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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 268-280, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926896

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, vortioxetine, and desvenlafaxine for acute treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with cognitive complaint (CC). @*Methods@#A total of 129 patients with MDD who also complained of CC were randomized evenly to either escitalopram, vortioxetine, or desvenlafaxine group and underwent a multi-center, six-week, rater-blinded, and head-to-head comparative trial. Differences in depressive symptoms following treatment were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Subjective cognitive function and the presence of adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#The three antidepressant treatment groups did not show significant differences in the improvement of depressive symptoms as measured by HAMD and MADRS. Desvenlafaxine treatment was associated with a superior treatment response rate in depressive symptoms compared to vortioxetine or escitalopram treatment. However, no significant differences were found in the remission rate of depressive symptoms. The three antidepressant treatment groups did not show significant differences in the improvement of CC. Adverse profiles of each treatment group were tolerable, with no significant differences. @*Conclusion@#In acute antidepressant treatment for MDD with CC, escitalopram, vortioxetine, and desvenlafaxine presented similar efficacy in relief of depressive symptoms; however, desvenlafaxine was associated with a superior treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm these results by investigating the therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of long-term antidepressant treatment of MDD with CC (Clinical Trial Registry, http://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/en/: KCT0002173).

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890214

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890213

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from residual symptoms without achieving remission. However, pharmacologic options for residual symptoms of MDD have been limited. This study aimed to investigate benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of residual symptoms in the patients with partially remitted MDD. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the 8-week medical records of the patients. The enrolled patients did respond to treatment of antidepressant but were not remitted. The range of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score of the subjects were 8 to 15 points. All patients were currently taking antidepressants when they started aripiprazole. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS).Secondary endpoint measures were HAMD, Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S) scores, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-depression (PDQ-D), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and General Health Questionnaire/Quality of Life-12 (GHQ/QL-12). @*Results@#A total of 134 medical records were analyzed. The changes of CUDOS, HAMD, CGI-S, BAI, PHQ-15, PDQ-D, SDS and GHQ/QL-12 from baseline to the endpoint were −7.93, −3.29, −0.80, −4.02, −2.05, −4.35, −4.77 and −2.82, respectively (all p < 0.001). At the endpoint, the newly remitted subjects rate by HAMD score criteria were approximately 46%. @*Conclusion@#Our preliminary findings have presented the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation for residual symptoms of partially remitted MDD patients in routine practice. This study assures subsequent well-controlled studies of the possibility of generalizing the above promising outcome in the future.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890193

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890183

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single traumatic event. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis. @*Results@#Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893162

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made ‘untact’ life a new standard (next normal) way of life, minimizing physical contacts among people. Emotional exchanges between people are rapidly being replaced by contact through the Internet, social networks, and over-the-top services.Current Concepts: People are expressing more stress and anxiety that are caused by fear of infection, and also embitterment due to perceived distrust and injustice is increasing. In the era of COVID-19, it is necessary and important to manage burnout, depression, and anxiety symptoms of medical staff and quarantine personnel. The pandemic and the resulting social changes intensifies loneliness, leading to deterioration in mental and physical health. The World Health Organization has warned that loneliness and social isolation are leading to the exacerbation of physical illness and increased mortality due to suicide and other mental health problems.Discussion and Conclusion: It is needed to establish a next standard of mental health service such as untact diagnosis and follow-up support system. Government and society should establish a sustainable system even after the COVID-19 crisis, rather than stopgap measures made with people’s sacrifice as collateral.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The genetic background of mood disorders is gradually emerging through the use of large multicenter samples but a detailed phenotyping is complementary in elucidating the role of modulating variants. @*Methods@#In the present paper we focused on the possible modulatory effects of ARC gene variants on two independent mood disorder samples of European (n = 246 bipolar disorder) and Korean (n = 132 bipolar disorder; n = 242 major depressive disorder [MDD]) ancestry. @*Results@#No result survived Bonferroni correction, however we evidenced promising trend toward possible association between ARC gene variants and mood disorder phenotypes. In particular, we evidenced weak correlations of ARC single nucleotide polymorphisms with depressive symptoms severity (evaluated through Hamilton depression rating scale scores) in the MDD Korean (rs7465272) and European (rs11167152) samples. Additionally rs10110456 was found to be related to Family History, while rs7465272 was related to suicide risk in the Korean sample. Finally, rs7465272 was associated with body mass index in the European sample. @*Conclusion@#Overall, ARC gene variants may have a partial role in modulatory effect on treatment efficacy or phenotypes of mood disorders. Further studies, on larger samples may provide a better understanding on the role of ARC gene variants in the symptom severity and treatment outcomes in patients with mood disorders.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) has been used for screening owing to ease of use and brevity.In this study, we developed the Korean version of the PHQ-4 and tested its validity. @*Methods@#One hundred sixteen new adult outpatients at the Department of Psychiatry of the Korea University Ansan Hospital participated in the study. We simultaneously administered other depression/anxiety scales: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. @*Results@#The mean PHQ-4 score was 6.52 (standard deviation = 3.45). Cronbach’s α was 0.792, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of test and 2-week interval retest was 0.827 (p < 0.01). The Pearson correlation coefficients between the PHQ-4 total score and other depression/anxiety scales were all over 0.6. Confirmatory factorial analysis showed acceptable convergent validity and reliability but questionable discriminant validity for some model fit values. @*Conclusion@#The Korean version of the PHQ-4 has sufficient internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity, but its two-factor structure showed incompleteness. However, we suggest that it should be used as a brief screening measure for common psychiatric distress that warrants further detailed assessment, but not to separately assess the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903217

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900866

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made ‘untact’ life a new standard (next normal) way of life, minimizing physical contacts among people. Emotional exchanges between people are rapidly being replaced by contact through the Internet, social networks, and over-the-top services.Current Concepts: People are expressing more stress and anxiety that are caused by fear of infection, and also embitterment due to perceived distrust and injustice is increasing. In the era of COVID-19, it is necessary and important to manage burnout, depression, and anxiety symptoms of medical staff and quarantine personnel. The pandemic and the resulting social changes intensifies loneliness, leading to deterioration in mental and physical health. The World Health Organization has warned that loneliness and social isolation are leading to the exacerbation of physical illness and increased mortality due to suicide and other mental health problems.Discussion and Conclusion: It is needed to establish a next standard of mental health service such as untact diagnosis and follow-up support system. Government and society should establish a sustainable system even after the COVID-19 crisis, rather than stopgap measures made with people’s sacrifice as collateral.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897918

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897917

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from residual symptoms without achieving remission. However, pharmacologic options for residual symptoms of MDD have been limited. This study aimed to investigate benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of residual symptoms in the patients with partially remitted MDD. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the 8-week medical records of the patients. The enrolled patients did respond to treatment of antidepressant but were not remitted. The range of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score of the subjects were 8 to 15 points. All patients were currently taking antidepressants when they started aripiprazole. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS).Secondary endpoint measures were HAMD, Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S) scores, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-depression (PDQ-D), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and General Health Questionnaire/Quality of Life-12 (GHQ/QL-12). @*Results@#A total of 134 medical records were analyzed. The changes of CUDOS, HAMD, CGI-S, BAI, PHQ-15, PDQ-D, SDS and GHQ/QL-12 from baseline to the endpoint were −7.93, −3.29, −0.80, −4.02, −2.05, −4.35, −4.77 and −2.82, respectively (all p < 0.001). At the endpoint, the newly remitted subjects rate by HAMD score criteria were approximately 46%. @*Conclusion@#Our preliminary findings have presented the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation for residual symptoms of partially remitted MDD patients in routine practice. This study assures subsequent well-controlled studies of the possibility of generalizing the above promising outcome in the future.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897897

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897887

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with changes in brain structure and function, especially in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and insula. Survivors of tragic accidents often experience psychological stress and develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), regardless of the diagnosis of PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate electroencephalographic changes according to PTSS in victims of a single traumatic event. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 60 survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred in 2014 from Danwon High School and collected electroencephalographic data through 19 channels twice for each person in 2014 and 2015 (mean 451.88 [standard deviation 25.77] days of follow-up). PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the participants were divided into two groups according to the differences in PCL-C scores between 2014 and 2015. Electroencephalographic data were converted to three-dimensional data to perform low-resolution electrical tomographic analysis. @*Results@#Significant electroencephalographic changes over time were observed. The group of participants with worsened PCL-C score showed an increased change of delta slow waves in Brodmann areas 13 and 44, with the largest difference in the insula region, compared to those with improved PCL-C scores. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggests that the electrophysiological changes in the insula are associated with PTSS changes.

15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895513

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918152

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global medical crisis imposing particular burden on public sector employees. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric distress among public sector workers amid the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#:We conducted a cross-sectional study with 531 public sector workers in Gwangmyung city who completed Korean versions of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean (IES-R-K). @*Results@#:The results revealed more than moderate levels of stress (85.2%), depressive symptoms (22.2%), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (38.8%). PSS total score was significantly correlated with PHQ-9, IES-R-K total scores as well as IES-R-K subscale scores. Total scores on the PSS, PHQ-9, and IES-R-K were all inversely correlated with age. @*Conclusions@#:COVID-19-related workers experience considerable stress and depressive symptoms, with self-rated stress correlating significantly with depression scores. Age may serve as a protective factor against oc-cupational stress and burnout. These findings highlight the need for adequate psychiatric screening and interven-tion for public sector workers.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915477

