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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 454-459, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777480


Fifty cultivated Perilla seeds were collected all over the country and planted in Beijing experiment field for morphology and chemical-type researches. Twenty morphological characteristics were selected and observed, and the essential oil from leaves was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS to confirm chemical-types. There were significant diversities in plant height, leaf color and morphology, and fruit color and weight. Clustering analysis was carried out based on these morphological characteristics. Six types were divided with their chemical-type designated. Type Ⅰ: Six germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. crispa, with dwarf plants, thin creased purple leaf, named Crispa, their chemical types were diversified, including EK, PAPK, PA and PK. Type Ⅱ: Six germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. crispa, plants were taller than type I and with thin and creased green leaf, named Big Crispa, all PK type. Type Ⅲ: Seventeen germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with leaf color upside green and underside purple, tall plant and wide distribution all over the China, named Ordinary Frutescens, all PK. Type Ⅳ: Four germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. acuta with tall plant and small seed, named Acuta, all PK. Type Ⅴ: Seven germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with green leaves, tall plants and long clusters, named Long-spike Frutescens, all PK. Type Ⅵ: Ten germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with big, thick and creased leaf, named Thick-leaf Frutescens, including PK, PP, PL and PA. The morphological classification of this paper would lay the foundation for the taxonomic naming and following evaluation of the Perilla germplasm resources.This study also showed that there was no correspondence but a certain correlation between volatile oil chemical-types and subspecies classification and morphological characteristics of Perilla.

China , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1113-1118, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350217


The morphological traits of 55 Chinese Perilla fruit samples (size, 100 grains weight, color, hardness, surface ridge height) are described and the statistically analyzed. It can be divided into 6 categories by cluster analysis, namely: Ⅰ, big grain (diameter 1.5 mm above and 100 grains weight above 0.16 g), low ridge, hard; Ⅱ, big grain, low ridge, soft; Ⅲ, big grain, high ridge, soft, fruit; Ⅳ, big grain. high ridge, gray brown or dark brown; Ⅴ, small grain (diameter 1.5 mm below and 100 grain weight 0.16 g below), low ridge, hard, dark brown; Ⅵ, small grain, low ridge, hard, yellow brown. The 38 fruit samples were planted, among which 31 ones were P. frutescens var. frutescens, 4 ones P. frutescens var. crispa and 3 ones P. frutescens var. acuta. By chemotype classification, they were 29 PK type, 3 PA type, 2 PL type, 2 PP type, 1 EK type and 1 PAPK type. According the description of herb Perillae Fructus in China Pharmacopoeia, the plant originates from P. frutescens var. frutescens. In contrast, not all fruits of P. frutescens var. frutescens have accord features. The fruits with white pericarp are mainly from P. frutescens var. frutescens with purple leaves. The materials with small grain, low ridge, hard, yellow brown or dark brown, are likely to be PA type and mainly P. frutescens var. crispa.

China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 712-718, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275473


This experiment researched on three kinds of Perilla frutescens including the widespread PK, PA and rare PL chemotype. The Perilla samples were the mature leaves collected in nutrition, flowering and frutescence three different phenological periods, and at 7 am, 12 pm and 6 pm three day time. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillationand analyzed by GC-MS, as a result, the three chemotype samples'volatile oil yield was between 0.08% and 0.96%; volatile oil yield of different growth period was as follow: nutrition>flowering>fructescence, and the volatile oil yield of nutrition period: PA type>PK type>PL type. Each chemotype was not affected by the growth and development, indicating that the chemotype is determined by genetic factors. Characteristic and main components of PA and PK type are relatively stable, and the characteristic components of PL type are significantly decreased with the growth. There are still a large number of upstream metabolism components, and the chemical type may have their primitiveness and changeability. The relative content of perillaldehyde, characteristic components of PA type, is basically decreased from morning to night, in all the period. The relative content of perillaketone, characteristic components of PK type, in nutrition and flowering period, when samples were collected at 12 noon is relatively higher than that at 7 am and 6 pm, and contrary to samples collected in frutescence period. The relative content of perillene, characteristic components of PL type, in nutrition and frutescence period are highest at 12 noon, while in flowering period is highest at 6 pm. According to the volatile oil yield and relative content of maincomponents, the best harvest time of PA type is in the morning of the nutrition period; the best harvest time of PK type is in the morning of all the period; and the best harvest time of PL type is at dusk of the nutrition period.

China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1823-1834, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250482


This study, based on the findings for Perilla resources, aimed to describe the species, distribution, importance, features, utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development, but also indicates the overall distribution, selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types, Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses, the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources, seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei, Anhui, Chongqing, Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities, such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study, the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone (0.93%-96.55%), perillaldehyde (0.10%-61.24%), perillene (52.15%), caryophyllene (3.22%-26.67%), and α-farnesene (2.10%-21.54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type, PA-type, PL-type, PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type, with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources, with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type, and export resources are all PA-type. The P. frutescens var. frutescens include five chemotypes, with PK-type as the majority. The PK-type leaves of P. frutescens var. acuta are green, while the PA-type leaves are reddish purple. The P. fruteseens var. crispa was mainly PA type with reddish purple leaves. The differences of the main chemotypes provide a scientific basis for distinguishing between Zisu and Baisu in previous literatures. Based on the lung toxicity of PK and the traditional use of Perilla, the testing standard of essential oil and Perilla herb shall be built, and PA type is recommended to be used in traditional Chinese medicine.