Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904170

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in the world, but the epidemiological data pertaining to HAP/VAP is limited in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of HAP/VAP in Korea. @*Methods@#This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. In total, 206,372 adult patients, who were hospitalized at one of the 13 participating tertiary hospitals in Korea, were screened for eligibility during the six-month study period. Among them, we included patients who were diagnosed with HAP/VAP based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition for HAP/VAP. @*Results@#Using the IDSA/ATS diagnostic criteria, 526 patients were identified as HAP/VAP patients. Among them, 27.9% were diagnosed at the intensive care unit (ICU). The cohort of patients had a median age of 71.0 (range from 62.0 to 79.0) years. Most of the patients had a high risk of aspiration (63.3%). The pathogen involved was identified in 211 patients (40.1%). Furthermore, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens were isolated in 138 patients; the most common MDR pathogen was Acinetobacter baumannii. During hospitalization, 107 patients with HAP (28.2%) had to be admitted to the ICU for additional care. The hospital mortality rate was 28.1% in the cohort of this study. Among the 378 patients who survived, 54.2% were discharged and sent back home, while 45.8% were transferred to other hospitals or facilities. @*Conclusion@#This study found that the prevalence of HAP/VAP in adult hospitalized patients in Korea was 2.54/1,000 patients. In tertiary hospitals in Korea, patients with HAP/VAP were elderly and had a risk of aspiration, so they were often referred to step-down centers.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896466

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in the world, but the epidemiological data pertaining to HAP/VAP is limited in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of HAP/VAP in Korea. @*Methods@#This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. In total, 206,372 adult patients, who were hospitalized at one of the 13 participating tertiary hospitals in Korea, were screened for eligibility during the six-month study period. Among them, we included patients who were diagnosed with HAP/VAP based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) definition for HAP/VAP. @*Results@#Using the IDSA/ATS diagnostic criteria, 526 patients were identified as HAP/VAP patients. Among them, 27.9% were diagnosed at the intensive care unit (ICU). The cohort of patients had a median age of 71.0 (range from 62.0 to 79.0) years. Most of the patients had a high risk of aspiration (63.3%). The pathogen involved was identified in 211 patients (40.1%). Furthermore, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens were isolated in 138 patients; the most common MDR pathogen was Acinetobacter baumannii. During hospitalization, 107 patients with HAP (28.2%) had to be admitted to the ICU for additional care. The hospital mortality rate was 28.1% in the cohort of this study. Among the 378 patients who survived, 54.2% were discharged and sent back home, while 45.8% were transferred to other hospitals or facilities. @*Conclusion@#This study found that the prevalence of HAP/VAP in adult hospitalized patients in Korea was 2.54/1,000 patients. In tertiary hospitals in Korea, patients with HAP/VAP were elderly and had a risk of aspiration, so they were often referred to step-down centers.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden of disease is important to establish cost-effective treatment strategies and to allocate healthcare resources appropriately. However, little reliable information is available regarding the overall economic burden imposed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Korea. METHODS: This study is a multicenter observational research on the COPD burden in Korea. Total COPD costs were comprised of three categories: direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. For direct medical costs, institutional investigation was performed at 13 medical facilities mainly based on the claims data. For direct non-medical and indirect costs, site-based surveys were administered to the COPD patients during routine visits. Total costs were estimated using the COPD population defined in the recent report. RESULTS: The estimated total costs were approximately 1,245 million US dollar (1,408 billion Korean won). Direct medical costs comprised approximately 20% of the total estimated costs. Of these, formal medical costs held more than 80%. As direct non-medical costs, nursing costs made up the largest percentage (39%) of the total estimated costs. Costs for COPD-related loss of productivity formed four fifths of indirect costs, and accounted for up to 33% of the total costs. CONCLUSION: This study shows for the first time the direct and indirect costs of COPD in Korea. The total costs were enormous, and the costs of nursing and lost productivity comprised approximately 70% of total costs. The results provide insight for an effective allocation of healthcare resources and to inform establishment of strategies to reduce national burden of COPD.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Efficiency , Health Care Costs , Humans , Korea , Nursing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719518

