CR) to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer are obscure. We aimed to determine an algorithm for combining T2WI and DWI to optimally suggest CR on MRI using visual assessment. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 376 patients (male:female, 256:120; mean age ± standard deviation, 59.7 ± 11.1 years) who had undergone long-course CRT for rectal cancer and both pre- and post-CRT high-resolution rectal MRI during 2017– 2018. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated whether a tumor signal was absent, representing CR, on both post-CRT T2WI and DWI, and whether the pre-treatment DWI showed homogeneous hyperintensity throughout the lesion. Algorithms for combining T2WI and DWI were as follows: ‘AND,’ if both showed CR; ‘OR,’ if any one showed CR; and ‘conditional OR,’ if T2WI showed CR or DWI showed CR after the pre-treatment DWI showed homogeneous hyperintensity. Their efficacies for diagnosing pathologic CR (pCR) were determined in comparison with T2WI alone. @*Results@#Sixty-nine patients (18.4%) had pCR. AND had a lower sensitivity without statistical significance (vs. 62.3% [43/69]; 59.4% [41/69], p = 0.500) and a significantly higher specificity (vs. 87.0% [267/307]; 90.2% [277/307], p = 0.002) than those of T2WI. Both OR and conditional OR combinations resulted in a large increase in sensitivity (vs. 62.3% [43/69]; 81.2% [56/69], p < 0.001; and 73.9% [51/69], p = 0.008, respectively) and a large decrease in specificity (vs. 87.0% [267/307]; 57.0% [175/307], p < 0.001; and 69.1% [212/307], p < 0.001, respectively) as compared with T2WI, ultimately creating additional false interpretations of CR more frequently than additional identification of patients with pCR. @*Conclusion@#AND combination of T2WI and DWI is an appropriate strategy for suggesting CR using visual assessment of MRI after CRT for rectal cancer.

6.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 64-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891187

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The outcomes of non-trauma patients requiring intra-abdominal gauze packing for the management of uncontrollable hemorrhage following surgery, and the evaluation of survival risk factors were examined. @*Methods@#Data from patients who underwent intra-abdominal gauze packing to control bleeding during abdominal surgery between September 2012 and March 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 28 patients were included in the study population analysis. There were 9 patients who died during hospitalization. One patient died as a result of uncontrolled bleeding. In spite of gauze packing, 2 patients who had increasing blood transfusion requirements (> 4 packs/4 hours) were found to have arterial bleeding. Univariate analysis for hospital death showed that immunocompromised status, emergency surgery, a thrombocytopenic state prior to initial surgery, and a longer duration until gauze removal had a negative association with survival outcomes. Among these factors, only time to gauze removal > 36 hours was identified as an independent risk factor for survival outcome in the multivariate analysis. @*Conclusions@#Gauze packing could be considered as an effective method for the management of uncontrolled hemorrhage, in non-trauma patients. In cases of persistent bleeding after gauze packing, arterial bleeding should be suspected. Gauze removal after > 36 hours may indicate a poor survival outcome.

7.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 5-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874081

ABSTRACT

Perianal fistula is a frequent complication and one of the subclassifications of Crohn disease (CD). It is the most commonly observed symptomatic condition by colorectal surgeons. Accurately classifying a perianal fistula is the initial step in its management in CD patients. Surgical management is selected based on the type of perianal fistula and the presence of rectal inflammation; it includes fistulotomy, fistulectomy, seton procedure, fistula plug insertion, video-assisted ablation of the fistulous tract, stem cell therapy, and proctectomy with stoma creation. Perianal fistulas are also managed medically, such as antibiotics, immunomodulators, and biologics including anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents. The current standard treatment of choice for perianal fistula in CD patients is the multidisciplinary approach combining surgical and medical management; however, the rate of long-term remission is low and is reported to be 50% at most. Therefore, the optimum management strategy for perianal fistulas associated with CD remains controversial. Currently, the goal of management for CD-related perianal fistulas are controlling symptoms and maintaining long-term anal function without proctectomy, while monitoring progression to anorectal carcinoma. This review evaluates perianal fistula in CD patients and determines the optimal surgical management strategy based on recent evidence.

