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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715971

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Little is known about combination of the circulating Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and tumor volume in prognosis of stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients in the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. We conducted this cohort study to evaluate the prognostic values of combining these two factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By Kaplan-Meier, we compare the differences of survival curves between 385 patients with different EBV DNA or tumor volume levels, or with the combination of two biomarkers mentioned above. RESULTS: Gross tumor volume of cervical lymph nodes (GTVnd, p 0 copy/mL, GTVtotal 0 copy/mL, GTVtotal ≥ 30 cm³). When patients in the low-risk group were compared with those in the high-risk group, 3-year PFS (p=0.003), LRFS (p=0.010), and DMFS (p=0.031) rates were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment plasma EBV DNA and tumor volume were both closely correlated with prognosis of stage II NPC patients in the IMRT era. Combination of EBV DNA and tumor volume can refine prognosis and indicate for clinical therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , DNA , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Nasopharynx , Plasma , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Tumor Burden
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The measuring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is an important predictor of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study evaluated the predictive value of pretreatment serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) comparing with EBV DNA in patients with NPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational study of 419 non-metastatic NPC patients, we prospectively evaluated the prognostic effects of pretreatment SAA, CRP, and EBV DNA on survival. The primary end-point was progress-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The median level of SAA and CRP was 4.28 mg/L and 1.88 mg/L, respectively. For the high-SAA group (> 4.28 mg/L) versus the low-SAA (≤ 4.28 mg/L) group and the high-CRP group (> 1.88 mg/L) versus the low-CRP (≤ 1.88 mg/L) group, the 5-year PFS was 64.5% versus 73.1% (p=0.013) and 65.2% versus 73.3% (p=0.064), respectively. EBV DNA detection showed a superior predictive result, the 5-year PFS in the EBV DNA ≥ 1,500 copies/mL group was obviously different than the EBV DNA < 1,500 copies/mL group (62.2% versus 77.8%, p < 0.001). Multifactorial Cox regression analysis confirmed that in the PFS, the independent prognostic factors were including EBV DNA (hazard ratio [HR], 1.788; p=0.009), tumour stage (HR, 1.903; p=0.021), and node stage (HR, 1.498; p=0.049), but the SAA and CRP were not included in the independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The results of SAA and CRP had a certain relationship with the prognosis of NPC, and the prognosis of patients with high level of SAA and CRP were poor. However, the predictive ability of SAA and CRP was lower than that of EBV DNA.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , DNA , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Observational Study , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Serum Amyloid A Protein , Survival Analysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 554-562, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349572

ABSTRACT

Wnt3a, one of Wnt family members, plays key roles in regulating pleiotropic cellular functions, including self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and motility. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Wnt3a promotes or suppresses tumor progression via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway depending on cancer type. In addition, the roles of Wnt3a signaling can be inhibited by multiple proteins or chemicals. Herein, we summarize the latest findings on Wnt3a as an important therapeutic target in cancer.


Subject(s)
Cell Division , Physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Physiology , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Physiology , Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Physiology , Wnt3A Protein , Metabolism , Physiology
4.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 173-175, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320521

ABSTRACT

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Carcinogens, Environmental , Toxicity , China , Humans , Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Smoking
5.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 283-288, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295841

ABSTRACT

The female sex is traditionally considered a favorable prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, no particular study has reported this phenomenon. To explore the prognostic impact of gender on patients with NPC after definitive radiotherapy, we reviewed the clinical data of 2063 consecutive patients treated between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2003 in the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median follow-up for the whole series was 81 months. The female and male patients with early stage disease comprised 49.4% and 28.1% of the patient population, respectively. Both the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates of female patients were significantly higher than those of male patients (OS: 79% vs. 69%, P < 0.001; DSS: 81% vs. 70%, P < 0.001). For patients with locoregionally advanced NPC, the 5-year OS and DSS rates of female vs. male patients were 74% vs. 63% (P < 0.001) and 76% vs. 64%, respectively (P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that gender, age, and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for the 5-year OS and DSS of NPC patients. The favorable prognosis of female patients is not only attributed to the early diagnosis and treatment but might also be attributed to some intrinsic factors of female patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Radiotherapy , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Radiotherapy, High-Energy , Sex Factors , Survival Rate , Young Adult
6.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 604-613, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320545

ABSTRACT

Systemic chemotherapy is the basic palliative treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not known whether locoregional radiotherapy targeting the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes affects the survival of patients with metastatic NPC. Therefore, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the benefits of locoregional radiotherapy. A total of 408 patients with metastatic NPC were included in this study. The mortality risks of the patients undergoing supportive treatment and those undergoing chemotherapy were compared with that of patients undergoing locoregional radiotherapy delivered alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The contributions of independent factors were assessed after adjustment for covariates with significant prognostic associations (P < 0.05). Both locoregional radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy were identified as significant independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS). The mortality risk was similar in the group undergoing locoregional radiotherapy alone and the group undergoing systemic chemotherapy alone [multi-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.9, P = 0.529]; this risk was 60% lower than that of the group undergoing supportive treatment (HR = 0.4, P = 0.004) and 130% higher than that of the group undergoing both systemic chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy (HR = 2.3, P < 0.001). In conclusion, locoregional radiotherapy, particularly when combined with systemic chemotherapy, is associated with improved survival of patients with metastatic NPC.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Bone Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Deoxycytidine , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Radiotherapy , General Surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Radiotherapy , Neoplasm Staging , Paclitaxel , Palliative Care , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229588

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>The extent of lymph nodes (LNs) metastasis is a major determinant for the staging and the most reliable adverse prognostic factor. Primary tumours can induce lymphatics and vasculature reorganisations within sentinel LN before the arrival of cancer cells and these key blood vessels are identified as high endothelial venules (HEV). The alterations of HEV in the presence of cancer, coupled with the increased proliferation rate of the endothelial cells, results in a functional shift of HEV from immune response mediator to blood flow carrier. We aim to evaluate tumour-induced vascularisation in regional LN of cancer patients by studying the morphological and functional alterations of HEV and its correlation to clinico-pathological features.</p><p><b>MATERIALS AND METHODS</b>This multi-centre study with a prospective database identified 65 consecutive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent primary surgical treatment from 2001 to 2005. Immunohistochemical staining for HEV and image analysis were performed and analysed with correlation to the patients' clinico-pathological features.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total number of HEV is significantly associated to disease-free interval when controlling for the group (P = 0.022) as well as combining both groups as one cohort (P = 0.023). There is also a similar association comparing the HEV parameters to overall survival.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our results suggest that HEV possibly plays a key role in the pathogenesis of lymphatic and subsequent distant metastases and may provide the missing link in cancer metastasis. Confirmation of this hypothesis would offer a novel therapeutic approach to preventing metastasis by blocking the remodeling processes of HEV in LN.</p>


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , Biomarkers , Databases, Factual , Endothelial Cells , Physiology , General Surgery , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Diagnosis , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Pathology , Prospective Studies , Venules , Pathology
8.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 121-125, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295892

ABSTRACT

Oncologists and scientists in the field of head and neck cancer exchanged their research findings and clinical experiences in the Sino-USA Symposium on Head and Neck Cancer, which was held January 6-7, 2012 in Guangzhou, China. The symposium was jointly organized by Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). The Guangdong Provincial Anti-Cancer Association and the Chinese Journal of Cancer also helped in organizing the conference. Speakers were from China (SYSUCC, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center) and the United States (MDACC). The presentations covered most kinds of head and neck cancers and included both basic and clinical research progress. In particular, NPC was discussed in depth. The symposium explored the reality that cancer is complex and numerous questions remain to be answered, even though there has already been an enormous effort into research. International exchanges of experience and in-depth cooperation are definitely needed to improve our capability of caring for cancer patients. In this article, we provide highlights of the presentations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Genetics , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , General Surgery , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Genetics , Pathology , Therapeutics , Thyroid Neoplasms , Epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 455-456, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295848

ABSTRACT

Populations in Southern China (Bai-yue) and Borneo (Bidayuh) with high incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer(NPC) share similar mitochondrial DNA signatures, supporting the hypothesis that these two populations may share the same genetic predisposition for NPC, which may have first appeared in a common ancestral reference population before the sea levels rose after the last ice age.


Subject(s)
Borneo , Epidemiology , Carcinoma , China , Epidemiology , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Ethnic Groups , Genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Incidence , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Ethnology , Genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 519-531, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295835

ABSTRACT

A large amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is required for fatty acid synthesis and maintenance of the redox state in cancer cells. Malic enzyme 1(ME1)-dependent NADPH production is one of the three pathways that contribute to the formation of the cytosolic NADPH pool. ME1 is generally considered to be overexpressed in cancer cells to meet the high demand for increased de novo fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we found that glucose induced higher ME1 activity and that repressing ME1 had a profound impact on glucose metabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) cells. High incorporation of glucose and an enhancement of the pentose phosphate pathway were observed in ME1-repressed cells. However, there were no obvious changes in the other two pathways for glucose metabolism: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, NADPH was decreased under low-glucose condition in ME1-repressed cells relative to wild-type cells, whereas no significant difference was observed under high-glucose condition. ME1-repressed cells had significantly decreased tolerance to low-glucose condition. Moreover, NADPH produced by ME1 was not only important for fatty acid synthesis but also essential for maintenance of the intracellular redox state and the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore, diminished migration and invasion were observed in ME1-repressed cells due to a reduced level of Snail protein. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role for ME1 in the production of cytosolic NADPH and maintenance of migratory and invasive abilities of NPC cells.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Survival , Glucose , Metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Malate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , NADP , Metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Pentose Phosphate Pathway , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 505-507, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294495

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the most deadly disease in the United States. In developing countries such as China, cancer is increasingly prevalent as a cause of death. The "war against cancer" that was initially declared in the United States has become a global war that requires an alliance of world-wide cancer researchers. As part of such an effort, the Second Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology was held on May 20-22, 2011, in Guangzhou, China. The symposium was jointly organized by the Guangdong Anti-Cancer Association, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA), the Chinese Journal of Cancer, and the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. More than 1000 cancer researchers attended, including speakers from China, the USA, Finland, England, Japan, and Spain. The presentations covered most cancer types and both basic and clinical research. Recurring themes of the presentations were that cancer is "smart", cancer is complex, and cancer cells communicate actively. Outsmarting cancer is clearly a challenging task that needs multipronged attacks on multiple targets and on the communication systems among cancer cells. Presenters and attendees left the conference with a sense of urgency in the need for more communication among cancer researchers in fighting this disease. In this article, we summarize highlights from a number of presentations. Many of the presenters have published or will publish reviews and research articles in the Chinese Journal of Cancer, which has become an important international forum in disseminating exciting cancer research progress.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Genetic Heterogeneity , Glioblastoma , Genetics , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Radiotherapy , Oncogenes , Ovarian Neoplasms , Genetics , Precision Medicine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 585-589, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294486

ABSTRACT

Serglycin belongs to a family of small proteoglycans with Ser-Gly dipeptide repeats, and it is modified with different types of glycosaminoglycan side chains. Intracellular serglycin affects the retention and secretion of proteases, chemokines, or other cytokines by physically binding to these factors in secretory granules. Extracellular serglycin has been found to be released by several types of human cancer cells, and it is able to promote the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Serglycin can bind to CD44, which is another glycoprotein located in cellular membrane. Serglycin's function of promoting cancer cell metastasis depends on glycosylation of its core protein, which can be achieved by autocrine as well as paracrine secretion mechanisms. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate serglycin signaling mechanisms with the goal of targeting them to prevent cancer cell metastasis.


