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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 135-146, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966688

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anxious depression is associated with greater chronicity, higher severity of symptoms, more severe functional impairment, and poor response to drug treatment. However, evidence for first-choice antidepressants in patients with anxious depression is limited. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, and vortioxetine in the acute treatment of anxious depression. @*Methods@#Patients (n = 124) with major depressive disorder and high levels of anxiety were randomly assigned to an escitalopram treatment group (n = 42), desvenlafaxine treatment group (n = 40), or vortioxetine treatment group (n = 42) in a 6-week randomized rater-blinded head-to-head comparative trial. Changes in overall depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), respectively. @*Results@#Patients demonstrated similar baseline-to-endpoint improvement in scores and similar response and remission rates for HAMD and HAMA. Analysis of the individual HAMD items revealed that desvenlafaxine significantly reduced anxiety somatic scores (p= 0.013) and hypochondriasis scores (p = 0.014) compared to escitalopram. With respect to the individual HAMA items, desvenlafaxine treatment showed significantly lower scores for respiratory symptoms (p = 0.013) than escitalopram treatment and cardiovascular symptoms (p = 0.005) than vortioxetine treatment. The treatments were well tolerated, with no significant differences. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicated no significant differences in the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, and vortioxetine in this subtype of patients with anxious depression during the acute phase of treatment.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 147-161, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966687

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although several previous studies have examined the association between late-life depression and blood adipokine levels, a marker of chronic inflammation, no studies have comprehensively considered the effects of metabolic syndrome, which is known to affect blood adipokine levels. This study examined blood adipokine levels in geriatric depression after adjusting for the effects of metabolic syndrome. @*Methods@#Participants were selected from the Ansan Geriatric Study (depression group [n = 76] and control group [n = 76]). Blood concentrations of four adipokines (adiponectin, resistin, neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) were measured using immunoassays. The effects of blood adipokine concentration on the diagnosis of depression were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to adjust for the effects of metabolic syndrome and potential confounding factors. @*Results@#When the effects of metabolic syndrome and potential confounding factors were adjusted, only PAI-1 could explain the diagnosis of depression among all the adipokines. The depression group showed a lower blood PAI-1 level than the control group. Adiponectin, resistin, and NGAL could not explain the diagnosis of depression when the effects of metabolic syndrome and potential confounding factors were adjusted. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests the possibility that the blood PAI-1 levels in clinically pathological late-life depression may show contrasting results to those with subclinical depressive symptoms. Additionally, considering that most previous studies have been conducted with pre-geriatric populations, the study suggests the possibility that geriatric depression may show inflammatory changes with patterns that are different from those of depression in the pre-geriatric population.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 946-950, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002748

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clinical rating scales are essential in psychiatry. The Young Mania Rating Scale is the gold standard for assessing mania. However, increased attention to pediatric bipolar disorder has led to the development of the Child Mania Rating Scale (CMRS), which is a parent-reported rating scale designed to assess mania in children and adolescents. This study aimed to translate the CMRS into Korean and assess the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the CMRS (K-CMRS). @*Methods@#The original English version of the CMRS has been translated into Korean. We enrolled 33 patients with bipolar disorder and 26 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). All participants were evaluated using the translated K-CMRS, Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and ADHD Rating Scale. @*Results@#The Cronbach’s α was 0.907. Correlation analyses between K-CMRS and MDQ scores yielded significant positive correlations (r=0.529, p=0.009). However, the factor analysis was unsuccessful. The total K-CMRS scores of bipolar disorder and ADHD patients were compared. However, the differences were not statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#The K-CMRS showed good internal consistency and reliability. The correlation between the K-CMRS and MDQ scores verifies its validity. The K-CMRS was designed to assess and score manic symptoms in children and adolescents but had difficulties in differentiating between bipolar disorder and ADHD. It is a valuable tool for evaluating the presence and severity of manic symptoms in pediatric patients with bipolar disorder.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 594-598, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000095

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study tried to observe additional benefit of agomelatine (AGO) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in routine practice. @*Methods@#Retrospective chart review (n = 63) was conducted for additional benefit of combination with or switching to AGO in MDD patients without full remission. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB) total scores from baseline to the endpoint. Additional secondary endpoints were also collected. @*Results@#The changes of CGI-CB (Z = −3.073, p = 0.002) and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (Z = −3.483, p < 0.001) total scores were significantly decreased from baseline to the endpoint, respectively. At the endpoint, the remission rate was 22.6% (n = 18) and 28.6% of patient had improvement in CGI-CB total scores at the endpoint.No significant adverse events were observed. @*Conclusion@#This study has shown additional benefit of AGO treatment as combination or switching agent for MDD patients without full remission in routine practice. However, adequately-powered and well-controlled studies are necessary for generalization of the present findings.

5.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977007

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had various effects on mankind, especially children and adolescents.Because children and adolescents spend a lot of time at school, COVID-19 has had a great impact on school mental health. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged COVID-19 on school mental health. @*Methods@#We prepared self-report questionnaires for depression (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI), anxiety (Korean version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children; Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, GAD-7), and post-traumatic stress (Primary Care Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, PC-PTSD) for administering to students aged between 7 and 18 years, recruited by a COVID-19 psychological prevention support group in the Gwangmyeong Mental Health Welfare Center for 2 years, in 2020 and 2021. @*Results@#For children aged 7–12 years, there was no significant difference between the years 2020 and 2021 in the assessment of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. Conversely, for adolescents aged 13–18 years, there was a significant increase in the scale scores (CDI, PC-PTSD, and GAD-7). @*Conclusion@#Prolonged COVID-19 might have had a significant impact on the mental health of adolescents who spent a lot of time at school. When comparing the years 2020 and 2021, middle and high school students were more affected by COVID-19 than elementary school students.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 268-280, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926896

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, vortioxetine, and desvenlafaxine for acute treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with cognitive complaint (CC). @*Methods@#A total of 129 patients with MDD who also complained of CC were randomized evenly to either escitalopram, vortioxetine, or desvenlafaxine group and underwent a multi-center, six-week, rater-blinded, and head-to-head comparative trial. Differences in depressive symptoms following treatment were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Subjective cognitive function and the presence of adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#The three antidepressant treatment groups did not show significant differences in the improvement of depressive symptoms as measured by HAMD and MADRS. Desvenlafaxine treatment was associated with a superior treatment response rate in depressive symptoms compared to vortioxetine or escitalopram treatment. However, no significant differences were found in the remission rate of depressive symptoms. The three antidepressant treatment groups did not show significant differences in the improvement of CC. Adverse profiles of each treatment group were tolerable, with no significant differences. @*Conclusion@#In acute antidepressant treatment for MDD with CC, escitalopram, vortioxetine, and desvenlafaxine presented similar efficacy in relief of depressive symptoms; however, desvenlafaxine was associated with a superior treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm these results by investigating the therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of long-term antidepressant treatment of MDD with CC (Clinical Trial Registry, http://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/en/: KCT0002173).

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e322-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915477

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate traumatic stress and mental health problems associated with the prolonged coronavirus disease pandemic and to determine the differences across different age groups. @*Methods@#A total of 1,151 individuals who visited Gwangmyeong City Mental Health Welfare Center, South Korea, or accessed the website from September 1 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. Mental health problems such as traumatic stress (Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5); depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Children's Depression Inventory); anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children); suicide risk (P4 Screener); and demographic information were evaluated. The participants were divided into three groups based on age group: children and adolescents, adults, and the elderly. @*Results@#The results showed that 24.7%, 20.9%, 16.8%, and 20.5% of the participants were at high-risk for traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide, respectively. The difference in the proportion of high-risk groups by age of all participants was significant for traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide risk. In particular, the percentage of high-risk groups in all areas was the highest in the adult group. Also, in most areas, the ratio of the high-risk groups for children and adolescent group was the lowest, but the suicide risk-related ratio was not (adolescent group: 20.9%, adult group: 25%, elderly group 9.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that there is a need for continued interest in the mental health of the general population even after the initial period of coronavirus disease.Additionally, this study may be helpful when considering the resilience or risk factors of mental health in a prolonged disaster situation.

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 233-242, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897918

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 243-253, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897917

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from residual symptoms without achieving remission. However, pharmacologic options for residual symptoms of MDD have been limited. This study aimed to investigate benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of residual symptoms in the patients with partially remitted MDD. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the 8-week medical records of the patients. The enrolled patients did respond to treatment of antidepressant but were not remitted. The range of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score of the subjects were 8 to 15 points. All patients were currently taking antidepressants when they started aripiprazole. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS).Secondary endpoint measures were HAMD, Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S) scores, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-depression (PDQ-D), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and General Health Questionnaire/Quality of Life-12 (GHQ/QL-12). @*Results@#A total of 134 medical records were analyzed. The changes of CUDOS, HAMD, CGI-S, BAI, PHQ-15, PDQ-D, SDS and GHQ/QL-12 from baseline to the endpoint were −7.93, −3.29, −0.80, −4.02, −2.05, −4.35, −4.77 and −2.82, respectively (all p < 0.001). At the endpoint, the newly remitted subjects rate by HAMD score criteria were approximately 46%. @*Conclusion@#Our preliminary findings have presented the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation for residual symptoms of partially remitted MDD patients in routine practice. This study assures subsequent well-controlled studies of the possibility of generalizing the above promising outcome in the future.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 434-448, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897897

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

11.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 537-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897887

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single traumatic event. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis. @*Results@#Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903217

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

13.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 394-399, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900866

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made ‘untact’ life a new standard (next normal) way of life, minimizing physical contacts among people. Emotional exchanges between people are rapidly being replaced by contact through the Internet, social networks, and over-the-top services.Current Concepts: People are expressing more stress and anxiety that are caused by fear of infection, and also embitterment due to perceived distrust and injustice is increasing. In the era of COVID-19, it is necessary and important to manage burnout, depression, and anxiety symptoms of medical staff and quarantine personnel. The pandemic and the resulting social changes intensifies loneliness, leading to deterioration in mental and physical health. The World Health Organization has warned that loneliness and social isolation are leading to the exacerbation of physical illness and increased mortality due to suicide and other mental health problems.Discussion and Conclusion: It is needed to establish a next standard of mental health service such as untact diagnosis and follow-up support system. Government and society should establish a sustainable system even after the COVID-19 crisis, rather than stopgap measures made with people’s sacrifice as collateral.

14.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 600-609, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914082

ABSTRACT

The mainstay of schizophrenia treatment is pharmacological therapy using various antipsychotics including first- and second-generation antipsychotics which have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic property leading to differential presentation of adverse events (AEs) and treatment effects such as negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms and cormorbid symptoms. Major treatment guidelines suggest the use of antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) as a gold standard in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of APM is inadequate and less potent to achieve symptom remission as well as functional recovery in real practice which has been consistently reported in numerous controlled clinical trials, large practical trials, independent small studies and systematic reviews till today. Therefore antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) regardless of the class of antipsychotics has been also commonly utilized for many reasons in real world practice. However, APP has also crucial pitfalls including increase of total psychotics including antipsychotics, high-doses of antipsychotics used, poor compliance, drug-drug interaction and risks for developing AEs, all of which are paradoxically related to poor clinical outcomes, whereas APP has also substantial advantages in reduction of re-hospitalization, severe psychopathology and targeted control of concurrent symptoms. Given currently limited therapeutic options, it is also important to properly utilize APP in order to maximize its clinical utility and minimize its risk for better treatment outcomes for patients with schizophrenia, based on risk/benefit with full understanding of pharmacological and clinical issues on APP. The present paper intends to address intriguing and important issues in the use of APP in real world practice.

15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895513

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

16.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 394-399, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893162

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made ‘untact’ life a new standard (next normal) way of life, minimizing physical contacts among people. Emotional exchanges between people are rapidly being replaced by contact through the Internet, social networks, and over-the-top services.Current Concepts: People are expressing more stress and anxiety that are caused by fear of infection, and also embitterment due to perceived distrust and injustice is increasing. In the era of COVID-19, it is necessary and important to manage burnout, depression, and anxiety symptoms of medical staff and quarantine personnel. The pandemic and the resulting social changes intensifies loneliness, leading to deterioration in mental and physical health. The World Health Organization has warned that loneliness and social isolation are leading to the exacerbation of physical illness and increased mortality due to suicide and other mental health problems.Discussion and Conclusion: It is needed to establish a next standard of mental health service such as untact diagnosis and follow-up support system. Government and society should establish a sustainable system even after the COVID-19 crisis, rather than stopgap measures made with people’s sacrifice as collateral.

17.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 233-242, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890214

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

18.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 243-253, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890213

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from residual symptoms without achieving remission. However, pharmacologic options for residual symptoms of MDD have been limited. This study aimed to investigate benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of residual symptoms in the patients with partially remitted MDD. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the 8-week medical records of the patients. The enrolled patients did respond to treatment of antidepressant but were not remitted. The range of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score of the subjects were 8 to 15 points. All patients were currently taking antidepressants when they started aripiprazole. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS).Secondary endpoint measures were HAMD, Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S) scores, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-depression (PDQ-D), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and General Health Questionnaire/Quality of Life-12 (GHQ/QL-12). @*Results@#A total of 134 medical records were analyzed. The changes of CUDOS, HAMD, CGI-S, BAI, PHQ-15, PDQ-D, SDS and GHQ/QL-12 from baseline to the endpoint were −7.93, −3.29, −0.80, −4.02, −2.05, −4.35, −4.77 and −2.82, respectively (all p < 0.001). At the endpoint, the newly remitted subjects rate by HAMD score criteria were approximately 46%. @*Conclusion@#Our preliminary findings have presented the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation for residual symptoms of partially remitted MDD patients in routine practice. This study assures subsequent well-controlled studies of the possibility of generalizing the above promising outcome in the future.

19.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 434-448, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890193

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

20.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 537-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890183

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single traumatic event. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis. @*Results@#Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.

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