8.
Journal of Acute Care Surgery ; (2): 64-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898891

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The outcomes of non-trauma patients requiring intra-abdominal gauze packing for the management of uncontrollable hemorrhage following surgery, and the evaluation of survival risk factors were examined. @*Methods@#Data from patients who underwent intra-abdominal gauze packing to control bleeding during abdominal surgery between September 2012 and March 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#A total of 28 patients were included in the study population analysis. There were 9 patients who died during hospitalization. One patient died as a result of uncontrolled bleeding. In spite of gauze packing, 2 patients who had increasing blood transfusion requirements (> 4 packs/4 hours) were found to have arterial bleeding. Univariate analysis for hospital death showed that immunocompromised status, emergency surgery, a thrombocytopenic state prior to initial surgery, and a longer duration until gauze removal had a negative association with survival outcomes. Among these factors, only time to gauze removal > 36 hours was identified as an independent risk factor for survival outcome in the multivariate analysis. @*Conclusions@#Gauze packing could be considered as an effective method for the management of uncontrolled hemorrhage, in non-trauma patients. In cases of persistent bleeding after gauze packing, arterial bleeding should be suspected. Gauze removal after > 36 hours may indicate a poor survival outcome.

9.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 214-220, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913521

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#During diverting ileostomy reversal for rectal cancer patients who underwent previous sphincter-saving surgery, the extent of adhesion formation around the ileostomy site affects operative and postoperative outcomes. Anchoring sutures placed at the time of the ileostomy procedure may reduce adhesions around the ileostomy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of anchoring sutures on the degree of adhesion formation and the postoperative course at the time of ileostomy reversal. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent sphincter-saving surgery with diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer between January 2013 and December 2017 were enrolled. Variables including the peritoneal adhesion index (PAI) score, operation time, the length of resected small bowel, operative complications, and postoperative hospital stay were collected prospectively and compared between the anchoring group (AG) and non-anchoring group (NAG). @*Results@#A total of 90 patients were included in this study, with 60 and 30 patients in the AG and NAG, respectively. The AG had shorter mean operation time (46.88 ± 16.37 minutes vs. 61.53 ± 19.36 minutes, P = 0.001) and lower mean PAI score (3.02 ± 2.53 vs. 5.80 ± 2.60, P = 0.001), compared with the NAG. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the AG and NAG (5.0% vs. 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.240). @*Conclusion@#Anchoring sutures at the formation of a diverting ileostomy could decrease the adhesion score and operation time at ileostomy reversal, thus may be effective in improving perioperative outcomes.

10.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 101-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913383

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Carcinoma arising from Crohn disease (CD) is rare, and there is no clear guidance on how to properly screen for at-risk patients and choose appropriate care. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, and oncologic outcomes of CD patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). @*Methods@#Using medical records, we retrospectively enrolled a single-center cohort of 823 patients who underwent abdominal surgery for CD between January 2006 and December 2015. CD-associated CRC patients included those with adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, or neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum. @*Results@#Nineteen patients (2.3%) underwent abdominal surgery to treat CD-associated CRC. The mean duration of CD in the CD-associated CRC group was significantly longer than that in the benign CD group (124.7 ± 77.7 months vs. 68.9 ± 60.2 months, P = 0.006). The CD-associated CRC group included a higher proportion of patients with a history of perianal disease (73.7% vs. 50.2%, P = 0.035) and colonic location (47.4% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.001). Among 19 CD-associated CRC patients, 17 (89.5%) were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, and of the 17 cases, 15 (88.2%) were rectal adenocarcinoma. On multivariable analyses for developing CRC, only colonic location was a risk factor (relative risk, 7.735; 95% confidence interval, 2.862–20.903; P = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Colorectal malignancy is rare among CD patients, even among patients who undergo abdominal surgery. Rectal adenocarcinoma accounted for most of the CRC, and colonic location was a risk factor for developing CRC.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 563-572, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831042

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the association of body composition with long-term oncologic outcomes innon-metastatic rectal cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 1,384 patients with stage(y)0-III rectal cancer treated at Asan Medical Centerbetween January 2005 and December 2012. Body composition at diagnosis was measuredusing abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT). Sarcopenia, visceral obesity (VO), andsarcopenic obesity (SO) were defined using CT measured parameters such as skeletal muscleindex (total abdominal muscle area, TAMA), visceral fat area (VFA), and VFA/TAMA. Inflammatorystatus was defined as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio of ! 3. Obesity was categorizedby body mass index (! 25 kg/m2). @*Results@#Among the 1,384 patients, 944 (68.2%) had sarcopenia and 307 (22.2%) had SO. The5-year overall survival (OS) rate was significantly lower in sarcopenic patients (no sarcopeniavs. sarcopenia; 84% vs. 78%, p=0.003) but the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) ratewas not different (77.3% vs. 77.9% p=0.957). Patients with SO showed lower 5-year OS(79.1% vs. 75.5% p=0.02) but no difference in 5-year RFS (p=0.957). Sarcopenia, SO, VO,and obesity were not associated with RFS. However, obesity, SO, age, sex, inflammatorystatus, and tumor stage were confirmed as independent factors associated with OS on multivariateanalysis. In subgroup analysis, association of SO with OS was more prominent inpatients with (y)p stage 0-2 and no inflammatory status. @*Conclusion@#The presence of SO and a low body mass index at diagnosis are negatively associated withOS in non-metastatic rectal cancer patients.

12.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 41-47, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830385

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare the short-term outcomes of the open and laparoscopic approaches to 2-stage restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) for Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 73 patients with UC who underwent elective RPC between 2009 and 2016. Patient characteristics, operative details, and postoperative complications within 30 days were compared between the open and laparoscopic groups. @*Results@#There were 26 cases (36%) in the laparoscopic group, which had a lower mean body mass index (P = 0.025), faster mean time to recovery of bowel function (P = 0.004), less intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.004), and less pain on the first and seventh postoperative days (P = 0.029 and P = 0.027, respectively) compared to open group. There were no deaths, and the overall complication rate was 43.8%. There was no between-group difference in the overall complication rate; however, postoperative ileus was more frequent in the open group (27.7% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.043). Current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 44.4; P = 0.003) and open surgery (OR, 5.4; P = 0.014) were the independent risk factors for postoperative complications after RPC. @*Conclusion@#Laparoscopic RPC was associated with acceptable morbidity and faster recovery than the open approach. The laparoscopic approach is a feasible and safe option for surgical treatment for UC in selective cases.

13.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 243-248, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830378

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract involvement in Crohn disease (CD) is rare and effectiveness of surgical treatment is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and surgical outcomes of upper GI CD. @*Methods@#Medical records of 811 patients who underwent intestinal surgery for CD between January 2006 and December 2015 at a single institution were reviewed. Upper GI CD was defined by involvement of the stomach to the fourth portion of duodenum, with or without concomitant small/large bowel CD involvement according to a modification of the Montreal classification. @*Results@#We identified 24 patients (21 males, 3 females) who underwent surgery for upper GI CD. The mean age at diagnosis was 27 ± 12 years, the mean age at surgery was 33 ± 11 years, and the mean duration of CD was 73.6 ± 56.6 months.Fifteen patients (62.5%) had history of previous perianal surgery. Ten patients (41.7%) had duodenal or gastric stricture and 14 patients (58.3%) had penetrating fistula; patients with fistula were significantly more likely to develop complications (57.1% vs. 20.0%, P = 0.035). One patient with stricture had surgical recurrence. In seven patients with fistula, fistula was related to previous anastomosis. Patients with fistula had significantly longer hospital stays than those with stricture (16 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Upper GI CD is rare among CD types (2.96%). In patients with upper GI CD, penetrating fistula was associated with longer hospital stay and more complications.

14.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 382-389, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896731

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recurrence patterns in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) are needed to evaluate for establishing tailored surveillance protocol. @*Methods@#This study included 2,215 patients with locally-advanced mid and low rectal cancer treated with radical resection between January 2005 and December 2012. Recurrence was evaluated according to receipt of PCRT; PCRT group (n = 1,258) and no-PCRT group (n = 957). Early recurrence occurred within 1 year of surgery and late recurrence after 3 years. The median follow-up duration was 65.7 ± 29 months. @*Results@#The overall recurrence rate was similar between the PCRT and no-PCRT group (25.8% vs. 24.9%, P = 0.622). The most common initial recurrence site was the lungs in both groups (50.6% vs. 49.6%, P = 0.864), followed by the liver, which was more common in the no-PCRT group (22.5% vs. 33.6%, P = 0.004). Most of the recurrence occurred within 3 years after surgery in both groups (85.3% vs. 85.8%, P = 0.862). Early recurrence was more common in the PCRT group than in the no-PCRT group (43.1% vs. 32.4%, P = 0.020). Recurrence within the first 6 months after surgery was significantly higher in the PCRT group than in the no-PCRT group (18.8% vs. 7.6%, P = 0.003). Lung (n = 27, 44.3%) and liver (n = 22, 36.1%) were the frequent the first relapsed site within 6 months after surgery in PCRT group. @*Conclusion@#Early recurrence within the first 1 year after surgery was more common in patients treated with PCRT. This difference would be considered for surveillance protocols and need to be evaluated in further studies.

