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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 861-869, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002758

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Individuals with dementia are at a substantially elevated risk for mortality; however, few studies have examined multimorbidity patterns and determined the inter-relationship between these comorbidities in predicting mortality risk. @*Methods@#This is a prospective cohort study. Data from 6,556 patients who were diagnosed with dementia between 1997 and 2012 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. Latent class analysis was performed using 16 common chronic conditions to identify mortality risk among potentially different latent classes. Logistic regression was performed to determine the adjusted association of the determined latent classes with the 5-year mortality rate. @*Results@#With adjustment for age, a three-class model was identified, with 42.7% of participants classified as “low comorbidity class (cluster 1)”, 44.2% as “cardiometabolic multimorbidity class (cluster 2)”, and 13.1% as “FRINGED class (cluster 3, characterized by FRacture, Infection, NasoGastric feeding, and bleEDing over upper gastrointestinal tract).” The incidence of 5-year mortality was 17.6% in cluster 1, 26.7% in cluster 2, and 59.6% in cluster 3. Compared with cluster 1, the odds ratio for mortality was 9.828 (95% confidence interval [CI]=6.708–14.401; p<0.001) in cluster 2 and 1.582 (95% CI=1.281–1.953; p<0.001) in cluster 3. @*Conclusion@#Among patients with dementia, the risk for 5-year mortality was highest in the subpopulation characterized by fracture, urinary and pulmonary infection, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and nasogastric intubation, rather than cancer or cardiometabolic comorbidities. These findings may improve decision-making and advance care planning for patients with dementia.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 10-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966700

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with increased risks of psychiatric sequelae. Depression, anxiety, cognitive impairments, sleep disturbance, and fatigue during and after the acute phase of COVID-19 are prevalent, long-lasting, and exerting negative consequences on well-being and imposing a huge burden on healthcare systems and society. This current review presented timely updates of clinical research findings, particularly focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the neuropsychiatric sequelae, and identified potential key targets for developing effective treatment strategies for long COVID. In addition, we introduced the Formosa Long COVID Multicenter Study (FOCuS), which aims to apply the inflammation theory to the pathogenesis and the psychosocial and nutrition treatments of post-COVID depression and anxiety.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 190-205, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890217

ABSTRACT

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) are evidenced-based treatments for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who fail to respond to standard first-line therapies. However, although various TMS protocols have been proven to be clinically effective, the response rate varies across clinical applications due to the heterogeneity of real-world psychiatric comorbidities, such as generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, or substance use disorder, which are often observed in patients with MDD. Therefore, individualized treatment approaches are important to increase treatment response by assigning a given patient to the most optimal TMS treatment protocol based on his or her individual profile. This literature review summarizes different rTMS or TBS protocols that have been applied in researches investigating MDD patients with certain psychiatric comorbidities and discusses biomarkers that may be used to predict rTMS treatment response. Furthermore, we highlight the need for the validation of neuroimaging and electrophysiological biomarkers associated with rTMS treatment responses. Finally, we discuss on which directions future efforts should focus for developing the personalization of the treatment of depression with rTMS or iTBS.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 190-205, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897921

ABSTRACT

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) are evidenced-based treatments for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who fail to respond to standard first-line therapies. However, although various TMS protocols have been proven to be clinically effective, the response rate varies across clinical applications due to the heterogeneity of real-world psychiatric comorbidities, such as generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, or substance use disorder, which are often observed in patients with MDD. Therefore, individualized treatment approaches are important to increase treatment response by assigning a given patient to the most optimal TMS treatment protocol based on his or her individual profile. This literature review summarizes different rTMS or TBS protocols that have been applied in researches investigating MDD patients with certain psychiatric comorbidities and discusses biomarkers that may be used to predict rTMS treatment response. Furthermore, we highlight the need for the validation of neuroimaging and electrophysiological biomarkers associated with rTMS treatment responses. Finally, we discuss on which directions future efforts should focus for developing the personalization of the treatment of depression with rTMS or iTBS.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 139-144, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#We intended to analyze the credibility judgment in written forensic psychiatric reports of child sexual abuse registered in Southern Taiwan.@*METHODS@#Ninety-six cases of child sexual abuse between August 2010 and October 2017 encountered in two hospitals were analyzed. The results in these reports were categorized into credible and non-credible. We identified the factors that distinguished between the two groups in bivariate analyses using chi-square test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether the factors that significantly correlated in the bivariate analyses were independent predictors of credible judgments.@*RESULTS@#Among 96 cases, 70 (73%) were judged as credible. Consistent testimonies of children (odds ratio=40.82) and multiple abuse events (odds ratio=6.05) were positive variables independently related to the sexual abuse allegations judged as credible.@*CONCLUSION@#The number of allegations judged as credible in this study was slightly higher than that reported in other studies. Our findings about predictors for credible cases are not in line with those reported previously. Due to the differences in resources of the cases and backgrounds of the evaluators among multiple studies, direct comparisons with previous studies must be treated with caution.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 727-732, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia (SZ) has been associated with the inflammatory-related and immunological pathogenesis. This study investigates the aberration of cytokines in patients with SZ. METHODS: Thirty patients with SZ without antipsychotic treatment for at least two weeks participated. We measured the serum levels of fourteen cytokines at hospital admission and after 8-week antipsychotic treatment. Severity was measured by expanded version of 24-items brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS-E). Repeated measure analyses of variance were conducted. RESULTS: The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was significantly decreased after 8-week antipsychotic treatment than those of before antipsychotic treatment (F=12.15, df=1/30, p=0.002). Neural cell adhesion molecule 1/CD56 (NCAM-1/CD56) was significantly decreased (F=6.61, df=1/30, p=0.016) among those with second-generation antipsychotics but not first-generation antipsychotics treatment. The changes of BPRS-E-manic and BPRS-E-anxiety scores correlated with the baseline IL-1ra (r=-0.393), IL-6 (r=-0.407), and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 (r=-0.446). Additionally, the changes of BPRS-E and BPRS-E-negative scores correlated with the changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (r=0.372) and interferon-gamma (r=0.375). CONCLUSION: Our study supports that IL-1ra and NCAM-1/CD56 may be considered as markers of developing SZ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Carrier Proteins , Cytokines , Insulin , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules , Schizophrenia
7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 327-332, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a highly prevalent complex neuropsychiatric syndrome in elderly patients. However, its pathophysiology is currently unknown. Early detection and prevention of POD is important; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the link between preoperative insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in the serum and POD in the Chinese elderly patients. METHODS: One hundred and three patients who were undergoing an orthopedic operation took part in the study. Preoperative serum IGF-1 levels were measured. POD was determined daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and DSM-IV TR. Baseline serum IGF-1 levels were compared between patients who did and did not develop POD. Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relationship between baseline characteristics and serum IGF-1 levels. The relationship between baseline biomarkers and delirium status was investigated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients developed POD. The POD group had lower MMSE scores and higher CCI scores and proportions of acute admission. Preoperative serum IGF-1 levels were correlated with MMSE scores and age (MMSE: r=0.230, p<0.05; age: r=-0.419, p<0.001). Baseline serum IGF-1 levels did not differ between patients who did and did not develop POD, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors, MMSE score, and age. CONCLUSION: No association was found between preoperative IGF-1 levels and POD, suggesting that they are not direct biomarkers of the incidence of POD among the Chinese elderly population. Further research with larger sample sizes is warranted to clarify the relationship.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Asian People , Biomarkers , Delirium , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Incidence , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Logistic Models , Orthopedics , Sample Size
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