ABSTRACT

Propionibacterium acnes is one of the commensals living on the human skin and glands, implicated mainly in acnes, but seldom in deep infection. Pleural empyema is rarely complicated with closed thoracostomy. We experienced 1 case of empyema caused by P. acnes after pleural biopsy and closed thoracostomy through a percutaneous pigtail catheter. A 79-year-old man was admitted for cough, purulent sputum and shortness of breath. Three weeks ago, closed thoracostomy and pleural biopsy were performed to confirm a diagnosis for his recurrent pleural effusion. He had increased amount of right pleural effusion. Through the pigtail catheter, pleural effusion was removed. Gram-positive rods were observed in Gram stain, but not cultured. By 16S rRNA analysis, P. acnes was confirmed as the pathogen. His empyema was repeatedly treated with antibiotics, fibrolysis and irrigation. Pleural decortication was recommended. We report the first case of empyema with P. acnes in Korea, possibly complicated with closed thoracostomy procedures.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Catheters , Cough , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Empyema , Empyema, Pleural , Gram-Positive Rods , Humans , Korea , Pleural Effusion , Propionibacterium acnes , Propionibacterium , Skin , Sputum , Thoracostomy , Thoracotomy
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158107

ABSTRACT

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies, such as dextrocardia, persistent left superior vena cava (SVC), and pulmonary artery (PA) sling, are rare disorders. These congenital anomalies can occur alone, or coincide with other congenital malformations. In the majority of cases, congenital anomalies are detected early in life by certain signs and symptoms. A 56-year-old man with no previous medical history was admitted due to recurrent wide QRS complex tachycardia with hemodynamic collapse. A chest radiograph showed dextrocardia. After synchronized cardioversion, an electrocardiogram revealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Persistent left SVC, PA sling, and right tracheal bronchus were also detected by a chest computed tomography (CT) scan. He was diagnosed with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) associated with WPW syndrome, and underwent radiofrequency ablation. We reported the first case of situs solitus dextrocardia coexisting with persistent left SVC, PA sling and right tracheal bronchus presented with WPW and PSVT in a middle-aged adult. In patients with a cardiovascular anomaly, clinicians should consider thorough evaluation of possibly combined cardiovascular and airway malformations and cardiac dysrhythmia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Bronchi , Catheter Ablation , Dextrocardia , Electric Countershock , Electrocardiography , Hemodynamics , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery , Radiography, Thoracic , Tachycardia , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Thorax , Vena Cava, Superior , Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. METHODS: We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. RESULTS: Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). CONCLUSION: The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation of M. tuberculosis (MTB) is required in cases of Tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) for confirming diagnosis and successful therapy based on drug sensitivity test. Several studies have focused on predictors of MTB culture positivity in TBPE. However, the clinical role of loculated TBPE as a predictor of MTB cultivation from TBPE remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine possible predictors including loculation of TBPE of MTB culture positivity in TBPE. METHODS: We retrospectively examined associations between clinical, radiological, microbiological, and laboratory characteristics and positive MTB culture from TBPE to determine a potent predictor of culture positivity. RESULTS: From January 2011 to August 2015, 232 patients with TBPE were identified. Of these, 219 were finally analyzed. Among them, 69 (31.5%) were culture positive for MTB in TBPE and 86 (39.3%) had loculated TBPE. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the loculation of TBPE was independently associated with culture positivity for MTB in TBPE (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 40.062; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.355–171.556; p<0.001). In contrast, the lymphocyte percentage of TBPE (adjusted OR, 0.934; 95% CI, 0.899–0.971; p=0.001) was inversely associated with culture positivity for MTB in TBPE. CONCLUSION: In clinical practice, identification of loculation in TBPE is easy, reliable to measure, not uncommon and may be helpful to predict the possibility of positive mycobacterial culture.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes , Odds Ratio , Pleural Effusion , Pleurisy , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199930

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) is a relatively common primary immunodeficiency disease (PI) in adults. The biological significance of IgGSCD in patients with chronic airway diseases is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the clinical features of IgGSCD in this population. This study examined the medical charts from 59 adult patients with IgGSCD who had bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from January 2007 to December 2012. Subjects were classified according to the 10 warning signs developed by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) and divided into two patient groups: group I (n = 17) met ≥ two JMF criteria, whereas group II (n = 42) met none. IgG3 deficiency was the most common subclass deficiency (88.1%), followed by IgG4 (15.3%). The most common infectious complication was pneumonia, followed by recurrent bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. The numbers of infections, hospitalizations, and exacerbations of asthma or COPD per year were significantly higher in group I than in group II (P < 0.001, P = 0.012, and P < 0.001, respectively). The follow-up mean forced expiratory volume (FEV1) level in group I was significantly lower than it was at baseline despite treatment of asthma or COPD (P = 0.036). In conclusion, IgGSCD is an important PI in the subset of patients with chronic airway diseases who had recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections as they presented with exacerbation-prone phenotypes, decline in lung function, and subsequently poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bronchitis , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Lung , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61309

