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2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196442

ABSTRACT

Retiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular neoplasm of intermediate grade, the diagnosis of which can be challenging. We report a case of 35-year-old man with swelling in the postauricular region. He had undergone FNAC which had revealed blood only. Microscopic examination showed narrow, arborizing, vascular channels resembling normal rete testis. Evidence of mitoses or cytological atypia were lacking. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse and strong staining for CD34 along with CD31 positivity. Immunostains for D240 and GLUT1 were negative. A diagnosis of retiform hemangioendothelioma was made. Histologically, it should be distinguished from Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, Dabska tumor, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and angiosarcoma.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196365

ABSTRACT

Conjoined twins are a very rare complication of monozygotic twinning, most common being thoracopagus. Here we report about two cases of thoracopagus male twins illustrating the autopsy details of one case and the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) details of another case. While the first case was misdiagnosed as separate twins on antenatal USG, only to be later confirmed as thoracopagus twins after birth, the antenatal MRI done in the second case helped in accurate detection of thoracopagus twins. Bilateral peripheral cortical cysts with dysplasia was noted in one of the twins of the first case, which has not been reported earlier in conjoint thoracopagii. Early prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is essential for better counselling of parents regarding post natal surgical management or termination of pregnancy. Importance of prenatal MRI for accurate detection of these cases is thereby highlighted.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196330

ABSTRACT

Post chemotherapy Wilms Tumour (PCWT) is a diagnostic conundrum both for the clinician and the pathologist, in view of its morphological similarity with ectopic immature renal tissue (EIRT). However, due to their varying prognoses and different lines of management, it is important to distinguish between the two. Here, we discuss clinical presentation and pathology of a case of PCWT, arising in a horse shoe deformity of the kidney in a 5 year old girl. The discussion focuses on the pathogenesis of Extra Renal Wilms Tumour (ERWT) as well as its distinguishing morphological features and chemotherapy induced changes in Wilms tumour.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196329

ABSTRACT

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign non-neoplastic lesion of the liver usually found in adults. It is uncommon in children, comprising 2-10% of all pediatric liver tumours. In children, it can occur at all ages, with increased frequency between 6-10 years. We present two cases of FNH in childhood- the first being that of a 5-month-old infant, and the second in a 6-year-old boy. The possibility of congenital FNH had been excluded in the first case. The second case posed diagnostic difficulty initially and was wrongly treated for hepatoblastoma by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but later correctly diagnosed to be FNH. Both the children are doing well on follow-up. Paediatric FNH though rare, should be kept in mind while dealing with a hepatic mass. Radiological features can be variable and needle sampling may not be sufficient to reach to a diagnosis. Histological examination with glutamine synthetase immunostaining should be performed in doubtful cases to differentiate FNH from other paediatric liver masses, as management differs.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196291

ABSTRACT

Glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) is an uncommon type of cystic renal disease affecting children. It has both sporadic and familial occurrence and is characterized by cortical microcysts associated with dilatation of Bowman's spaces. In some instances, GCKD is an early manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here, we present three cases of GCKD, two in infants and one in a perinatal postmortem. The first one is a case of GCKD with unilateral involvement, diagnosed on surgical biopsy. GCKD is a morphological expression of several hereditary and nonhereditary disorders that differ vastly in their management and long-term outcome. Hence, accurate morphological diagnosis of this entity is important for prognostication and genetic counseling.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196266

ABSTRACT

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with multiorgan development, is generally restricted to the medium-sized muscular arteries. The varied initial clinical presentations of PAN can lead to a delayed diagnosis. We present the case of a middle-aged male patient who presented with an acute onset right-sided testicular pain as the initial clinical symptom with ischemic changes on ultrasonogram, thereby requiring orchiectomy. This was reported to be a case of tubercular epididymo-orchitis. On review, the biopsy revealed features of necrotizing arteritis as seen in PAN with fibrinoid necrosis and giant cells, thus highlighting the fact that vasculitis due to PAN may have a localized presentation at the time of diagnosis. PAN should be distinguished from other causes of epididymo-orchitis and other vasculitis lesions, the most common being tubercular etiology in the Asian population.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196238

ABSTRACT

Context: Neonatal period is the single most hazardous period of life. The major causes of neonatal death are prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome. We report a series of neonatal autopsies in our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with special emphasis on pulmonary pathology. The spectrum of pathological changes in the lungs and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression was studied in detail with reference to its spatial distribution. Aims: This study aims to analyze the causes of neonatal death with special attention to pulmonary pathology along with associated histopathological changes in lungs. We also evaluated the expression of TTF-1 at different levels of the airway. Materials and Methods: After taking consent and anthropometric measurements, autopsy was performed. Weights of all organs were taken, and histological sections were examined under hematoxylin and eosin stain. TTF-1 immunostaining was done on lung sections. Localization of TTF-1 was evaluated at the intrapulmonary level of terminal bronchioles (TBs), distal bronchioles, and alveoli. Results: We performed a series of 25 autopsies in neonates. In our series, most of the neonates were preterm (64%), had low birth weight (44%), and died within the first 7 days of life (80%). Majority (60%) of the neonates died due to pulmonary causes, followed by septicemia (24%), congenital anomalies (12%), and birth injury (4%). Among the respiratory causes, hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was diagnosed in maximum number of cases (32%), followed by pneumonia (12%) and pulmonary hemorrhage (12%). The TTF-1 expression in TBs, distal airways, and alveoli was significantly reduced or absent in cases of HMD compared to the control group. Conclusions: In this study, we observed that HMD is the most common cause of perinatal death among respiratory disorders, and in this disease, the expression of TTF-1 is significantly reduced in TBs, distal airways, and alveoli compared to the control group.

