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1.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 190-195, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016439

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke (CIS) refers to ischemic necrosis or softening of localized brain tissue caused by cerebral blood circulation disorders, ischemia and hypoxia. The incidence of CIS is the highest among cerebrovascular diseases. Reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients leads to severe loss of neurons and deficits in brain function in stroke patients. Developing treatments for ischemic stroke remains an important challenge in clinical medicine. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of glutathione, and evidence from animal models of ischemic stroke and some clinical studies suggest that NAC can effectively protect the brain from ischemic damage. In this paper, the mechanism of NAC in CIS is described from various aspects, such as anti-oxidation, inhibition of inflammation, protection of cerebral nerve and mitochondrial function, stabilization of arterial plaque and thrombolytic function, aiming to explore the relationship between NAC and CIS in depth from the basic level, and to provide a theoretical basis for the further application of NAC in the prevention and treatment of patients with ischemic stroke.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 600-605, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013144

ABSTRACT

Hepatic steatosis can be observed in chronic liver diseases of different etiologies. The main predisposing factors for hepatic steatosis include chronic viral hepatitis, cholestatic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Simple fatty liver disease is the initial manifestation of hepatic steatosis, followed by steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the development of medical imaging technology, magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) has been widely used in the diagnosis of fatty liver disease (FLD) in clinical practice. MRI-PDFF is gradually becoming the gold standard for the noninvasive diagnosis of FLD due to its high accuracy and good repeatability. This article reviews the clinical application of MRI-PDFF in liver fat quantification and related research advances.

3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(2): 194-201, March-Apr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To compare the dusting efficiency and safety with basketing for treating renal stones ≤ 2 cm during flexible ureteroscopy (fURS). Materials and methods This study included 218 patients with renal stones ≤ 2 cm treated with fURS. Among them, 106 patients underwent dusting, and 112 patients underwent fragmentation with basket extraction. All patients were followed up for 3 months postoperatively. The operating time, lasing time, stone-free rate (SFR) and complication rate were compared. Results The mean stone size in the dusting group was 1.3 cm, whereas 1.4 cm in the basketing group. The mean operative time was significantly lower in the dusting group than in the basketing group (43.1±11.7 minutes VS 60.5±13.4 minutes, P <0.05), but the lasing time was significantly longer for the dusting group than for the basketing group (17.7±3.9 minutes VS 14.1±3.6 minutes, P <0.05). SFR was significantly higher in the basketing group immediately after the operation and follow-up after 1 month (76.8% vs 55.7%, P= 0.001 and 88.4% vs 78.3%, P = 0.045). However, the SFR was similar for both groups (88.8% in the dusting group vs. 90.2% in the basketing group) after 3 months postoperatively. There was no statistical difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Conclusions Dusting has advantages in shortening the operation time and reducing the operation cost, but the lasing time was longer compared with the basketing. Although there is no difference in long-term effect, basketing is superior to dusting in terms of short-term SFR. Moreover, dusting should be avoided in some special cases and basketing a better choice. Both techniques are effective for the treatment of renal stones ≤ 2 cm and choice depends on patient demographic and stone characteristics.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2085-2097, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999152

ABSTRACT

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an enzyme-active pleiotropic cytokine that is expressed in various immune cells and tumor cells. MIF plays diverse roles in inflammation and tumor progression. It acts as a cytokine involved in immune response and inflammatory lesions. Additionally, MIF is closely associated with tumor proliferation, metastasis, and other tumor hallmarks, exerting a multifaceted influence on tumor occurrence and progression. MIF not only functions by being secreted into the extracellular space as a cytokine but can also be localized within the cytoplasm and nucleus, exhibiting diverse biological functions. As MIF in promoting tumor progression becomes increasingly recognized, MIF-based therapeutic strategies have become a hot research topic in oncology. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of MIF with different subcellular localization about their pro-tumoral functions. A better understanding of MIF in tumor biology will bring broader perspectives for the development of novel MIF targeting strategies and give promising direction for future tumor treatments.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2130-2138, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999106