15.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 382-389, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889027

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recurrence patterns in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) are needed to evaluate for establishing tailored surveillance protocol. @*Methods@#This study included 2,215 patients with locally-advanced mid and low rectal cancer treated with radical resection between January 2005 and December 2012. Recurrence was evaluated according to receipt of PCRT; PCRT group (n = 1,258) and no-PCRT group (n = 957). Early recurrence occurred within 1 year of surgery and late recurrence after 3 years. The median follow-up duration was 65.7 ± 29 months. @*Results@#The overall recurrence rate was similar between the PCRT and no-PCRT group (25.8% vs. 24.9%, P = 0.622). The most common initial recurrence site was the lungs in both groups (50.6% vs. 49.6%, P = 0.864), followed by the liver, which was more common in the no-PCRT group (22.5% vs. 33.6%, P = 0.004). Most of the recurrence occurred within 3 years after surgery in both groups (85.3% vs. 85.8%, P = 0.862). Early recurrence was more common in the PCRT group than in the no-PCRT group (43.1% vs. 32.4%, P = 0.020). Recurrence within the first 6 months after surgery was significantly higher in the PCRT group than in the no-PCRT group (18.8% vs. 7.6%, P = 0.003). Lung (n = 27, 44.3%) and liver (n = 22, 36.1%) were the frequent the first relapsed site within 6 months after surgery in PCRT group. @*Conclusion@#Early recurrence within the first 1 year after surgery was more common in patients treated with PCRT. This difference would be considered for surveillance protocols and need to be evaluated in further studies.

16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 130-138, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The rare incidence of isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence of colorectal cancer has precluded the formulation of treatment guidelines. This study evaluated and compared the effects of different treatment modalities on survival outcomes in patients with PALN recurrence.METHODS: Patients diagnosed with isolated PALN recurrence after curative resection for primary colorectal cancer from January 2004 to December 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with isolated recurrence were selected using imaging modalities. Overall survival (OS) and survival after recurrence (SAR) were analyzed and compared between different treatments using the Kaplan-Meier method.RESULTS: The median OS was 64 months with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Of the 46 patients with PALN recurrence, 35 (76.1%) had isolated recurrences. Of these 35 patients, 16 underwent PALN resection and 19 received chemotherapy. Median SAR was significantly longer in patients who did than did not undergo resection (71 months vs. 39 months, P = 0.017). Median OS tended to be longer in patients who did than did not undergo resection (77 months vs. 62 months, P = 0.055). SAR was similar in patients who received radiotherapy and those who underwent resection (34 months vs. 46 months, P = 0.146). Three of 16 patients (18.8%) who underwent resection were found to be recurrence-free.CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of isolated PALN recurrence may benefit patients, with favorable survival outcomes and by providing definitive diagnosis for proper treatment planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Methods , Mortality , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
17.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 78-85, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739566