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate traumatic stress and mental health problems associated with the prolonged coronavirus disease pandemic and to determine the differences across different age groups. @*Methods@#A total of 1,151 individuals who visited Gwangmyeong City Mental Health Welfare Center, South Korea, or accessed the website from September 1 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. Mental health problems such as traumatic stress (Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-5); depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Children's Depression Inventory); anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children); suicide risk (P4 Screener); and demographic information were evaluated. The participants were divided into three groups based on age group: children and adolescents, adults, and the elderly. @*Results@#The results showed that 24.7%, 20.9%, 16.8%, and 20.5% of the participants were at high-risk for traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide, respectively. The difference in the proportion of high-risk groups by age of all participants was significant for traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide risk. In particular, the percentage of high-risk groups in all areas was the highest in the adult group. Also, in most areas, the ratio of the high-risk groups for children and adolescent group was the lowest, but the suicide risk-related ratio was not (adolescent group: 20.9%, adult group: 25%, elderly group 9.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that there is a need for continued interest in the mental health of the general population even after the initial period of coronavirus disease.Additionally, this study may be helpful when considering the resilience or risk factors of mental health in a prolonged disaster situation.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914082

ABSTRACT

The mainstay of schizophrenia treatment is pharmacological therapy using various antipsychotics including first- and second-generation antipsychotics which have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic property leading to differential presentation of adverse events (AEs) and treatment effects such as negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms and cormorbid symptoms. Major treatment guidelines suggest the use of antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) as a gold standard in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of APM is inadequate and less potent to achieve symptom remission as well as functional recovery in real practice which has been consistently reported in numerous controlled clinical trials, large practical trials, independent small studies and systematic reviews till today. Therefore antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) regardless of the class of antipsychotics has been also commonly utilized for many reasons in real world practice. However, APP has also crucial pitfalls including increase of total psychotics including antipsychotics, high-doses of antipsychotics used, poor compliance, drug-drug interaction and risks for developing AEs, all of which are paradoxically related to poor clinical outcomes, whereas APP has also substantial advantages in reduction of re-hospitalization, severe psychopathology and targeted control of concurrent symptoms. Given currently limited therapeutic options, it is also important to properly utilize APP in order to maximize its clinical utility and minimize its risk for better treatment outcomes for patients with schizophrenia, based on risk/benefit with full understanding of pharmacological and clinical issues on APP. The present paper intends to address intriguing and important issues in the use of APP in real world practice.

19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 645-653, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832535

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emotional labor is known to be a risk factor for emotional distress. This study aimed to evaluate specific stressors according to the type of occupation and identify protective and adverse factors. @*Methods@#We recruited 349 workers engaged in emotional labor in a suburban city. They were assessed using scales regarding emotional status, job stress, resilience, and job satisfaction. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to evaluate their emotional state according to their stress level. A mediation model using structural equation modeling was utilized to identify the mediating effects of resilience and workplace satisfaction. @*Results@#The correlation analysis indicated that the level of workplace stress was statistically correlated with depressed mood and anxiety and showed a significant inverse correlation with individuals’ resilience and job satisfaction. According to the regression analysis, in private institution workers, “emotional disharmony and hurt” had a statistically significant negative effect on their emotional state, and in public institution workers, “emotional demands and regulation” were prominent. Resilience partially mediated the relationship between emotional stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms. @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that the causes of stress differed according to the working environment. Preventive strategies such as resilience training and relieving stress on individual factors are needed to promote mental health.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Genetic variations in the gene encoding zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) have been associated with major depression and bipolar disorder. In this work we focused on the potential influence of ZNF804A variations on the risk of developing specific sub-phenotypes as well as the individual response to available treatments. @*Methods@#We used two samples of different ethnic origin: a Korean sample, composed by 242 patients diagnosed with major depression and 132 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 326 healthy controls; an Italian sample composed 151 major depression subjects, 189 bipolar disorder subjects and 38 outpatients diagnosed for a primary anxiety disorder. @*Results@#Our analyses reported an association of rs1344706 with psychotic phenotype in the cross-diagnostic pooled sample (geno p = 4.15 × 10−4, allelic p = 1.06 × 10−4). In the cross-diagnosis Italian sample but not in the Korean one, rs7597593 was involved with depressive symptoms improvement after treatment (geno p = 0.025, allelic p = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The present study evidenced the role of ZNF804A alterations in symptoms improvement after treatment. Both manic and depressive symptoms seem to be modulated by ZNF804A, though the latter was observed in the bipolar pooled sample only. The role of this factor is likely related to synaptic development and maintenance; however, further analyses will be needed to better understand the molecular mechanics involved with ZNF804A.

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