ABSTRACT

Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSAP) belongs to the M1 family of aminopeptidases, characterized by the N-terminal substrate binding sequence GAMEN, the enzyme activity center HEXXH(X)18E motif, and the C-terminal ERAP-1-like superfamily structural domain. Encoded by the gene NPEPPS located at 17q21.32, PSAP consists of 919 amino acids and is widely distributed throughout the human body, with the highest expression in the brain, followed by the heart and skeletal muscle. It is also found in the liver, renal tubular epithelium, small intestine, large intestine epithelium, and gastric epithelial cells. PSAP primarily relies on its aminopeptidase hydrolytic activity to remove toxic protein aggregates such as Tau, poly Q, and Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase 1, making it an important factor in the development of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, and tumors. Existing PSAP inhibitors include bestatin, amastatin, leuhistin, actinonin, and purinomycin, some of which are already available or in clinical trials. This review provides an overview of the structural and biological functions of M1 family aminopeptidases, with a focus on PSAP, to facilitate further research and targeted drug development.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2700-2706, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999029

ABSTRACT

Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium VNP20009 is a widely used natural oncolytic bacterium, which has great application potential given its unique characteristics, including clinical safety, tumor targeting specificity, and explicit genome sequence. Here, we show that tumor progression can be effectively reduced by intraperitoneal administration with VNP20009 in a mouse model of melanoma (all animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the Animal Ethics Committee of China Pharmaceutical University); co-culture experiment in vitro demonstrated that VNP20009 can induce the polarization of macrophage M1, accompanied by expression of inflammation-related factors; flow cytometry analysis showed that VNP20009 induced the increase of immune cell infiltration in tumor. Further analysis showed that T cells infiltration in tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) increased, and VNP20009 induced the activation of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in tumor. Our results demonstrate that VNP20009 treatment significantly inhibited melanoma tumors by remodeling tumor-associated macrophages to an M1-like phenotype, as well as recruiting and activating cytotoxic T cells, combined with its own antigenic activity to exert anti-tumor immunity.

7.
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice ; (12): 654-666, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998277

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo compare the retest reliability and discriminant validity of dynamic postural stability indices for functional ankle instability (FAI) obtained by different algorithms based on acceleration signals at different positions of human body. MethodsFrom April to June, 2021, 21 subjects with unilateral FAI and 21 subjects with normal ankle were recruited. Three inertial sensors were attached to the waist points, knee and ankle positions. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematics data of the subjects in multi-direction single leg landing test were collected synchronously by 3D force plate and inertial sensors. The unbounded third order polynomial (UTOP) fitting method was used to calculate the stability time, and the root mean square was used to caculate the stability index. ResultsMost of the indicators calculated based on acceleration signal correlated with that based on GRF with low coefficient (|r| = 0.116 to 0.368, P < 0.05). The stability time and stability index based on the acceleration signals of different positions of human body showed low to high retest reliability (CMC 0.30 to 0.91). For the females, among the stability time based on acceleration signal, eleven indexes achieved average to very high discriminant validity (AUC = 0.702 to 0.942, P < 0.05); eight of the stability indexes reached general level of discriminant validity (AUC = 0.717 to 0.782, P < 0.05). No algorithms achieved good discriminant effect in male subjects. ConclusionBased on the acceleration signal of waist point in single-leg landing stability test, the stability time calculated by UTOP algorithm can evaluate the dynamic postural stability of female FAI patients with high discriminant validity and medium to high retest reliability.

8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 356-360, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981950

ABSTRACT

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) measures have not been systematically applied in transurethral surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was performed on patients with BPH who required surgical intervention. From July 2019 to June 2020, the ERAS program was applied to 248 patients, and the conventional program was applied to 238 patients. After 1 year of follow-up, the differences between the ERAS group and the conventional group were evaluated. The ERAS group had a shorter time of urinary catheterization compared with the conventional group (mean ± standard deviation [s.d.]: 1.0 ± 0.4 days vs 2.7 ± 0.8 days, P < 0.01), and the pain (mean ± s.d.) was significantly reduced through postoperative hospitalization days (PODs) 0-2 (POD 0: 1.7 ± 0.8 vs 2.4 ± 1.0, P < 0.01; POD 1: 1.6 ± 0.9 vs 3.5 ± 1.3, P < 0.01; POD 2: 1.2 ± 0.7 vs 3.0 ± 1.3, P < 0.01). No statistically significant difference was found in the rate of postoperative complications, such as postoperative bleeding (P = 0.79), urinary retention (P = 0.40), fever (P = 0.55), and readmission (P = 0.71). The hospitalization cost of the ERAS group was similar to that of the conventional group (mean ± s.d.: 16 927.8 ± 5808.1 Chinese Yuan [CNY] vs 17 044.1 ± 5830.7 CNY, P =0.85). The International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) scores in the two groups were also similar when compared at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after discharge. The ERAS program we conducted was safe, repeatable, and efficient. In conclusion, patients undergoing the ERAS program experienced less postoperative stress than those undergoing the conventional program.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Quality of Life , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery
9.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 141-147, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969690

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causative factors of renal function in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients with renal inadequacy. Methods: 181 MM patients with renal impairment from August 2007 to October 2021 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited, whose baseline chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage was 3-5. Statistical analysis was performed based on laboratory tests, treatment regimens, hematological responses, and survival among various renal function efficacy groups. A logistic regression model was employed in multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 181 patients were recruited, and 277 patients with CKD stages 1-2 were chosen as controls. The majority choose the BCD and VRD regimens. The progression-free survival (PFS) (14.0 months vs 24.8 months, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (49.2 months vs 79.7 months, P<0.001) of patients with renal impairment was considerably shorter. Hypercalcemia (P=0.013, OR=5.654) , 1q21 amplification (P=0.018, OR=2.876) , and hematological response over a partial response (P=0.001, OR=4.999) were independent predictive factors for renal function response. After treatment, those with improvement in renal function had a longer PFS than those without (15.6 months vs 10.2 months, P=0.074) , but there was no disparity in OS (56.5 months vs 47.3 months, P=0.665) . Conclusion: Hypercalcemia, 1q21 amplification, and hematologic response were independent predictors of the response of renal function in NDMM patients with renal impairment. MM patients with CKD 3-5 at baseline still have worse survival. Improvement in renal function after treatment is attributed to the improvement in PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Hypercalcemia , Prognosis , Chromosome Aberrations , Kidney/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
10.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 863-868, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993514

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the short-term outcomes of modified reverse Sauvé-Kapandji technique in treating the congenital radioulnar synostosis.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of 46 congenital radioulnar synostosis patients were treated with modified reverse Sauvé-Kapandji technique in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from December 2018 to January 2020, including 38 males (45 sides), 8 females (9 sides), average age 6.6 (3.2, 8.1) years old. All the patients were classified as type III according to Cleary-Omer classification and were followed up for at least 1 year. All the patients were treated with same operation, in which 1.5 cm shaft was resected at the proximal radius, allogeneic graft tendon was used as interposition, and rotational osteotomy was performed in the middle of the ulnar shaft, with intramedullary needle or Kirschner wire fixation, depending on the intramedullary width of ulnar shaft. The radiological features were collected and recorded preoperatively and at the latest follow-up, together with the following evaluation indexes: modified Morrey tasks score, subjective function score, active forearm rotation range without compensation, active forearm rotation range with wrist joint compensation, and active forearm rotation range with wrist and shoulder joint compensation.Results:All patients were followed up for 14.6±3.4 months (range, 11.2-19.5 months). The uncompensated forearm rotation Angle was 0.0°±0.0° before surgery and 62.3°±23.7° after surgery. The forearm rotation angles before and after surgery with wrist compensatory surgery were 86.9°±29.4° and 133.2°±27.9°, respectively. The forearm rotation angles before and after surgery with wrist and shoulder joint compensatory surgery were 205.2°±42.7° and 245.2°±35.8°, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the above indexes before and after surgery ( t=8.71, P<0.001; t=2.54, P=0.030; t=5.05, P<0.001). Ulnar union was observed in 31 patients (37 sides) after the operation, and the union duration was 6.1±2.3 months. There were 15 patients (17 sides) ulnar shafts faced with postoperative delayed union, the union duration was 8.4±1.6 months and were recovered after prolonging brace fixation and orthopedic shock wave treatment. The scores of subjective function and improved Morrey tasks of the 43 sides with good pseudo-joint were 12.1 (0.0, 20.8) and 0.7 (0.0, 1.0) points, respectively, which were improved compared with 33.9 (25.0, 41.6) and 3.2 (2.0, 4.0) points before surgery. The differences were statistically significant ( Z=-2.44, P=0.015; Z=-2.83, P=0.005). There were 11 forearms with postoperative pseudo-joint re-ankylosis, the average forearm rotation ranges without compensation was 11.4°±10.5°(range, 0°-30°), the average forearm rotation ranges with wrist compensation was 98.6°±15.9° (range, 80°-120°), the average forearm rotation ranges with wrist and shoulder compensation was 231.7°±16.9° (range, 210°-255°). The average subjective function scores was 26.7 (8.3, 39.6). The average modified Morrey tasks scores was 1.2 (0, 2), and there were no other postoperative complications. Conclusion:The reverse Sauvé-Kapandji technique showed a satisfying short-term outcome, and can be a new choice of treatment for type III congenital radioulnar synostosis.

11.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E542-E548, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987983

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the short-term variation patterns of graft viscosity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery. Methods Six male New Zealand rabbits were selected. The ACLR animal model of unilateral knee was made with Achilles tendon as the graft. The experimental rabbits were euthanized 15 days after ACLR surgery, with removal of the graft, healthy anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and Achilles tendon. The cross-sectional area and viscosity coefficient of the graft were measured, and the creep experiments were carried out under equilibrium conditions of 0.1 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively. The viscosity coefficent was calculated. Variation patterns of graft viscosity were summarize. The grafts were compared with healthy ACL. Results The cross-sectional area of the graft increased slowly within 15 days after ACLR surgery. The viscosity of ACL and graft changed nonlinearly. The viscosity coefficient was quite different under different stresses. The viscosity coefficient of the graft decreased with the time after ACLR surgery, which was more obviously under the condition of low stress. Conclusions The results are helpful to guide the implementation of early postoperative rehabilitation plan after ACLR surgery .

12.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 581-590, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008105

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of Weidiao-3(WD-3)Mixture on the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy for advanced gastric cancer and the intestinal flora.Methods Fifty-one patients with advanced gastric cancer treated in Wuxi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021 were randomized into a WD-3 group(immunotherapy + WD-3 Mixture,one dose per day)(n=25)and a gastric cancer(GC) group(only immunotherapy)(n=26)according to the admission time.Ten healthy volunteers were included as the healthy control group.The Karnofsky score and the Quality of Life Questionnare-Core score were evaluated before and after treatment,and the clinical efficacy was compared after treatment.After treatment,the stool samples were collected for 16SrRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and targeted metabolomics.The α and β diversity and structure of the intestinal flora and the content of short-chain fatty acids were compared between groups.Results The quality of life in both groups improved after treatment and was better in the WD-3 group than in the GC group(P=0.035).The dry mouth(P=0.038)and altered taste(P=0.008)were mitigated in the WD-3 group after treatment,and the reflux(P=0.001)and dry mouth(P=0.022)were mitigated in the GC group after treatment.After treatment,the WD-3 group outperformed the GC group in terms of dysphagia(P=0.047)and dry mouth(P=0.045).The WD-3 group was superior to the GC group in terms of objective remission rate and disease control rate,with prolonged median progression-free survival and median overall survival(P=0.039,P=0.043).The α and β diversity indexes of the intestinal flora showed no significant differences between WD-3 and GC groups(all P>0.05).At the phylum level,WD-3 and GC groups had lower relative abundance of Firmicutes(P=0.038,P=0.042)and higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria(P=0.016,P=0.015)than the healthy control group.The relative abundance of Actinomycetes in the GC group was lower than that in the healthy control group(P=0.035)and the WD-3 group(P=0.046).At the genus level,the GC group had lower relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and Coprococcus than the healthy control group and the WD-3 group(all P<0.001).LEfSe revealed the differences in the relative abundance of 6 intestinal bacterial taxa between the WD-3 group and the GC group.At the genus level,Saccharopolyspora had higher relative abundance in the WD-3 group than in the healthy control group and only existed in the WD-3 group.The content of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the WD-3 group was higher than that in the healthy control group(P=0.037,P=0.004).Conclusion WD-3 Mixture may increase the relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and Coprococcus and the content of isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid to alter the intestinal microecology,thereby improving the efficacy of immunotherapy for gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Isobutyrates , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 671-681, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is one of the main activators of heart failure. Currently, no drug can completely reverse or inhibit the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. To this end, we proposed a silicate ion therapy based on extract derived from calcium silicate (CS) bioceramics for the treatment of angiotensin II (Ang II) induced cardiac hypertrophy. @*METHODS@#In this study, the Ang II induced cardiac hypertrophy mouse model was established, and the silicate ion extract was injected to mice intravenously. The cardiac function was evaluated by using a high-resolution Vevo 3100 small animal ultrasound imaging system. Wheat germ Agglutinin, Fluo4-AM staining and immunofluorescent staining was conducted to assess the cardiac hypertrophy, intracellular calcium and angiogenesis of heart tissue, respectively. @*RESULTS@#The in vitro results showed that silicate ions could inhibit the cell size of cardiomyocytes, reduce cardiac hypertrophic gene expression, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and b-myosin heavy chain (b-MHC), decrease the content of intracellular calcium induced by Ang II. In vivo experiments in mice confirmed that intravenous injection of silicate ions could remarkably inhibit the cardiac hypertrophy and promote the formation of capillaries, further alleviating Ang II-induced cardiac function disorder. @*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrated that the released silicate ions from CS possessed potential value as a novel therapeutic strategy of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which provided a new insight for clinical trials.

14.
Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia ; : 27-31, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002661

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Sacral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is not an uncommon osteoporosis fracture among the elderly. Aside from traditional treatments, sacroplasty and teriparatide (TPTD) injection have been introduced. This report aims to compare the effects of sacroplasty and teriparatide on clinical outcomes of SIF. @*Methods@#Thirty-one elderly patients with SIF were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Four male patients were excluded. Fourteen patients who received TPTD for 6 months were classified into the TPTD group (TT), and 13 who underwent sacroplasty were classified into the sacroplasty group (SS). All patients in both groups were instructed to take calcium and vitamin D supplements daily. Their symptoms and signs, visual analog score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and radiographic studies were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The TT group showed significantly lower VAS than SS group after 3 (P < 0.001) and 6 months of treatment (P < 0.001). The TT group also has significant lower ODI than SS group after 1 (P = 0.010), 3 (P = 0.005) and 6 months (P < 0.001) of treatment. Upon generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis, the TT group showed significantly more reduction in both VAS and ODI compared to the SS group at 1 month (P = 0.022, P = 0.001), 3 months (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), and 6 months (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) post-treatment. @*Conclusions@#Postmenoposal woman with SIF who received TPTD healed better than those who underwent sacroplasty after 1 month treatment.

15.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 357-367, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015218

ABSTRACT

[Abstract] Objective To investigate the relationship between the Han, Zhuang and the World populations by comparing the frequency of dental non-metric traits. Methods From 2015 to 2019, ten dental non-metric traits were sampled from He’nan, Jiangsu and Guangxi Zhuang Autonmous Region, with sample size of 1785(674 He’ nan, 547 Jiangsu, 388 Guangxi Han, 176 Guangxi Zhuang). Principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling and neighbor network were carried out. Results East Asian populations could be clearly divided into two major groups, Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian. Han and Zhuang populations were close to the Northeast Asian populations, but were far from the Southeast Asian populations. There were also some north-south differences within Han populations. Conclusion Both Sundadonty and Sinodonty are existed in East Asian populations. Han and Zhuang populations dental non-metric traits are closer to the Sinodonty.

16.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 644-651, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015164

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of melatonin ( MLT) on the initiation of puberty in female mice and on the expression level of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases ( PI3K)/protein kinase B ( Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the frypothalamus. Methods Seventy-eight 20-day-old female KM mice were randomly divided into melatonin (MLT) group and normal saline (NS) group, with 39 mice in each group. Starting at 22 days of age, the MLT group was given a subcutaneous injection of 1 mg/kg melatonin and the NS group was given an equal volume of saline. Thirty-two days of age were selected as the sampling point before puberty initiation and 13 mice were executed in each of the two groups, while 37 and 42 days of age were selected as the sampling point after puberty initiation and 13 mice were executed in each of the two groups. Observation of vaginal opening time in mice, weighing of ovaries and uterus to calculate organ indices. HE staining to observe the number of ovarian corpora lutea. The levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH)were determined by ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in frypothalamus were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal saline group, mice in the melatonin group had significantly delayed vaginal opening time ( P < 0. 05 ) , decreased significantly ovarian and uterine volume and index (P<0. 05) , decreased significantly serum LH levels (P<0. 05) , and decreased significantly mRNA and protein expression levels of the frypothalamic PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway (P<0. 05). Conclusion Melatonin delays puberty initiation in mice by a mechanism that ma)' be related to inhibition of the hypothalamic PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway.