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Insistence that total regression of primary tumor would not represent long-term oncologic outcomes has been raised. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of these patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) and radical surgery and to evaluate the associated risk factors. METHODS: We included 189 patients with rectal cancer who showed total regression of the primary tumor after PCRT, followed by radical resection, between 2001 and 2012. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the results were compared with 77 patients with Tis rectal cancer who received only radical resection. Factors associated with RFS were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Sphincter-saving resection was performed for 146 patients (77.2%). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 168 patients (88.9%). During the follow-up period, recurrence occurred in 17 patients (9%). The 5-year RFS was 91.3%, which was significantly lower than that of patients with Tis rectal cancer without PCRT (P = 0.005). In univariate analysis, preoperative CEA and histologic differentiation were associated with RFS. However, no factors were found to be associated with RFS. CONCLUSION: RFS was lower in patients with total regression of primary rectal cancer after PCRT than in those with Tis rectal cancer without PCRT, and it would not be considered as the same entity with early rectal cancer or “disappeared tumor” status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Methods , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Risk Factors
18.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 137-147, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies from Korea have described chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) patients with transition zone (TZ) in the colon. In this study, we evaluated the pathological characteristics and their association with long-term outcomes in Korean colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) patients with TZ. METHODS: We enrolled 39 CPO patients who were refractory to medical treatment and underwent colectomy between November 1989 and April 2016 (median age at symptoms onset: 45 [interquartile range, 29–57] years, males 46.2%). The TZ was defined as a colonic segment connecting a proximally dilated and distally non-dilated segment. Detailed pathologic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Among the 39 patients, 37 (94.9%) presented with TZ and 2 (5.1%) showed no definitive TZ. Median ganglion cell density in the TZ adjusted for the colonic circumference was significantly decreased compared to that in proximal dilated and distal non-dilated segments in TZ (+) patients (9.2 vs 254.3 and 150.5, P < 0.001). Among the TZ (+) patients, 6 showed additional pathologic findings including eosinophilic ganglionitis (n = 2), ulcers with combined cytomegalovirus infection (n = 2), diffuse ischemic changes (n = 1), and heterotropic myenteric plexus (n = 1). During follow-up (median, 61 months), 32 (82.1%) TZ (+) patients recovered without symptom recurrence after surgery. The presence of pathological features other than hypoganglionosis was an independent predictor of symptom recurrence after surgery (P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoganglionosis can be identified in the TZ of most Korean CPO patients. Detection of other pathological features in addition to TZ-associated hypoganglionosis was associated with poor post-operative outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cell Count , Colectomy , Colon , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Eosinophils , Follow-Up Studies , Ganglion Cysts , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Korea , Myenteric Plexus , Pathology , Recurrence , Ulcer
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1135-1143, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Extranodal extension (ENE) is closely associated with the aggressiveness of both colon and rectal cancer. This study evaluated the clinicopathologic significance and prognostic impact of ENE in separate populations of patients with colon and rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 2,346 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent curative surgery at our institution between January 2003 and December 2011 were clinically and histologically reviewed. RESULTS: ENE was associated with younger age, advanced tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and perineural invasion (PNI) in both colon and rectal cancer. ENE rates differed significantly in patients with right colon (36.9%), left colon (42.6%), and rectal (48.7%) cancers (right vs. left, p=0.037; left vs. rectum, p=0.009). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate according to ENE status and primary tumor site differed significantly in patients with ENE-negative colon cancer (80.5%), ENE-negative rectal cancer (77.4%), ENE-positive colon cancer (68.6%), and ENE-positive rectal cancer (64.2%) (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that advanced tumor stage, ENE, LVI, PNI, and absence of adjuvant chemotherapy were independently prognostic of reduced DFS in colon and rectal cancer patients. CONCLUSION: ENE is closely associated with the aggressiveness of colon and rectal cancers, with its frequency increasing from the right colon to the left colon to the rectum. ENE status is a significant independent predictor of DFS in CRC patients irrespective of tumor location. ENE might be more related with distally located CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum
20.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 245-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762711

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Current neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may enable therapies such as surgical resection and local ablation of metastases in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CLM). We evaluated outcomes in CLM patients who underwent resection and/or local treatment after NAC and identified prognostic factors for oncologic outcomes. METHODS: Patients who received NAC followed by resection and/or local treatment of hepatic metastasis from 2013 to 2015 were included. Treatment and tumor-related variables were tabulated. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with RFS and OS. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients received NAC followed by resection and/or local treatment of hepatic metastases. Targeted therapy was administered in 50% of the patients. RFS was 35.8% at 1 year and 19.4% at 2 years postoperatively. OS was 95.6% at 1 year and 88.2% at 2 years postoperatively. In the multivariable analysis, R1 resection margin (hazard ratio [HR], 3.95; P = 0.008) of the liver metastases and ypN1/ypN2 (HR, 2.356 and 1.983, respectively; P = 0.041) were associated with poor RFS. Both factors were also significantly related to OS. CONCLUSION: Resection margin of the metastatic tumor and ypN status are the only relevant factors for RFS and OS in CLM patients treated with NAC. Despite early and high rates of recurrence, CLM patients treated with NAC who undergo resection and/or local treatment have acceptable OS. Multidisciplinary review of candidates for surgery and cautious planning are crucial for achieving optimal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Liver , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence
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