Subject(s)
Autocrine Communication , Glycosylation , Hematologic Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors , Metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paracrine Communication , Protein Binding , Proteoglycans , Physiology , Bodily Secretions , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins , Physiology , Bodily Secretions
13.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 114-119, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296307

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has remarkable epidemiological features, including regional, racial, and familial aggregations. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of NPC and to propose possible causes for the high incidence patterns in southern China. Since the etiology of NPC is not completely understood, approaches to primary prevention of NPC remain under consideration. This situation highlights the need to conduct secondary prevention, including improving rates of early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment in NPC patients. Since the 1970's, high-risk populations in southern China have been screened extensively for early detection of NPC using anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serum biomarkers. This review summarizes several large screening studies that have been conducted in the high-incidence areas of China. Screening markers, high-risk age range for screening, time intervals for blood re-examination, and the effectiveness of these screening studies will be discussed. Conduction of prospective randomized controlled screening trials in southern China can be expected to maximize the cost-effectiveness of early NPC detection screening.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Genetics , Capsid Proteins , Carcinoma , China , Epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Methods , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Prevalence
14.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 517-526, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292558

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is endemic in Southern China, with Guandong province and Hong Kong reporting some of the highest incidences in the world. The journal Science has called it a "Cantonese cancer". We propose that in fact NPC is a cancer that originated in the Bai Yue ("proto Tai Kadai" or "proto Austronesian" or "proto Zhuang") peoples and was transmitted to the Han Chinese in southern China through intermarriage. However, the work by John Ho raised the profile of NPC, and because of the high incidence of NPC in Hong Kong and Guangzhou, NPC became known as a Cantonese cancer. We searched historical articles, articles cited in PubMed, Google, monographs, books and Internet articles relating to genetics of the peoples with high populations of NPC. The migration history of these various peoples was extensively researched, and where possible, their genetic fingerprint identified to corroborate with historical accounts. Genetic and anthropological evidence suggest there are a lot of similarities between the Bai Yue and the aboriginal peoples of Borneo and Northeast India; between Inuit of Greenland, Austronesian Mayalo Polynesians of Southeast Asia and Polynesians of Oceania, suggesting some common ancestry. Genetic studies also suggest the present Cantonese, Minnans and Hakkas are probably an admixture of northern Han and southern Bai Yue. All these populations have a high incidence of NPC. Very early contact between southern Chinese and peoples of East Africa and Arabia can also account for the intermediate incidence of NPC in these regions.


Subject(s)
Asia, Southeastern , Epidemiology , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Genetics , History , Borneo , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration , History , Ethnic Groups , Genetics , History , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Epidemiology , Ethnology , Genetics , Genetics, Population , Greenland , Epidemiology , History, Ancient , Hong Kong , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , India , Epidemiology , Inuits , Genetics , Male , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Ethnology , Genetics , Mortality , Oceania , Epidemiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 721-728, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296363

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE</b>Early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is difficult due to the insufficient specificity of the conventional examination method. This study was to investigate potential and consistent biomarkers for NPC, particularly for early detection of NPC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A proteomic pattern was identified in a training set (134 NPC patients and 73 control individuals) using the surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization-mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS), and used to screen the test set (44 NPC patients and 25 control individuals) to determine the screening accuracy. To confirm the accuracy, it was used to test another group of 52 NPC patients and 32 healthy individuals at 6 months later.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eight proteomic biomarkers with top-scored peak mass/charge ratios (m/z) of 8605 Da, 5320 Da, 5355 Da, 5380 Da, 5336 Da, 2791 Da, 7154 Da, and 9366 Da were selected as the potential biomarkers of NPC with a sensitivity of 90.9% (40/44) and a specificity of 92.0% (23/25). The performance was better than the current diagnostic method by using the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen IgA antibodies (VCA/IgA). Similar sensitivity (88.5%) and specificity (90.6%) were achieved in another group of 84 samples.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SELDI-MS profiling might be a potential tool to identify patients with NPC, particularly at early clinical stages.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Antigens, Viral , Blood , Biomarkers, Tumor , Blood , Capsid Proteins , Blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Blood , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Proteins , Blood , Proteomics , Methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Methods
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