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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928093

ABSTRACT

Suanzaoren Decoction(SZRD) is a classical formula for the clinical treatment of insomnia. This study analyzed the effect of SZRD on endogenous metabolites in insomnia rats based on metabonomics and thereby explored the anti-insomnia mechanism of SZRD. To be specific, DL-4-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA) was used to induce insomnia in rats. Then pathological changes of the liver and brain were observed and biochemical indexes such as 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), dopamine(DA), glutamate(Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA), and norepinephrine(NE) in the hippocampus and prostaglandin D2(PGD2), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-6 in the serum of rats were detected. On this basis, the effect of SZRD on PCPA-induced insomnia rats was preliminarily assessed. The metabolic profile of rat serum samples was further analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were combined with t-test and variable importance in projection(VIP) to identify differential metabolites, and MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was employed for pathway analysis. The results showed that SZRD could improve the pathological changes of brain and liver tissues, increase the levels of neurotransmitters 5-HT, DA, and GABA in hippocampus and the level of PGD2 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis(HPA axis), and reduce the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum of insomnia rats. Metabonomics analysis yielded 12 significantly changed potential metabolites: 5-aminovaleric acid, N-acetylvaline, L-proline, L-glutamate, L-valine, DL-norvaline, D(-)-arginine, pyroglutamic acid, 1-methylguanine, L-isoleucine, 7-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin, and phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester(MEHP), which were related with multiple biochemical processes including metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate, metabolism of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate, metabolism of arginine and proline, arginine biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism. These metabolic changes indicated that SZRD can improve the metabolism in insomnia rats by regulating amino acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Metabolomics/methods , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Rats , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878887

ABSTRACT

In this study, the antioxidant property changes in fermented Ziziphi Spinosae Semen(FZSS) with Poria cocos were analyzed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Then the content determination of active ingredients and ~1H nuclear magnetic resonance(~1H-NMR) spectroscopy were also used to investigate the mechanism of FZSS with P. cocos in enhancing the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the content of active ingredients such as total phenols, total saponins and total polysaccharides were significantly increased during the fermentation time. The results of ~1H-NMR metabonomics showed that the contents of amino acids such as leucine, lysine, valine and alanine, nitrogen compounds such as creatine, creatinine, and betaine, and secondary metabolites, for instance, jujuboside A and spinosin were higher after fermentation, and above components showed positive correlation with antioxidant capacity in Pearson correlation analysis. Therefore, it was inferred that the enhancement of antioxidant activity of FZSS may be the result of the joint action of various chemical components. This study preliminarily clarified the mechanism of FZSS in enhancing the antioxidant activity, and provided new research ideas for the product development and utilization of FZSS.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Poria , Semen , Wolfiporia , Ziziphus
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906387

ABSTRACT

Objective:A comprehensive and in-depth analysis method for identification of chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was employed with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-8 min, 5%-17%B; 8-10 min, 17%B; 10-11 min, 17%-18%B; 11-12 min, 18%-20%B; 12-17 min, 20%-23%B; 17-22 min, 23%-33%B; 22-30 min, 33%-60%B; 30-32 min, 60%-100%B; 32-36 min, 100%B), the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup> and electrospray ionization (ESI). High quality MS/MS data were scanned in positive and negative ion modes with scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500. The local database of the chemical components from different Chinese medicines in Suanzaoren Tang granules was established by SCIEX OS software. Then the chemical components in Suanzaoren Tang granules were characterized by matching with the local database and comparing with the reference substance and literature information. Result:A total of 134 compounds were characterized and identified under positive and negative ion modes, mainly including flavonoids, triterpenoids, phthalides, steroidal saponins, alkaloids and organic phenolic acids. In addition, the sources of Chinese medicines for all compounds identified in Suanzaoren Tang granules were assigned. Among them, 41 were from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, 11 were from Poria, 22 were from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, 28 were from Chuanxiong Rhizoma and 35 were from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Conclusion:The method can be used to identify the chemical constituents in Suanzaoren Tang granules systematically, quickly and accurately, which can provide a new strategy for the rapid and accurate identification of other Chinese patent medicines.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905876

ABSTRACT

Objective:To develop the specific molecular markers of <italic>Codonopsis</italic> plants and better identify their germplasm resources considering the significant difference in active ingredients of Codonopsis Radix from various origins and producing areas. Method:Such bioinformatics software as Primer 5.0, NTSYS-pc 2.10e, and PopGene 32 were used for searching the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of <italic>C. minima </italic>chloroplast genome, <italic>C. tsinlingensis</italic> chloroplast, and <italic>C. lanceolata </italic>mitochondrial sequences, and 120 pairs of SSR primers were designed by Primer 5.0. Then 16 pairs of cpSSR primers and 10 pairs of mtSSR primers with good screening effect and high polymorphism were selected for analyzing the interspecific versatility of 20 samples. Result:The results showed that 66 cpSSR primer sites and 26 mtSSR sites were identified from the genome sequences, with 86.20% of single nucleotide, 6.9% of dinucleotide, and 6.9% of trinucleotide for <italic>C. minima </italic>chloroplast, 83.78% of single nucleotide,13.51% of dinucleotide, and 2.71% of trinucleotide for <italic>C. tsinlingensis</italic> chloroplast, and 46.15% of single nucleotide and 53.85% of dinucleotide for <italic>C. lanceolata </italic>mitochondria. As demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification results, the developed 26 pairs of SSR primers had good applicability in the genus<italic> Codonopsis</italic>. The analysis by NTSYS-pc 2.10e revealed that the genetic similarity coefficients of 20 samples were within the range of 0.38-1.00, and they were divided into two subgroups at a threshold of 0.69. Four pairs of polymorphic primers were screened out in the diversity analysis of 20 samples using PopGene 32. The number of observed alleles (<italic>Na</italic>) was 12, and the effective number of alleles (<italic>Ne</italic>) ranged from 1.362 9 to 2.605 9. The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) at each site was 100%, and the average values of genetic parameters<italic> Ho</italic>, <italic>He</italic>, and <italic>I</italic> at each site were 0.555 8, 0.444 2, and 0.753 2, respectively, indicating high polymorphism at each site. The screened four pairs of primers were utilized for DNA fingerprinting of the 20 samples, and it was found that the DNA fingerprints enabled the identification of these 20 samples. Conclusion:This study has provided a molecular basis for the study of the genetic relationship between plants in species <italic>Codonopsis</italic> and the intraspecific genetic differentiation.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905084

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plant germplasm resources are the foundation of the modern development of traditional Chinese medicine. In-depth study of medicinal plant germplasm resources is a prerequisite for cultivating fine varieties and ensuring the output and standard quality of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Traditional identification methods start with appearance and are greatly affected by natural environment and human factors,with a low efficiency and accuracy of identification are generally low molecularin general. Due to such advantages as easy operation,high sensitivity,accurate results, molecular biology technology has been widely used in the related research of relevant studies for medicinal plant germplasm resources due to its advantages of easy operation,high sensitivity,accurate results,etc. It mainly involving the distinction between wild and cultivated products,researchstudy on substitutes of TCM,identification of Chinese patent medicine,good variety marker breeding,genetic diversity researchstudy,genetic map establishment and omics research,etcstudy. Among them,omics researchstudy is divided into genomics,transcriptomics,metabolomics,and proteomics due toby different analysis purposes. Genomics is divided into three sub-fields namely structural genomics,functional genomics, and comparative genomics. Eukaryotes Because eukaryotes have nuclei and organelles,so omics researchstudy also includes chloroplast genomics,mitochondrial genomics,nuclear genomics,and plastid genomics. Among them,the chloroplast genome has a simple structure,small molecular weight,and good conservation,while the mitochondrial genome has a strong variability and complex structure,the nuclear genome data isfeatures complex, data and the nucleus contains no ribosomes in nucleus,resulting in spatiotemporal differences in the translation process,even if repeated repeatedly test, the result of and the test is alsoresults remained uncertain, even after repeated tests. The molecular biology technology and omics researchstudy involved in theby current medicinal plant researchstudy still hashave shortcomings,and there iswith a large room for development,which needs and need further improvement and supplementation. This articlepaper successively introduces the characteristics and applications of cytology,molecular markers,and omics researchstudy techniques in the identification of medicinal germplasm resources,providingin order to provide a reference for subsequent identification,development and utilization of medicinal plant germplasm resources.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776845

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) has been used for treatment of insomnia in China for centuries. To reveal the influence of insomnia on the levels of the neurotransmitters including serotonin (5-HT), glutamic acid (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA), and to study the role of ZSS aqueous extract in the treatment of insomnia, an UPLC-ESI- MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of five neurotransmitters in the rat brain. The brain samples were pretreated by one-step direct protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The analytes were detected in positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the procedure was completed in less than 10 min. The method showed a good linearity (R > 0.9967) with the other validation parameters were within acceptance range. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT, GABA and DA is significantly lower (P < 0.01) in para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia rat model group, while Glu and NE significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.01). Treatment with ZSS aqueous extract (4 or 8 g·kg·d for seven days) could ameliorate the symptoms of insomnia by significantly changing the levels of the neurotransmitter parameters mentioned above. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that ZSS aqueous extract could ameliorate the symptoms of insomnia by modulating the levels of monoamines and amino acid neurotransmitters in the brain.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851319

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) is the first choice for traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of insomnia. The saponins are the main active ingredient of ZSS. At present, 51 kinds of saponin components have been obtained from ZSS, which are mainly classified into tetracyclic triterpenes and pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins according to the aglycon structure. With the deep research on the saponins from ZSS, it has been found that it has a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as calming, anti-anxiety, anti-depression, anti-tumor, and myocardial protection. In view of the increasingly serious harm to human health caused by nervous system diseases and the important role of ZSS in the prevention and treatment of nervous system diseases, this study focused on systematically summarizing the structural types of ZSS saponins and the pharmacological effects in the nervous system to provide a scientific reference for the development and utilization of ZSS saponins.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851131

ABSTRACT

Objective: 1H-NMR based metabolomic approach has been employed to study the intervention effects of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) on p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia using a rat model. Methods 1H-NMR analysis was used to identify the various compounds of ZSS, and the quantitative data were further processed by principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonality PLS-DA to find potential biomarkers. In addition, MetPA analysis was used for pathway analysis. Results:Multivariate analysis revealed that 11 perturbed endogenous metabolites in the serum could be reversed by ZSS at dosage of 15 g/kg and 30 g/kg, and MetPA analysis revealed that the anti-hypnotic effect of ZSS was probably related with regulation of glutamate and glutamite metabolism, taurine and taurine metabolism, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate metabolism, glyoxylic acid, and dicarboxylic acid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. ZSS at dosage of 15 g/kg and 30 g/kg both can significant callback 11 potential biomarkers. Conclusion: These metabolic changes indicated that ZSS facilitated recovery from insomnia by regulating the amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism, which provides the basis for elucidating therapeutic mechanisms underlying the efficiency of ZSS for insomnia treatment.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851963

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antidiabetic effects between raw and fermented Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD) containing different endogenous metabolites by 1H NMR technology based on metabolomics. Methods The antidiabetic effects were evaluated using high glucose and high fat diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ). The treatment groups were fed with GQD and fermented GQD every day, respectively for 8 weeks.The general condition, body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) of rats were observed. The chemical compositions of serum were assigned by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Using the multivariate statistical analysis as the main data analysis methods, potential biomarkers were screened in the model. Results The body weight of the diabetic rats decreased significantly compared to the normal control group after injection of STZ. In addition, the FBG level was significantly increased in the diabetic rats than that in the normal control group. GQD and fermented GQD all can improve the general condition, body mass, and FBG level of T2DM rats. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the metabolic profile of the normal control group, the model group and drug treatment group was significantly differentiated. In total, 15 potential biomarkers associated with T2DM were identified by OPLS-DA binding univariate analysis. The corresponding S-plot combined with VIP > 1 revealed that the major variations in diabetic rats were the elevation of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), choline, glycine, glycerol, β-glucose, and α-glucose, as well as the decline levels of lactate, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), acetate, glutamate, methionine, glutamine, pyruvate, and creatine. Both raw and fermented GQD displayed antidiabetic effects against STZ-induced diabetes by restoring 15 of biomarkers. Conclusion Detailed analysis of the altered metabolite levels indicated that raw and fermented GQD significantly ameliorated the disturbance in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism in the therapeutic process of T2DM, while no significant difference was observed between them. The results of this study provide experimental data and theoretical basis for the clinical application of GQD fermentation from the perspective of metabolomics.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335878

ABSTRACT

This work was launched to explore the effect of habitat and growth year on the secondary metabolites contents of cultivated Polygala tenuifolia. The samples of cultivated P. tenuifolia were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(Q-TOF MS), and the obtained data were analyzed using multiple statistical analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that compared with growth year, habitat is a main influencing factor which affected the secondary metabolites contents of P. tenuifolia. The contents of sucrose esters and oligosacchride multi-esters are greatly dependent on the habitat (the sample-AG with high levels of components of tenuifoliside B and tenuifoliside C, and the sample-FY with high levels of 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, tenuifoliose S, tenuifoliose L, and tenuifoliose V). There is no obvious effect of habitat and growth year on xanthone. The contents of triterpene saponins are greatly dependent on the growth year, and the content of parts of triterpene saponins increased as time goes on.The result indicated that the effect of habitat and growth year on different types of secondary metabolites is not completely equivalent. This study will contribute to the breeding of P. tenuifolia and amendment of current commodity criteria.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1444-1451, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779747

ABSTRACT

To investigate the difference of Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD) piece and boiled powder in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the characteristic of overall metabolite profile was examined in the serum of T2DM rats with 1H NMR-based metabolomics combined with the multivariate statistical analysis. A rat model of T2DM was established by feeding of high glucose and high fat diet followed by a streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. The general condition, body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) of rats were monitored. GQD piece and boiled powder exhibited activities in the improvement of these parameters. The results of the principal component analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the metabolic profile of the normal control group, the model group, the positive group, the herbal decoction group and the boiled powder group. Totally 15 potential biomarkers were identified by OPLS-DA binding univariate analysis. Compared with normal control group, the serum samples of T2DM showed a higher level of 3-HB, TMAO, glycine, β-glucose and α-glucose accompanied by lower level of lactate, VLDL, acetate, glutamate, methionine, glutamine, pyruvate, creatine, choline and glycerol. The above results also demonstrated that both piece and boiled powder of GQD could restore 14 of these markers. These results suggested that the disrupted metabolic pathways including energy metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, were restored by GQD piece and boiled powder. The two formula did not show a significant difference. The results of this study provide experimental data and theoretical basis for the equal activities of GQD piece and boiled powder in clinical application.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 283-290, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779591

ABSTRACT

The study aims to investigate the effective components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZR) in nourishing the heart and tranquilizing the mind. A method of ultra high liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Q Exactive high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) was developed. Based on the UV spectra, retention time and MS spectra, 25 compounds of SZR extract were identified or tentatively characterized, including 12 flavonoids, 8 triterpenoids saponins, 2 fatty acid and 3 alakoids. The study illuminated the major chemical components. Twenty bioactive components were determined in rat urine after oral administration of SZR extract by "in vitro to in vivo" translation approach, including 16 prototype compounds and 4 metabolites. Spinosin, swertisin, jujuboside A and B were considered as the effective and active constituents in SZR of the sedative and hypnotic effects, which emodies characteristics of multiple components. It was beneficial exploration for searching the effective and active constituents of SZR in nourishing the heart and tranquilizing the mind.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812479

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to explore the substrate scope and biocatalytic capability of Gliocladium deliquescens NRRL 1086 on phenolic natural products. Emodin was subjected to the fermentation culture of Gliocladium deliquescens NRRL 1086 according to the standard two-stage protocol. The biotransformation process was monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS, the main product was isolated by column chromatography, and the structure was elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopy. Emodin could be fully metabolized by Gliocladium deliquescens NRRL 1086, resulting in high yield of emodin 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and small amount of sulfated product. In conclusion, our results may provide a convenient method to prepare emodin 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and the microbe catalyzed glucosylation/sulfation will give an inspiration to pharmacokinetic model studies in vitro.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Biotransformation , Emodin , Metabolism , Fermentation , Gliocladium , Metabolism , Glucosides , Metabolism , Glycosylation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Phenols , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Metabolism
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