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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-170212


Background and objectives: Epidemiology and transmission of malaria vary within the tribal areas with the variation in topography, forest cover and type of forest. For the control of disease, understanding of the dynamics of transmission in the varied ecological situation is essential. This study was carried out in the two distinct tribal areas- Baiga Chak (thick forested area) of Dindori district and Bichhia block (forest fringe area) of Mandla district, Madhya Prasdesh, India, to understand the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected using hand catch and whole night collections to determine the proportion of vectors, their density and seasonality. Vector incrimination was done by sporozoite ELISA and feeding preferences of vector by gel diffusion method. Active fever surveys were carried out fortnightly to determine the age specific malaria parasite rates among the inhabitants of two areas. Results: Density of Anopheles culicifacies was significantly higher in Bichhia while the density of An. fluviatilis was higher in Baiga Chak. An. culicifacies was incriminated from both the areas while An. fluviatilis was incriminated from Baiga Chak only. Malaria slide positivity rate (SPR) was significantly higher (OR=3.7 95%CI, 3.1-4.4) in Baiga Chak (28.2%) than Bichhia (9.6%). Interpretation & conclusions: The features of malaria transmission in tribal areas differed from those reported in rural or semirural population. Site-specific and region-specific studies are required to develop appropriate intervention measures to control malaria.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-92331


A soldier presented in Jan 2002 with features of proximal myopathy and diplopia. Clinically he had features of myasthenia gravis, which was confirmed by significantly positive neostigmine test, decremental response on electrophysiological study and raised acetylcholine receptor antibody titres. He also tested positive for HIV during evaluation of a cervical lymph node detected incidentally. He responded well to neostigmine and has remained asymptomatic on follow up.

Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Military Personnel , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Neostigmine/therapeutic use
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2001 Dec; 19(4): 287-90
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36834


A 22-year-old male, referred to us as a case of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis was diagnosed as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) after serological and computed tomography confirmation. He was initiated on oral as well as inhaled corticosteroids along with nasal corticosteroid spray for his nasal complaints. One year subsequently, he developed a nasal septal perforation. Biopsy taken from the site did not reveal any granulomatous or atrophic changes and cultures of the biopsy did not yield any organism. The septal defect, repaired surgically by Hazeltine's method healed completely within 6 weeks. There have been anecdotal reports of septal perforation in patients with rhinitis on intranasal corticosteroids but hitherto not in patients with ABPA. A periodic examination of the nasal septum should be undertaken in patients with ABPA and rhinitis on long term inhaled oral and intranasal corticosteroids along with oral corticosteroids.

Administration, Intranasal , Adult , Anti-Allergic Agents/administration & dosage , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/complications , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Nasal Septum/injuries , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/complications
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-86606


OBJECTIVE: To study the change in airway reactivity due to presence of acid in lower esophagus and its reversibility by antacid. METHOD: In this double blind study 12 subjects with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux received acid (N/10 hydrochloric acid) and antacid (mixture of magnesium trisilicate and aluminum hydroxide) perfusion in lower esophagus via a nasogastric tube. The four combinations were antacid-antacid (control), antacid-acid, acid-antacid and acid-acid. Airway reactivity (Histamine PD20) was recorded after each perfusion. RESULTS: Histamine PD20 significantly decreased (airway reactivity increased) (p < 0.05) with all three combinations containing acid as compared to control. No significant difference in airway reactivity was observed if the antacid was given before or after the acid. CONCLUSION: Presence of acid in lower esophagus can increase airway reactivity. This effect lasts longer than the presence of acid in esophagus itself.

Adolescent , Adult , Antacids/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/physiopathology , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Double-Blind Method , Esophagus , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Humans , Hydrochloric Acid/diagnosis , Intubation , Male
Neurol India ; 1999 Mar; 47(1): 8-11
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-121668


31 patients of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosed in the last six years in a large teaching hospital were reviewed. The hospital incidence of 0.85% of total admissions in neurology unit in western India is comparable to the series from other parts of India. The mean age at onset was slightly lower compared to other series. The female preponderence was noted in addition to higher incidence of Devic's syndrome. Visual loss (47%) and motor weakness (27%) were the commonest presenting symptoms. The clinical pattern was more similar to Asian series of MS than the western series. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. 24 out of 25 MRI of Brain and 15 out of 16 MRI of spine were abnormal. CSF immuno-globulins were raised in 80% of patients who underwent CSF study. The data has been compared with other Indian, Asian and Western series.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Female , Humans , India , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed