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1.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1534-1544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916860

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To examine the effect of lung volume on the size and volume of pulmonary subsolid nodules (SSNs) measured on CT. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 42 SSNs from 31 patients were included. CT examination was first performed at total lung capacity (TLC), and a section containing the nodule was additionally scanned at tidal volume (TV). The diameter and volume of each SSN, as well as the crosssectional lung area containing the nodule, were measured. The significance of the changes in measurements between TLC and TV within the same individuals was evaluated. @*Results@#The lung area and the diameter and volume of SSNs decreased significantly at TV by 12.7 cm2 , 0.5 mm, and 46.4 mm3 on average, respectively (p < 0.001), compared to those at TLC. Changes in lung area between TV and TLC were positively correlated with the change in SSN diameter (p = 0.027) and volume (p = 0.014). However, after correction (by considering the change in lung area), the changes in SSN diameter (p = 0.124) and volume (p = 0.062) were not significantly different. @*Conclusion@#SSN size and volume can be significantly affected by lung volume during CT scans of the same individuals.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1616-1626, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of hepatic lesions by using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) in a multicenter, off-site evaluation.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated 231 hepatic lesions (114 hepatocellular carcinomas [HCCs], 58 non-HCC malignancies, and 59 benign lesions) confirmed histologically in 217 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent both gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and dynamic CT at one of five tertiary hospitals. Four radiologists at different institutes independently reviewed all MR images first and the CT images 4 weeks later. They evaluated the major and ancillary imaging features and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the LI-RADS v2014. Diagnostic performance was calculated and compared using generalized estimating equations.RESULTS: MRI showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT for diagnosing hepatic malignancies; the pooled sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for categorizing LR-5/5V/M were 59.0% vs. 72.4% (CT vs. MRI; p < 0.001), 83.5% vs. 83.9% (p = 0.906), and 65.3% vs. 75.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. CT and MRI showed comparable capabilities for differentiating between HCC and other malignancies, with pooled accuracies of 79.9% and 82.4% for categorizing LR-M, respectively (p = 0.139).CONCLUSION: Gadoxetate-enhanced MRI showed superior accuracy for categorizing LR-5/5V/M in hepatic malignancies in comparison with dynamic CT. Both modalities had comparable accuracies for distinguishing other malignancies from HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Contrast Media , Information Systems , Liver , Liver Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
Ultrasonography ; : 311-320, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between ultrasonography (US) quality and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2013, 155 patients were diagnosed with liver cancer during regular surveillance by positive US results (US group, n=82) or by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanning as alternative modalities (CT/MRI group, n=73). The quality of the echogenic window, macronodularity of the liver parenchyma, and occurrence of surveillance failure (initial tumor diagnosis beyond the Milan criteria or at Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B or C) were evaluated. Overall survival was compared according to whether surveillance failure occurred. RESULTS: The patients in the CT/MRI group with negative US results had a higher proportion of parenchymal macronodularity on US than those in the US group (79.5% vs. 63.4%, P=0.028). Surveillance failure tended to be more common in the US group than in the CT/MRI group (40.2% vs. 26.0% by the BCLC staging system [P=0.061]). In the US group, surveillance failure occurred more frequently when the echogenic window was inadequate (50.0% vs. 19.4% by the Milan criteria [P=0.046]). Significantly poorer 5-year overall survival was associated with surveillance failure (P≤0.001). CONCLUSION: Parenchymal macronodularity hindered the detection of early-stage tumors during US surveillance. Using an alternative imaging modality may help prevent surveillance failure in patients with macronodular parenchyma on US. Supplemental surveillance strategies than US may also be necessary when the echogenic window is inadequate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diagnosis , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Population Surveillance , Ultrasonography
4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 449-458, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify an imaging predictor for the assessment of early treatment response to yttrium-90 transarterial radioembolization (TARE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using a quantitative assessment of dynamic computed tomography (CT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT was obtained pre- and 4 weeks post-TARE in 44 patients (34 men, 10 women; mean age, 60 years) with HCC. Computer software was developed for measuring the percentage increase in the combined delayed-enhancing area and necrotic area (pD + N) and the percentage increase in the necrotic area (pNI) in the tumor-containing segments pre- and post-TARE. Local progression-free survival (PFS) was compared between patient groups using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: Post-TARE HCC with pD + N ≥ 35.5% showed significantly longer PFS than those with pD + N < 35.5% (p = 0.001). The local tumor progression hazard ratio was 17.3 (p = 0.009) for pD + N < 35.5% versus pD + N ≥ 35.5% groups. HCCs with a high pNI tended to have longer PFS, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: HCCs with a larger pD + N are less likely to develop local progression after TARE.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Disease-Free Survival , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Yttrium Radioisotopes
5.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 57-65, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To suggest a lexicon for liver ultrasonography and to identify radiologic features indicative of benign or malignant lesions on surveillance ultrasonography. METHODS: This retrospective study included 188 nodules (benign, 101; malignant, 87) from 175 at-risk patients identified during surveillance ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma. We created a lexicon for liver ultrasonography by reviewing relevant literature regarding the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lesions. Using this lexicon, two abdominal radiologists determined the presence or absence of each ultrasonographic feature for the included hepatic lesions. Independent factors associated with malignancy and interobserver agreement were determined by logistic regression analysis and kappa statistics, respectively. RESULTS: Larger tumor size (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.183; P<0.001), multinodular confluent morphology (OR, 7.712; 95% CI, 1.053-56.465; P=0.044), thick hypoechoic rim (OR, 5.878; 95% CI, 2.681-12.888; P<0.001), and posterior acoustic enhancement (OR, 3.077; 95% CI, 1.237-7.655; P=0.016) were independently associated with malignant lesions. In a subgroup analysis of lesions <2 cm, none of the ultrasonographic features were significantly associated with malignancy or benignity. Interobserver agreement for morphology was fair (κ=0.36), while those for rim (κ=0.427), echogenicity (κ=0.549), and posterior acoustic enhancement (κ=0.543) were moderate. CONCLUSIONS: For hepatic lesions larger than 2 cm, some ultrasonography (US) features might be suggestive of malignancy. We propose a lexicon that may be useful for surveillance US.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acoustics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
6.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 296-307, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56136

ABSTRACT

Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is a system for interpreting and reporting of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LI-RADS has been developed to address the limitations of prior imaging-based criteria including the lack of established consensus regarding the exact definitions of imaging features, binary categorization (either definite or not definite HCC), and failure to consider non-HCC malignancies. One of the most important goals of LI-RADS is to facilitate clear communication between all the personnel involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC, such as radiologists, hepatologists, surgeons, and pathologists. Therefore, clinicians should also be familiar with LI-RADS. This article reviews the LI-RADS diagnostic algorithm, and the definitions and management implications of LI-RADS categories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Algorithms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Internet , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , User-Computer Interface
7.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 140-145, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the usefulness of magnetization-tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in quantifying cardiac-induced liver motion and deformation in order to predict liver fibrosis. METHODS: This retrospective study included 85 patients who underwent liver MRI including magnetization-tagged sequences from April 2010 to August 2010. Tagged images were acquired in three coronal and three sagittal planes encompassing both the liver and heart. A Gabor filter bank was used to measure the maximum value of displacement (MaxDisp) and the maximum and minimum values of principal strains (MaxP1 and MinP2, respectively). Patients were divided into three groups (no fibrosis, mild-to-moderate fibrosis, and significant fibrosis) based on their aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score. Group comparisons were made using ANOVA tests. RESULTS: The patients were divided into three groups according to APRI scores: no fibrosis (≤0.5; n=41), moderate fibrosis (0.5-1.5; n=23), and significant fibrosis (>1.5; n=21). The values of MaxDisp were 2.9±0.9 (mean±SD), 2.3±0.7, and 2.1±0.6 in the no fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, and significant fibrosis groups, respectively (P<0.001); the corresponding values of MaxP1 were 0.05±0.2, 0.04±0.02, and 0.03±0.01, respectively (P=0.002), while those of MinP2 were -0.07±0.02, -0.05±0.02, and -0.04±0.01, respectively (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Tagged MRI to quantify cardiac-induced liver motion can be easily incorporated in routine liver MRI and may represent a helpful complementary tool in the diagnosis of early liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Blood Platelets/cytology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 279-286, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The goal of this study was to estimate the growth rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify the host factors that significantly affect this rate. METHODS: Patients with early-stage HCC (n=175) who underwent two or more serial dynamic imaging studies without any anticancer treatment at two tertiary care hospitals in Korea were identified. For each patient, the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) of HCC was calculated by comparing tumor volumes between serial imaging studies. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. RESULTS: The median TVDT was 85.7 days, with a range of 11 to 851.2 days. Multiple linear regression revealed that the initial tumor diameter (a tumor factor) and the etiology of chronic liver disease (a host factor) were significantly associated with the TVDT. The TVDT was shorter when the initial tumor diameter was smaller, and was shorter in HCC related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection than in HCC related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (median, 76.8 days vs. 137.2 days; P=0.0234). CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of chronic liver disease is a host factor that may significantly affect the growth rate of early-stage HCC, since HBV-associated HCC grows faster than HCV-associated HCC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Demography , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Linear Models , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Staging , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 746-756, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the dose of contrast agent and the level of energy for dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) arthrography of the shoulder joint and to evaluate the benefits of the optimized imaging protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dual-energy scans with monochromatic spectral imaging mode and conventional single energy scans were performed on a shoulder phantom with 10 concentrations from 0 to 210 mg/mL of iodinated contrast medium at intervals of 15 or 30 mg/mL. Image noise, tissue contrast, and beam hardening artifacts were assessed to determine the optimum dose of contrast agent and the level of monochromatic energy for DECT shoulder arthrography in terms of the lowest image noise and the least beam hardening artifacts while good tissue contrast was maintained. Material decomposition (MD) imaging for bone-iodine differentiation was qualitatively assessed. The optimized protocol was applied and evaluated in 23 patients. RESULTS: The optimal contrast dose and energy level were determined by the phantom study at 60 mg/mL and 72 keV, respectively. This optimized protocol for human study reduced the image noise and the beam-hardening artifacts by 35.9% and 44.5%, respectively. Bone-iodine differentiation by MD imaging was not affected by the iodine concentration or level of energy. CONCLUSION: Dual-energy scan with monochromatic spectral imaging mode results in reduced image noise and beam hardening artifacts.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Analysis of Variance , Artifacts , Contrast Media , Phantoms, Imaging , Shoulder Joint/pathology , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ; : 8-18, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90666

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to find and categorize the various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal metastases that correlate with the type of primary cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images of 30 patients with 169 spinal metastatic lesions from lung cancer (n = 56), breast cancer (n = 29), colorectal cancer (n = 20), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 17), and stomach cancer (n = 47). The size, location, extent of invasion, signal intensity, margin, enhancement pattern, and osteoblastic or osteolytic characteristics of each metastatic tumor were analyzed. RESULTS: The metastatic lesions from HCC were larger than those from the other primary tumors (P < 0.05) except for colorectal cancer (P = 0.268). Well-defined metastatic tumor margins were more frequently seen in lung cancer and breast cancer (P < 0.01). All but HCC showed a tendency to invade the vertebral body rather than the posterior elements (P < 0.02). Colorectal cancer and HCC showed a tendency toward extraosseous invasion without statistical significance. HCC showed a characteristic enhancement pattern of 'worms-in-a-bag'. Rim enhancement with a sclerotic center was only seen in spinal metastases from stomach cancer. CONCLUSION: Despite many overlapping imaging features, spinal metastases of various primary tumors display some characteristic MRI findings that can help identify the primary cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteoblasts , Retrospective Studies , Spine , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 769-775, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209698

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old male patient with liver cirrhosis underwent a CT study for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance, which demonstrated a 1.4-cm hypervascular subcapsular tumor in the liver. On gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, the tumor showed brisk arterial enhancement and persistent hyperenhancement in the portal phase, but hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase. On diffusion-weighted MRI, the tumor showed an apparent diffusion coefficient twofold greater than that of the background liver parenchyma, which suggested that the lesion was benign. The histologic diagnosis was intrahepatic bile duct adenoma with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenoma, Bile Duct/diagnosis , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Gadolinium DTPA , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
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