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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928145


A chronic cholestasis model was induced in mice by feeding a diet containing 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine(DDC). The effects of Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) on endogenous metabolites in mice with chronic cholestasis were investigated by metabolomics analysis based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS). The results showed that ESP was effective in improving pathological injury and reducing serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), and total bile acid in the model mice. Meanwhile, 13 common differential metabolites were revealed in metabolomic screening between the model/control group and the model/ESP group, including uric acid, glycolaldehyde, kynurenine, flavin adenine dinucleotide, L-3-phenyllactic acid, I-urobilin, leukotriene D4(LTD4), taurocholic acid, trioxilin A3, D-inositol-1,4-diphosphate, PC [16:0/20:2(11Z,14Z)], PC[14:0/22:2(13Z,16Z)], and PC[20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)]. After ESP intervention, the levels of all 13 differential metabolites were significantly retraced, and pathway analysis showed that ESP achieved its therapeutic effect mainly by affecting arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and primary bile acid biosynthesis. This study elucidated the mechanism of action of ESP against chronic cholestasis based on metabolites.

Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Chromatography, Liquid , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Metabolomics , Mice
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928144


The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway.

Acetaminophen/toxicity , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/pharmacology , Glutathione , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928143


This study aimed to investigate the effect of Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) on the intestinal flora of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) mice. Forty-eight male C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the control group, model(methionine-choline-deficient, MCD) group, high-(0.8 g·kg~(-1)), medium-(0.4 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(0.2 g·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and pioglitazone(PGZ, 10 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with eight mice in each group. Mice in the control group were fed with normal diet, while those in the remaining five groups with MCD diet for five weeks for inducing NASH. During modeling, they were gavaged with the corresponding drugs. The changes in body mass, daily water intake, and daily food intake were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues were collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE) for observing the pathological changes, followed by oil red O staining for observing fat accumulation in the liver. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and triglyceride(TG) in liver tissue were measured. The changes in intestinal flora of mice were determined using 16 S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that compared with the model group, the high-, medium-and low-dose ESP groups and the PGZ group exhibited significantly lowered AST and ALT in serum and TG in liver tissues and alleviated hepatocellular steatosis and fat accumulation in the liver. As demonstrated by 16 S rRNA sequencing, the abundance index and diversity of intestinal flora decreased in the model group, while those increased in the ESP groups. Besides, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased at the phylum level. In the alteration of the composition of intestinal flora, ESP reduced the abundance of Erysipelotrichia and Faecalibaculum but increased the abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. This study has revealed that ESP has a protective effect against NASH induced by MCD diet, which may be related to its regulation of the changes in intestinal flora, alteration of the composition of intestinal flora, and inhibition of the intestinal dysbiosis.

Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Liver , Male , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy