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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915589

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research on global spinal alignment and reciprocal changes following cervical or thoracolumbar reconstruction surgery. We carried out a search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for studies through May 2020, and ultimately included 11 articles. The optimal goal of a truly balanced spine is to maintain the head over the femoral heads. When spinal imbalance occurs, the human body reacts through various compensatory mechanisms to maintain the head over the pelvis and to retain a horizontal gaze. Historically, deformity correction has focused on correcting scoliosis and preventing scoliotic curve progression. Following substantial correction of a spinal deformity, reciprocal changes take place in the flexible segments proximal and distal to the area of correction. Restoration of lumbar lordosis following surgery to correct a thoracolumbar deformity induces reciprocal changes in T1 slope, cervical lordosis, pelvic shift, and lower extremity parameters. Patients with cervical kyphosis exhibit different patterns of reciprocal changes depending on whether they have head-balanced or trunk-balanced kyphosis. These reciprocal changes should be considered to in order to prevent secondary spine disorders. We emphasize the importance of evaluating the global spinal alignment to assess postoperative changes.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 410-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898455

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the risk factors associated with HCC recurrence. @*Methods@#A total of 100 patients with HCV-related HCC, who were treated with DAAs between May 2015 and December 2016, were recruited from seven university hospitals in Korea. Claim data of 526 patients with HCC obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea were used for external validation of the results. @*Results@#Among the 100 patients, 88% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) 12weeks after the end of DAA therapy (SVR12), and 37% experienced HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) before DAA commencement was independently associated with HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; p=0.011). In the nationwide validation cohort, 20.3% of the patients experienced HCC recurrence. The last HCC treatment with a noncurative method, a short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months), and a longer total duration of HCC treatment (≥18 months) were independently related with HCC recurrence (HR3.73, p<0.001; HR 3.34, p<0.001; and HR 1.74, p=0.006; respectively). @*Conclusions@#DAA therapy showed an acceptable SVR12 rate in patients with HCV-related HCC. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) was associated with HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. This finding suggests that the last HCC treatment durability is an important predictor of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 410-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890751

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the risk factors associated with HCC recurrence. @*Methods@#A total of 100 patients with HCV-related HCC, who were treated with DAAs between May 2015 and December 2016, were recruited from seven university hospitals in Korea. Claim data of 526 patients with HCC obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea were used for external validation of the results. @*Results@#Among the 100 patients, 88% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) 12weeks after the end of DAA therapy (SVR12), and 37% experienced HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) before DAA commencement was independently associated with HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; p=0.011). In the nationwide validation cohort, 20.3% of the patients experienced HCC recurrence. The last HCC treatment with a noncurative method, a short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months), and a longer total duration of HCC treatment (≥18 months) were independently related with HCC recurrence (HR3.73, p<0.001; HR 3.34, p<0.001; and HR 1.74, p=0.006; respectively). @*Conclusions@#DAA therapy showed an acceptable SVR12 rate in patients with HCV-related HCC. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) was associated with HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. This finding suggests that the last HCC treatment durability is an important predictor of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy.

4.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 60-66, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836091

ABSTRACT

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a useful palliative therapeutic modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Postembolization syndromes, such as fever, abdominal pain, and elevated liver enzyme levels are commonly known complications of TACE. One post-TACE pulmonary complication, lipiodol pneumonitis, is rarely reported. Lipiodol pneumonitis after TACE appears to be associated with chemical injury due to accidental perfusion of lipiodol to the lung vasculature, promoted by arteriovenous shunts within the hypervascular HCC. Here, we report a 42-year-old man with unresectable HCC and hepatic vein thrombosis. The patient was initially treated with TACE. The following day after TACE, acute respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea and cough developed with decreased oxygen saturation. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed multiple patches and diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lung fields, suggesting of lipiodol pneumonitis. The patient’s condition and radiologic abnormalities subsequently improved after 2 weeks of conservative treatment alone.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832284

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the risk factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, and evaluated the effects of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) on the prognosis of these patients. @*Methods@#This study was retrospectively conducted on patients registered in the Korean acute-on-chronic liver failure study cohort, and on 474 consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding from January 2013 to December 2013 at 21 university hospitals. ACLF was defined as described by the European Association for the Study of Liver-Chronic Liver Failure Consortium. @*Results@#Among a total of 474 patients, 61 patients were diagnosed with ACLF. The cumulative overall survival (OS) rate was lower in the patients with ACLF than in those without (P<0.001), and patients with higher ACLF grades had a lower OS rate (P<0.001). The chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score was identified as a significant prognostic factor in patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–1.50; P<0.001), even in ACLF patients with variceal bleeding (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19–1.46, P<0.001). Concerning the prediction of the mortality risk at 28- and 90-day using CLIF-SOFA scores, c-statistics were 0.895 (95% CI, 0.829–0.962) and 0.897 (95% CI, 0.842–0.951), respectively, and the optimal cut-off values were 6.5 and 6.5, respectively. @*Conclusions@#In cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, the prognosis was poor when accompanied by ACLF, especially depending upon CLIF-SOFA score. CLIF-SOFA model well predicted the 28-day or 90-day mortality for cirrhotic patients who experienced variceal bleeding.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832253

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Suboptimal responses to lamivudine or telbivudine plus adefovir (LAM/LdT+ADV) rescue therapy are common in patients with LAM-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. We compared patients switched to entecavir plus tenofovir (ETV+TDF) to those maintained on LAM/LdT+ADV. @*Methods@#This prospective randomized controlled trial examined 91 patients whose serum HBV DNA levels were greater than 60 IU/mL after at least 24 weeks of treatment with LAM/LdT+ADV for LAM-resistant HBV. Patients were randomized to receive a new treatment (ETV+TDF, n=45) or maintained on the same treatment (LAM/LdT+ADV, n=46) for 48 weeks. Patients with baseline ADV resistance were excluded. @*Results@#Compared to LAM/LdT+ADV group, ETV+TDF group had more patients with a virologic response (42/45 [93.33%] vs. 3/46 [6.52%], P<0.001) and had a greater mean reduction in serum HBV DNA level from baseline (-4.16 vs. -0.37 log10 IU/mL, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that high baseline HBV DNA level (P=0.005) and LAM/LdT+ADV maintenance therapy (P=0.001) were negatively associated with virologic response. At week 48, additional ADV- or ETV-associated mutations were cleared in ETV+TDF group, but such mutations were present in 4.3% of patients in LAM/LdT+ADV group (P=0.106). The two groups had similar rates of adverse events. @*Conclusions@#ETV+TDF combination treatment led to a significantly higher rate of virologic response compared to LAM/LdT+ADV combination treatment in patients with LAM-resistant HBV who had suboptimal responses to LAM/LdT+ADV regardless of HBV genotypic resistance profile (NCT01597934).

7.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 162-167, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765688

ABSTRACT

Although surgical resection is a curative treatment option for solitary hepatocellular carcinoma, high recurrence rate contributes to dismal long-term prognosis after curative resection. Early recurrence within 2 years after surgery is associated with intrahepatic metastasis of primary tumor. Liver regeneration after hepatic resection can accelerate tumorigenesis in remnant liver. Treatment strategies for intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection include salvage transplantation, repeated resection, local ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Here, we report a 51-year-old male who was presented with a single large tumor located at segment 4. The patient was initially treated with surgical resection, but intrahepatic recurrence occurred only 4 months after surgery. He achieved complete remission with repeated TACE and has survived without recurrence for 4 years so far.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Liver , Liver Regeneration , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Entecavir (ETV) is effective and safe antiviral agent against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in clinical and real-world setting but, most studies were performed in single institute or have limitation in patient's number. A large-scale nation-wide real-world surveillance study was carried out to investigate safety, efficacy and clinical effectiveness of ETV in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).@*METHODS@#Between 2006 and 2012, 3,444 patients were enrolled from 132 Korean institutions. For the safety assessment, investigators recorded the occurrence of observed and patient-reported adverse events (AEs), as well as laboratory abnormalities. Efficacy, which consisted of change in HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), was evaluated in patients who had received at least 16 weeks of ETV treatment. Overall clinical effectiveness, based on improvement of ALT, HBV DNA and patient's symptoms, was evaluated by physicians.@*RESULTS@#Of the patients, 3,367 were evaluated for safety and 3,115 for efficacy and clinical effectiveness. Three hundred and eighty AEs were reported in 255 cases (7.57%), and 67 adverse drug reactions in 54 cases (1.6%). Serious AEs (SAE) were 19 events in nine cases (0.27%). Serious adverse drug reactions (SADR) were three events in two cases (0.06%), and unexpected SAE/SADR were three events in two cases (0.06%). Medical history and concomitant medications were factors inf luencing incidence rates of AEs. Overall clinical effectiveness rate was 96.53%, which was clinically assessed as marked improved or improved state.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that ETV was well tolerated and clinically effective in Korean patients with CHB in a real-world nation-wide setting.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been numerous efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with antiviral agents during pregnancy. However, there are limited data regarding the outcomes of pregnant women after delivery. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral agents in preventing MTCT of HBV and maternal long-term outcomes. METHODS: The HBV-infected pregnant women treated with antiviral agents to prevent MTCT were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-one pregnant women who received telbivudine or tenofovir during late pregnancy (28-34 week) were analyzed. Hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb) positivity was tested in 43 infants after 7 months of birth. Eleven mothers were followed >1 year after delivery. RESULTS: The mean HBV DNA titer before antiviral therapy was 8.67 (6.60–9.49) log copies/mL, and the median age at delivery was 32 years (range, 22–40). Eleven patients were treated with tenofovir and 30 with telbivudine. The median duration was 57 days (range, 23–100), and the median HBV DNA titer at birth was 5.06 log copies/mL (range, 2.06–6.50). Antiviral treatments were associated with significant HBV DNA reduction (P 12 months, and an antiviral agent was administered. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatment during late pregnancy effectively reduced MTCT. Long-term follow-up should be required in such cases. In addition, given that maternal biochemical flare occurred in 18% of mothers, re-administration of antiviral agents might be required.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , DNA , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between HBV and CKD is not clear. This study investigated the association between chronic HBV infection and CKD in a nationwide multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 265,086 subjects who underwent health-check examinations in 33 hospitals from January 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cases (n = 10,048), and age- and gender-matched HBsAg negative controls (n = 40,192) were identified. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² or proteinuria as at least grade 2+ of urine protein. RESULTS: HBsAg positive cases showed a significantly higher prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² (3.3%), and proteinuria (18.9%) than that of the controls (2.6%, P < 0.001, and 14.1%, P < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, HBsAg positivity was an independent factor associated with GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² along with age, blood levels of albumin, bilirubin, anemia, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Likewise, HBsAg positivity was an independent factor for proteinuria along with age, male, blood levels of bilirubin, protein, albumin, and HbA1c. A subgroup analysis showed that HBsAg positive men but not women had a significantly increased risk for GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m². CONCLUSION: Chronic HBV infection was significantly associated with a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² and proteinuria (≥ 2+). Therefore, clinical concern about CKD in chronic HBV infected patients, especially in male, is warranted.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Antigens, Surface , Bilirubin , Case-Control Studies , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 419-423, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211161

ABSTRACT

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon but fatal infectious disorder that rapidly destroys connective tissue, causing extensive necrosis, severe sepsis, multiple organ failure, and death. NF is more common in patients with comorbid medical conditions. Most NF is caused by bacteria extending from localized skin infections, or remote bacteremia. Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been isolated from polymicrobial NF, but is rarely causative of monomicrobial NF. In addition, NF attributable to community-onset, extended- spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli has not been described previously. As ESBL-producing E. coli are becoming significant pathogens of community-acquired infections worldwide, we report an exceptional case of community-onset NF attributable to monomicrobial ESBL-producing E. coli in a patient with liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacteria , beta-Lactamases , Community-Acquired Infections , Connective Tissue , Escherichia coli , Fasciitis, Necrotizing , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Multiple Organ Failure , Necrosis , Sepsis , Skin
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165804

ABSTRACT

Hepatogastric fistula following a pyogenic liver abscess is extremely rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported. An 88-year-old female presented with generalized weakness, fever and chills. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 5cm-sized hypodense lesion with internal septa in the left lateral section of the liver. Due to initial suspicion of early liver abscess, she was treated with empirical intravenous antibiotics. Initially, aspiration or drainage of the liver abscess was not performed due to immature lesion characteristics. An ultrasonography-guided percutaneous drainage of the liver abscess was performed 17 days after hospitalization due to a more mature lesion appearance on follow-up imaging. On tubography, contrast media leakage through the fistulous tract was visualized. Surgical management was performed, and she was discharged 2 weeks after surgery.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chills , Contrast Media , Drainage , Female , Fever , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Gastric Fistula , Hand , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 15-21, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310718

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Evaluating a change in the screening rate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical for understanding screening implementation, and whether targeted population groups are receiving proper screening. This study examined recent nationwide changes in HCC screening use among hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected populations after the introduction of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program and predictors of screening adherence.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We analyzed 165 and 276 participants ≥40 years of age who were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive from 2001 (14,936 participants) to 2010-2011 (9159 participants) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, respectively. Demographic data, socioeconomic factors, and HCC screening use were collected by means of self-reported questionnaires.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of HCC screening within the previous 2 years increased significantly from 17.5% in 2001 to 40.3% in 2010-2011 (P < 0.0001). The rate of HCC screening use increased from 2001 to 2010-2011 in all study populations. Subjects who had a higher income status and were aware of their infection were more likely to have undergone recent HCC screening.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study showed a substantial increase in HCC screening in high-risk HBV-infected subjects from 2001 to 2010-2011. However, the HCC screening participation rate remained suboptimal despite the introduction of the nationwide screening program. Efforts should be made to identify high-risk individuals and increase attendance at HCC screening events among high-risk groups.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diagnosis , Virology , Female , Hepatitis B , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Virology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 288-294, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The immunoregulatory molecules programmed death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) are associated with the dysfunction of antiviral effector T-cells, which leads to T-cell exhaustion and persistent viral infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B. Little is known about the role of PD-1 and CTLA-4 in patients with symptomatic acute hepatitis A (AHA). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seven patients with AHA and from six patients with nonviral acute toxic hepatitis (ATH) during the symptomatic and convalescent phases of the respective diseases; five healthy subjects acted as controls. The expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T-cells was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression during the symptomatic phase was significantly higher in the T-cells of AHA patients than in those of ATH patients or healthy controls (PD-1: 18.3% vs 3.7% vs 1.6%, respectively, p<0.05; CTLA-4: 23.5% vs 6.1% vs 5.9%, respectively, p<0.05). The levels of both molecules decreased dramatically during the convalescent phase of AHA, whereas a similar pattern was not seen in ATH. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a viral-protective effect of PD-1 and CTLA-4 as inhibitory molecules that suppress cytotoxic T-cells and thereby prevent the destruction of virus-infected hepatocytes in AHA.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adult , CTLA-4 Antigen/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hepatitis/genetics , Hepatitis A/genetics , Hepatitis A Virus, Human , Humans , Male , Phenotype , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been various reports in the literature regarding the conservative management of pituitary apoplexy, pituitary incidentalomas and Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs). However, to the best of our knowledge, spontaneous involution of cystic sellar mass has rarely been reported. We report 14 cases of cystic sellar masses with spontaneous involution. METHODS: A total of 14 patients with spontaneous regression of cystic sellar masses in our hospital were included. The median age was 35 years (range, 5–67), and 8 patients were male. Clinical symptoms, hormone study and MRI were evaluated for all patients. The initial MRI showed all 14 patients with RCCs. Eight patients were presented with sudden onset of headache, and 1 patient with dizziness. Another patient, a 5-year-old child, was presented with delayed growth. Three patients had no symptoms via regular medical work up. All 14 patients had no visual symptoms. The follow-up period ranged from 5.7 to 42.8 months, with the mean of 17.3 months. RESULTS: The mean initial tumor size was 1.29 cm³ (range, 0.05 to 3.23). After involution, the tumor size decreased to 0.23 cm³ (range, 0 to 0.68) without any treatments. Repeated MRI showed a spontaneous decrease in tumor volume by 78% (range, 34 to 99). The initial MRI showed that the tumor was in contact with the optic chiasm in 7 patients, while compressing on the optic chiasm in 3 patients. Five patients were initially treated with hormone replacement therapy due to hormone abnormality. After the follow-up period, only 2 patients needed a long-term hormone replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: The spontaneous involution of RCCs is not well quantified before. Their incidence has not been well demonstrated, but this phenomenon might be underreported. Conservative management can be a treatment option in some RCCs without visual symptoms, even in those that are large in size and in contact with the optic nerve via imaging study.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Cysts , Child , Child, Preschool , Dizziness , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Optic Chiasm , Optic Nerve , Pituitary Apoplexy , Tumor Burden
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alongside the extent of removal and patients’ survival in the management of brain tumors, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important consideration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change of HRQOL in brain tumor patients before and after surgery and to assess the associated factors that contribute to the change of HRQOL. METHODS: A total of 258 patients who underwent surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the 20-item EORTC QLQ-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) were used to assess HRQOL. Patients were asked to fill out the questionnaires before and 3-6 months after surgery. RESULTS: Global QOL (p<0.001) and emotional function (p<0.018) were significantly improved after surgery. Physical function (p=0.015) was significantly aggravated. Among the symptoms, headache, pain and nausea and vomiting were significantly decreased (p<0.01, p=0.041, p<0.001, respectively), while dyspnea, communication deficit and weakness of the legs were increased (p=0.005, p=0.040, and p=0.014, respectively). Preoperative neurologic deficit (p=0.019) and tumor diameter (p=0.016) were significantly related to the patients who showed aggravation of global QOL after brain tumor surgery. In the aggravated global QOL group, common complaints and concerns included role function, appetite loss, financial difficulty and future uncertainty. CONCLUSION: In brain tumor patients, HRQOL has improved after surgery. Role function, appetite loss, financial difficulty and future uncertainty were important factors for HRQOL in brain tumor patients treated with surgery. Although there is National Health Insurance and Medical Aid program in Korea, financial difficulty and future uncertainty are much more important in influencing QOL than previously thought. The results of this short-term follow up preliminary study suggest that several factors were related to HRQOL, Further research is needed to evaluate the long term change of HRQOL and enhance the global QOL by analyze related factors.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Dyspnea , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Korea , Leg , National Health Programs , Nausea , Neurologic Manifestations , Quality of Life , Uncertainty , Vomiting
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