10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 51(1): 17-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75472

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the role of proliferative marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and microvessel density (MVD) as prognostic markers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to see their relationship with the clinical stage and nuclear grades, we studied 30 cases of RCC for nuclear grading (Fuhrman's nuclear grade), MVD (using anti CD-34 antibody), and PCNA labeling index (using anti-PCNA antibody) over a period of 2.5 years. Staging was assessed by peroperative and radiologic findings. The area of highest MVD within the tumor was selected for microvessel count (MVC) per high-power field (0.1885 mm 2 area). PCNA labeling index was determined by counting percentage of positively stained tumor cell nuclei. PCNA labeling index above 60% was taken as high PCNA index and up to 60% was considered low. There was significant positive correlation between PCNA labeling index with both nuclear grade and clinical stage using Spearman's correlation coefficient. No association was noted between MVC with PCNA, nuclear grade, and clinical stages. Evaluation of proliferative status of RCC is a useful adjunct as a prognostic parameter as it is seen to correlate well with both clinical stage and nuclear grade. In our study, MVD was not seen to correlate with either of these.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD34/analysis , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Cell Nucleus/pathology , Female , Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Prognosis , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics as Topic , Biomarkers, Tumor
12.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2001 Jul; 44(3): 297-300
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75662

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five cases of Ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS), of breast with an associated invasive component were selected for this study. The aim was to identify the percentage of malignant cases having DCIS component, to analyse the distribution of DCIS according to architecture and cytonuclear grading and evaluate the correlation between grade of DCIS with that of associated invasive component. The DCIS component was classified according to traditional architectural classification and Van-Nuys cytonuclear classification. The grading of the invasive component was done according to Nottingham's modification of Bloom-Richardson system. Architecturally 72% of DCIS components were of pure form, 28% were of mixed pattern. According to cytonuclear grading 24% cases had grade-I, 28% grade-II and 48% grade-III DCIS. The invasive component showed 16% cases in grade-III. After correlating the grade of DCIS and invasive component 91% positive correlation was found in grade-III cases followed by 66.6% in grade-I and 57.1% in grade-II cases.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
14.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1997 Aug; 34(4): 354-64
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29029

ABSTRACT

Carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) was extracted and purified from an angiosperm parasite Cuscuta reflexa free from beta-glucosidase and other enzyme activities. The molecular mass and Stokes' radius of the purified enzyme are 144 kDa and 44 A, respectively. The diffusion coefficient and frictional ratio of the enzyme were 5.15 x 10(-7) cm2/sec and 1.27. The SDS-PAGE revealed homotetrameric nature of the enzyme with a subunit molecular mass of 35 +/- 1 kDa. Titration against DTNB and NBS revealed 19 sulfhydryl groups and 8 tryptophan groups, respectively, per mole of the enzyme. A sharp pH optimum at 5.0 was obtained. Cuscuta CMCase activity is unique amongst plant endoglucanases in being stimulated by Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions and by various thiols. Reaction product analysis, mode of enzyme action and substrate specificity test suggest the endo- nature of the purified CMCase. The enzyme showed K(m) value of 26 +/- 1 mg/ml for carboxymethylcellulose (sodium salt).


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida/parasitology , Cellulase , Chemistry, Physical , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Molecular Weight , Chemical Phenomena , Plants/enzymology
16.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1989 Jun; 26(3): 140-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27798

ABSTRACT

Goat liver catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) has been purified to homogeneity using the techniques of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel-filtration through Ultrogel AcA-34 involving two alternating steps of column chromatography. The homogeneity of the purified enzyme was tested by native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The enzyme is a tetramer having a subunit molecular weight of 58,000 +/- 3000, contains six sulfhydryl groups per mole of the enzyme and shows pH optima at pH 6.8 and 7.7. The kinetic data show no cooperativity between the substrate binding sites. Tryptophan, indoleacetic acid, cysteine, formaldehyde and sodium azide inhibit the enzyme non-competitively with Ki values of 4 +/- 1, 2.5 +/- 0.8, 6 +/- 1.5, 0.48 +/- 0.15 and 0.0013 +/- 0.0003 mM, respectively. Sulfhydryl group binding agents as well as thiol reagents inhibit the enzyme activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalase/isolation & purification , Chromatography , Goats , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Liver/enzymology
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