17.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 44-48, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959044

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the spatial epidemiological characteristics of mortality and probability of premature death caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among residents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai from 2010 to 2020, and to provide reference for the formulation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevention and control strategies according to local conditions. Methods The death data of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were obtained from the local death surveillance system of Pudong New Area. Crude mortality, age-standardized mortality, and probability of premature death caused by COPD in each subdistricts and towns of Pudong New Area were calculated. The geographical information system (GIS) was used to plot the spatial distribution maps of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease death. The trend surface analysis and the spatial autocorrelation analysis were performed to analyze the spatial distribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease death. Results The crude mortality, age-standardized mortality and probability of premature death caused by COPD among residents in Pudong New Area between 2010 and 2020 were 58.40/100,000, 22.35/100,000, and 0.26%, respectively. The results of trend surface analysis showed that the crude mortality, age-standardized mortality and probability of premature death caused by COPD gradually increased from north to south. In the east-west direction, the crude mortality, age-standardized mortality, and probability of premature death showed an upward trend from west to east. The global autocorrelation analysis suggested that there existed a positive spatial autocorrelation for the crude mortality, age-standardized mortality, and probability of premature death. The local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the high-high clustering areas of COPD crude mortality, standardized mortality and premature mortality were all located in the rural areas of the southeast of Pudong New Area. Conclusion There are urban and rural differences in the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among residents in Pudong New Area from 2010 to 2020. The residents living in rural southeast coast of Pudong New Area are more seriously affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and should be paid more attention.

18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 261-272, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971551

ABSTRACT

The extracellular domain (p75ECD) of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) antagonizes Aβ neurotoxicity and promotes Aβ clearance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impaired shedding of p75ECD is a key pathological process in AD, but its regulatory mechanism is largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the presence and alterations of naturally-occurring autoantibodies against p75ECD (p75ECD-NAbs) in AD patients and their effects on AD pathology. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of p75ECD-NAbs was increased in AD, and negatively associated with the CSF levels of p75ECD. Transgenic AD mice actively immunized with p75ECD showed a lower level of p75ECD and more severe AD pathology in the brain, as well as worse cognitive functions than the control groups, which were immunized with Re-p75ECD (the reverse sequence of p75ECD) and phosphate-buffered saline, respectively. These findings demonstrate the impact of p75ECD-NAbs on p75NTR/p75ECD imbalance, providing a novel insight into the role of autoimmunity and p75NTR in AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Autoantibodies , Mice, Transgenic
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 25-34, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971146

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effects of porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM) on the motility and polarization of bone marrow-derived macrophages in mice, so as to provide evidence for the rational selection of stent in clinical wound repair. Methods: The method of experimental research was used. The microstructure of porcine UBM and absorbable dressing was observed under scanning electron microscope. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to observe the protein distribution of the two stent extracts. The primary macrophages were induced from bone marrow-derived cells isolated from six 6-8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (mouse age, sex, and strain, the same below) and identified. Three batches of macrophages were divided into porcine UBM extract group and absorbable dressing extract group. The cells in each group were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium containing the corresponding extracts. The cell migration rate was detected and calculated on 1, 3, and 7 d after scratching by scratch test. The number of migrated cells at 12 and 24 h of culture was detected by Transwell experiment. The percentages of CD206 and CD86 positive cells at 24 h of culture was detected by flow cytometer. The numbers of sample in the above cell experiments were all 3. An incision was prepared on the left and right back of twelve mice, respectively. The left incision of each mouse was included in porcine UBM group and the right incision was included in absorbable dressing group, and the corresponding stents were implanted into the incisions respectively. On post operation day (POD) 7 and 14, the number of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the stent was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining; the number of F4/80, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) positive cells and type Ⅰ collagen deposition in stents were observed by immunohistochemistry; the percentages of F4/80, CD86, and CD206 positive cells were observed by immunofluorescence staining. The numbers of sample in the above animal experiments were all 6. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for factorial design, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, and independent sample t test. Results: Porcine UBM has a dense basement membrane structure on one side and porous propria containing a fibrous structures on the other. Both sides of the absorbable dressing had three-dimensional porous structure. In the molecular weight range of (50-70)×103, multiple non-type Ⅰ collagen bands appeared in the lanes of porcine UBM extract, while no obvious bands appeared in the lanes of absorbable dressing extract. It had been identified that mouse bone marrow-derived cells had been successfully induced into macrophages. The cell migration rates in porcine UBM extract group were significantly higher than those in absorbable dressing extract group on 1, 3, and 7 d after scratching (with t values of 15.31, 19.76, and 20.58, respectively, P<0.05). The numbers of migrated cells in porcine UBM extract group were significantly more than those in absorbable dressing extract group at 12 and 24 h of culture (with t values of 12.20 and 33.26, respectively, P<0.05). At 24 h of culture, the percentage of CD86 positive cells in porcine UBM extract group ((1.27±0.19)%) was significantly lower than (7.34±0.14)% in absorbable dressing extract group (t=17.03, P<0.05);the percentage of CD206 positive cells in porcine UBM extract group was (73.4±0.7)%, significantly higher than (32.2±0.5)% in absorbable dressing extract group (t=119.10, P<0.05). On POD 7 and 14, the numbers of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the stents in porcine UBM group was significantly more than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 6.58 and 10.70, respectively, P<0.05). On POD 7 and 14, the numbers of F4/80, TGF-β1, VEGF, and MMP-9 positive cells in the stents in porcine UBM group were significantly more than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 46.11, 40.69, 13.90, 14.15, 19.79, 32.93, 12.16, and 13.21, respectively, P<0.05); type Ⅰ collagen deposition in the stents in porcine UBM group was more pronounced than that in absorbable dressing group; the percentages of CD206 positive cells in the stents in porcine UBM group were significantly higher than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 5.05 and 4.13, respectively, P<0.05), while the percentages of CD86 positive cells were significantly lower than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 20.90 and 19.64, respectively, P<0.05), and more M2-type macrophages were seen in the stents in porcine UBM group and more M1-type macrophages were seen in the stents in absorbable dressing group. Conclusions: Porcine UBM can enhance macrophage motility, induce M2 polarization and paracrine function, create a microenvironment containing growth factors such as TGF-β1 and MMP-9 tissue remodeling molecules, and promote tissue regeneration and extracellular matrix remodeling in mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Swine , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Urinary Bladder , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Macrophages , Collagen
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 113-118, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971002

ABSTRACT

Male patients with prolactinomas usually present with typical hyperprolactinemia symptoms, including sexual dysfunction and infertility. However, clinical factors related to sexual dysfunction and surgical outcomes in these patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of male patients with prolactinomas after transsphenoidal surgery and the risk factors affecting sexual dysfunction. This study was conducted on 58 male patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for prolactinomas between May 2014 and December 2020 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. We evaluated the sexual function of patients before and after surgery through International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores, libido, and frequency of morning erection. Of the 58 patients, 48 (82.8%) patients had sexual intercourse preoperatively. Among those 48 patients, 41 (85.4%) patients presented with erectile dysfunction. The preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores in patients with macroprolactinomas were significantly higher than those in patients with giant prolactinomas (17.63 ± 0.91 vs 13.28 ± 1.43; P = 0.01). Postoperatively, the incidence of erectile dysfunction was 47.9%, which was significantly lower than that preoperatively (85.4%; P = 0.01). Twenty-eight (68.3%) patients demonstrated an improvement in erectile dysfunction. Tumor size and invasiveness were significantly correlated with the improvement of erectile dysfunction. Preoperative testosterone <2.3 ng ml-1 was an independent predictor of improvement in erectile dysfunction. In conclusion, our results indicated that tumor size and invasiveness were important factors affecting the improvement of sexual dysfunction in male patients with prolactinoma. The preoperative testosterone level was an independent predictor related to the improvement of erectile dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prolactinoma/surgery , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/complications , Testosterone , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology
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