ABSTRACT

Data on the clinical outcomes and role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic cor pulmonale are limited. A total of 69 patients with chronic cor pulmonale, admitted for dyspnea (January 2007 to September 2011) to three university hospitals, were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on echocardiography. The median age was 70.0 yr, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (40.6%) and tuberculosis-destroyed lung (TDL, 27.5%) were the leading causes of chronic cor pulmonale. At the 1-yr follow-up, the mortality rate was 15.9%, and the readmission rate was 53.7%; patients with TDL had higher mortality (31.6% vs. 10.0%; P = 0.059) and readmission rates (78.9% vs. 43.8%; P = 0.009) than those with non-TDL diseases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for admission BNP levels to predict readmission was 0.788 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.673-0.904), and the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off value were 80.6% and 77.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high admission BNP levels were a significant risk factor for subsequent readmission (hazard ratio, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.005-1.094). Additionally, admission BNP levels were well correlated with cardiac troponin I (r = 0.558), and delta BNP also correlated with delta RV systolic pressure (n = 25; r = 0.562). In conclusion, among hospitalized patients with chronic cor pulmonale, admission high BNP levels are a significant risk factor for subsequent readmission. Therefore, more intensive monitoring and treatment are needed in patients with higher BNP levels.


Subject(s)
Aged , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Patient Readmission , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Heart Disease/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 732-738, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A recent study demonstrated that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the study was limited by its method used to detect exertional desaturation. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether exertional desaturation assessed using nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) can predict rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 patients with moderate to very severe COPD who underwent the 6MWT. Exertional desaturation was defined as a nadir SpO2 of or =50 mL. Patients were divided into rapid decliner (n=26) and non-rapid decliner (n=31) groups. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in exertional desaturation was observed between rapid decliners and non-rapid decliners (17 vs. 8, p=0.003). No differences were found between the groups for age, smoking status, BODE index, and FEV1. Multivariate analysis showed that exertional desaturation was a significant independent predictor of rapid decline in patients with COPD (relative risk, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.4; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: This study supports that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid lung function decline in male patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Exercise/physiology , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215485

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) is defined as a pleural effusion that contains at least 10% eosinophils. EPE occurs due to a variety of causes such as blood or air in the pleural space, infection, malignancy, or an autoimmune disease. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) associated with eosinophilic pleural effusion is a rare condition generally characterized by the presence of the signs and symptoms but not fulfilling the existing classification criteria. We report a case involving a 67-year-old man with UCTD and EPE, who has been successfully treated with a single intrapleural corticosteroid injection.


Subject(s)
Aged , Autoimmune Diseases , Connective Tissue Diseases , Connective Tissue , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Humans , Pleural Effusion
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80574

ABSTRACT

Despite documented efficacy and recommendations, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been underutilized. Home-based PR was proposed as an alternative, but there were limited data. The adequate exercise intensity was also a crucial issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of home-based PR with a metronome-guided walking pace on functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD. The subjects participated in a 12-week home-based PR program. Exercise intensity was initially determined by cardiopulmonary exercise test, and was readjusted (the interval of metronome beeps was reset) according to submaximal endurance test. Six-minute walk test, pulmonary function test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were done before and after the 12-week program, and at 6 months after completion of rehabilitation. Thirty-three patients participated in the program. Six-minute walking distance was significantly increased (48.8 m; P = 0.017) and the SGRQ score was also improved (-15; P < 0.001) over the six-month follow-up period after rehabilitation. There were no significant differences in pulmonary function and peak exercise parameters. We developed an effective home-based PR program with a metronome-guided walking pace for COPD patients. This rehabilitation program may improve functional exercise capacity and HRQOL.


Subject(s)
Aged , Exercise , Exercise Test , Female , Home Care Services, Hospital-Based , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Program Evaluation , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Respiratory Function Tests , Treatment Outcome , Walking
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Dental technicians are exposed to methyl methacrylate(MMA) and hard metal dusts while working, and several cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by the exposure have been reported. The authors experienced a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a female dental technician who had 10 years' work experience and report the case with clinical evidence. METHOD: The patient's work, personal, social, and past and present medical histories were investigated based on patient questioning and medical records. Furthermore, the workplace conditions and tools and materials the patient worked with were also evaluated. Next, the pathophysiology and risk factors of pneumonitis were studied, and studies on the relationship between hypersensitivity pneumonitis and a dental technician's exposure to dust were reviewed. Any changes in the clinical course of her disease were noted for evaluation of the work-relatedness of the disease. RESULTS: The patient complained of cough and sputum for 1 year. In addition, while walking up the stairs, the patient was not able to ascend without resting due to dyspnea. She visited our emergency department due to epistaxis, and secondary hypertension was incidentally suspected. Laboratory tests including serologic, electrolyte, and endocrinologic tests and a simple chest radiograph showed no specific findings, but chest computed tomography revealed a centrilobular ground-glass pattern in both lung fields. A transbronchial biopsy was performed, and bronchoalveolar washing fluid was obtained. Among the findings of the laboratory tests, microcalcification, noncaseating granuloma containing foreign body-type giant cells, and metal particles within macrophages were identified histologically. Based on these results, hypersensitivity pneumonitis was diagnosed. The patient stopped working due to admission, and she completely quit her job within 2 months of restarting work due to reappearance of the symptoms. CONCLUSION: In this study, the patient did not have typical radiologic findings, but pathological evaluation of the lung biopsy from the bronchoscope led to the suspicion of pneumonitis. Under the microscope, the sample contained fibrotic changes in the lung, multinucleated giant cells, and particles in macrophages and was diagnosed as dental technician pneumoconiosis by the pathology. Working as a dental technician had directly exposed her to light metal dust and MMA, and her clinical symptoms and radiologic findings subsided after withdrawal from exposure to the workplace. These outcomes led to the diagnosis of hypersensitity pneumonitis due to MMA exposure and strong work-relatedness.


Subject(s)
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic , Biopsy , Bronchoscopes , Cough , Dental Technicians , Diagnosis , Dust , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Epistaxis , Female , Giant Cells , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Granuloma , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypertension , Lung , Macrophages , Medical Records , Pathology , Pneumoconiosis , Pneumonia , Radiography, Thoracic , Risk Factors , Sputum , Thorax , Walking
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 428-432, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117709

ABSTRACT

Caplan's syndrome is characterized by multiple small distinct nodules with progressive massive fibrosis and rheumatic arthritis in pneumoconiosis. Although pleural effusions occur infrequently as an extra-articular manifestation, pleuritis can develop without joint involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We treated an 81-year-old man who had been diagnosed with silicosis with progressive massive fibrosis. He suffered from progressive dyspnea, and chest computed tomography (CT) and echocardiography revealed pleural and pericardial effusions. We speculated that the multiple serositis was related to a rheumatic disorder because the rheumatic factor was elevated in both the pleural and pericardial effusions. After corticosteroid treatment, the serositis improved. We suggest that this case is an atypical pattern of Caplan's syndrome presenting as serositis without arthritis. Rheumatoid serositis should be considered as the cause of pleural or pericardial effusions in patients with pneumoconiosis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Caplan Syndrome , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Fibrosis , Humans , Joints , Pericardial Effusion , Pericarditis , Pleural Effusion , Pleurisy , Pneumoconiosis , Rheumatic Fever , Serositis , Silicosis , Thorax
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147407

ABSTRACT

Lithium is the drug of choice for treating bipolar affective disorders. However, it has a narrow therapeutic index and acute and chronic toxicity can occur in patients with chronic ingestion. Chronic toxicity commonly presents as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or thyroid dysfunction. Neurologic symptoms such as apathy, hyperreflexia, or clonus can also occur in acute toxicity. However, it rarely causes peripheral neuropathy. We experienced a case of lithium-induced peripheral polyneuropathy who had already nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and chronic kidney disease during 25 years of lithium ingestion due to bipolar disorder.


Subject(s)
Apathy , Bipolar Disorder , Diabetes Insipidus , Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic , Eating , Humans , Lithium , Mood Disorders , Neurologic Manifestations , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Reflex, Abnormal , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Thyroid Gland , Upper Extremity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159023

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of patients satisfying the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) minor severity criteria, focusing on their treatment response to empirical antibiotics. In total, 381 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients who did not require mechanical ventilation or vasopressors at admission were enrolled, and 50 (13.1%) satisfied the minor severity criteria (i.e. , minor severe CAP [minor-SCAP]). The rates of new complication events and clinical treatment failure were significantly higher in the minor-SCAP group than in the control group (30.0% vs 2.1%, P or = 3) were significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio, 2.838; 95% confidence interval, 1.216 to 6.626), and for predicting treatment failure the value of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for minor criteria was 0.731, similar to other established scoring methods. The IDSA/ATS minor severity criteria can predict delayed treatment response and clinical treatment failure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183487

ABSTRACT

The frequency of diagnosing bronchiectasis is increasing around the world. Cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited cause of bronchiectasis, but there is increasing recognition of significant numbers of patients with bronchiectasis from various causes. With increasing awareness of bronchiectasis, a significant number of research, concerning the causes and treatments, were published over the past few years. Investigation of the underlying cause of bronchiectasis is the most important key to effective management. The purpose of this report is to review the immunological abnormalities that cause bronchiectasis in those that the cystic fibrosis has been excluded, identify the available evidences of current management, and discuss several controversies in the treatment of this disorder.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , Cystic Fibrosis , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of adult pertussis infections are available in Korea. METHODS: Thirty-one hospitals and the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated to investigate the incidence and clinical characteristics of pertussis infections among adults with a bothersome cough in non-outbreak, ordinary outpatient settings. Nasopharyngeal aspirates or nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture tests. RESULTS: The study enrolled 934 patients between September 2009 and April 2011. Five patients were diagnosed as confirmed cases, satisfying both clinical and laboratory criteria (five positive PCR and one concurrent positive culture). Among 607 patients with cough duration of at least 2 weeks, 504 satisfied the clinical criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (i.e., probable case). The clinical pertussis cases (i.e., both probable and confirmed cases) had a wide age distribution (45.7+/-15.5 years) and cough duration (median, 30 days; interquartile range, 18.0~50.0 days). In addition, sputum, rhinorrhea, and myalgia were less common and dyspnea was more common in the clinical cases, compared to the others (p=0.037, p=0.006, p=0.005, and p=0.030, respectively). CONCLUSION: The positive rate of pertussis infection may be low in non-outbreak, ordinary clinical settings if a PCR-based method is used. However, further prospective, well-designed, multicenter studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Distribution , Cough , Dyspnea , Humans , Incidence , Outpatients , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sputum , Whooping Cough
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110152

ABSTRACT

Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic agent. It is commonly used to treat ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. However, amiodarone has been found to be associated with a variety of adverse effects. Amiodarone causes toxicity to organs such as lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, eye, thyroid gland, skin, and neuromuscular system. Among these side effects, pulmonary toxicity is one of the most serious ones. The prevalence of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is not known precisely, but recent studies have reported that incidence rates range from 1% to 13%. The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary toxicity are age, duration of treatment, cumulative dosage, history of cardiothoracic surgery, and use of high oxygen mixture. Amiodarone use has been rarely related to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is often in association with surgery or pulmonary angiography. We experienced a case of amiodarone-induced ARDS which developed after an increase of amiodarone dosage.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone , Angiography , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Eye , Gastrointestinal Tract , Incidence , Liver , Lung , Oxygen , Prevalence , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Risk Factors , Skin , Thyroid Gland
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181365

ABSTRACT

Although pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease with high mortality and for which there is no cure, current treatment have led to considerable gains in the outcomes of these patients. Oral anticoagulation is proposed for most patients; diuretic treatment and supplemental oxygen are indicated in cases of fluid retention and hypoxemia. High doses of calcium-channel blockers are indicated only in the minority of patients who respond to acute vasoreactivity testing. Nonresponders to acute vaoreactivity testing or who remain in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class III, should be considered candidates for treatment with either an oral phophodiesterase-5 inhibitor or an oral endothelin-receptor antagonist. Continuous intravenous administration of epoprostenol remains the treatment of choice in WHO functional class IV patients. Combination therapy is recommended for patients treated with PAH monotherapy who remain in WHO functional class III. The pharmacologic management of PAH is rapidly evolving as newer therapeutic targets that stabilize or reverse pulmonary vascular disease and as clinical practice pattern shift in favor of earlier diagnosis and aggressive treatment. Questions about preferred first-line therapy and when to institute combination therapies remain. Future drug development targeting other molecular pathways of PAH is essential for definitively improving patient survival. The search for novel treatment continues, with promising new concepts arising from a better understanding of the pathobiology of PAH.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Hypoxia , Epoprostenol , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Oxygen , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Rare Diseases , Retention, Psychology , Vascular Diseases , World Health Organization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL