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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 911-920, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938773

ABSTRACT

Objective@#68 Ga-NGUL is a novel prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting tracer based on Glu-Urea-Lys derivatives conjugated to a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N’,N’’-triacetic acid (NOTA) chelator via a thiourea-type short linker. This phase I clinical trial of 68 Ga-NGUL was conducted to evaluate the safety and radiation dosimetry of 68 Ga-NGUL in healthy volunteers and the lesion detection rate of 68 Ga-NGUL in patients with prostate cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We designed a prospective, open-label, single-arm clinical trial with two cohorts comprising six healthy adult men and six patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Safety and blood test-based toxicities were monitored throughout the study. PET/CT scans were acquired at multiple time points after administering 68 Ga-NGUL (2 MBq/kg; 96–165 MBq). In healthy adults, absorbed organ doses and effective doses were calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. In patients with prostate cancer, the rates of detecting suspicious lesions by 68 Ga-NGUL PET/CT and conventional imaging (CT and bone scintigraphy) during the screening period, within one month after recruitment, were compared. @*Results@#All 12 participants (six healthy adults aged 31–32 years and six prostate cancer patients aged 57–81 years) completed the clinical trial. No drug-related adverse events were observed. In the healthy adult group, 68 Ga-NGUL was rapidly distributed, with the highest uptake in the kidneys. The median effective dose coefficient was calculated as 0.025 mSv/MBq, and cumulative activity in the bladder had the highest contribution. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, 229 suspicious lesions were detected using either 68 Ga-NGUL PET/CT or conventional imaging. Among them, 68 Ga-NGUL PET/CT detected 199 (86.9%) lesions and CT or bone scintigraphy detected 114 (49.8%) lesions. @*Conclusion@#68 Ga-NGUL can be safely applied clinically and has shown a higher detection rate for the localization of metastatic lesions in prostate cancer than conventional imaging. Therefore, 68 Ga-NGUL is a valuable option for prostate cancer imaging.

2.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 34-42, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926790

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the correlation between preoperative De Ritis ratio (aspartate transaminase [AST]/alanine transaminase [ALT]) and postoperative clinical outcome in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH). @*Materials and Methods@#We respectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of 102 patients who underwent RNU and ACH for UTUC. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the optimal value of AST/ALT ratio. The effect of the AST/ALT ratio was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression hazard models for patients’ cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). @*Results@#Mean survival time was 50.5±41.2 months. Mean age was 61.4±9.7years. Forty-one of the patients (46.5%) were in the high AST/ALT group. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal AST/ALT ratio was 1.2. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the high AST/ALT group showed worse outcomes in OS (p=0.007) and CSS (p=0.011). Using Cox regression models of clinical and pathological parameters to predict OS, high AST/ALT ratio (hazard ratio [HR], 5.428; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.803–16.334; p=0.002), pathological T3 (pT3) or higher (HR, 1.464; 95% CI; 1.156-1.857; p=0.002), and to predict CSS, high AST/ALT ratio (HR, 4.417; 95% CI; 1.545–12.632; p=0.005), and pT3 or higher (HR, 1.475; 95% CI; 1.172–1.904; p=0.002) were determined as independent prognostic factors. @*Conclusions@#Pretreatment AST/ALT ratio is a significant independent predictor of CSS and OS in advanced UTUC patients receiving systemic ACH after RNU.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 234-244, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913823

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to develop a model for predicting pathologic extracapsular extension (ECE) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) while integrating magnetic resonance imaging-based T-staging (cTMRI, cT1c-cT3b). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,915 who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2006-2016 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis as well as Bayesian network (BN) modeling based on possible confounding factors. The BN model was internally validated using 5-fold validation. @*Results@#According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, initial prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) (β=0.050, p < 0.001), percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) (β=0.033, p < 0.001), both lobe involvement on biopsy (β=0.359, p=0.009), Gleason score (β=0.358, p < 0.001), and cTMRI (β=0.259, p < 0.001) were significant factors for ECE. For SVI, iPSA (β=0.037, p < 0.001), PPC (β=0.024, p < 0.001), Gleason score (β=0.753, p < 0.001), and cTMRI (β=0.507, p < 0.001) showed statistical significance. BN models to predict ECE and SVI were also successfully established. The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)/accuracy of the BN models were 0.76/73.0% and 0.88/89.6% for ECE and SVI, respectively. According to internal comparison between the BN model and Roach formula, BN model had improved AUC values for predicting ECE (0.76 vs. 0.74, p=0.060) and SVI (0.88 vs. 0.84, p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Two models to predict pathologic ECE and SVI integrating cTMRI were established and installed on a separate website for public access to guide radiation oncologists.

4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903280

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated clinical outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were classified as high-risk prostate cancer and received definitive treatment between 2005 and 2015. Patients with previous pelvic radiotherapy, positive lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). @*Results@#Of 583 patients met the inclusion criteria (77 EBRT and 506 RP). The estimated 10-year PCSS was 97.0% in the RP and 95.9% in the EBRT (p = 0.770). No significant difference was seen in the DMFS (p = 0.540), whereas there was a trend in favor of RP over EBRT in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.068). Propensity score matching analysis with confounding variables was done, with 183 patients (66 EBRT and 117 RP) were included. No significant difference in DMFS, PCSS or OS was found. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated similar oncologic PCSS, OS, and DMFS outcomes between EBRT and RP patients.

5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 174-182, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902527

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The survey was conducted on Korean men to examine information acquisition channel for prostate cancer high risk group as part of the “Blue Ribbon Campaign” of the Korean Urological Oncology Society. @*Materials and Methods@#An online survey of 500 men aged 50 years old or older was completed to query investigation of the status of prostate cancer awareness and information acquisition from February 4 to February 9, 2021. @*Results@#Most men in their 50s and older are well aware that prostate cancer can also occur in young men in their 40s, so the rate of misunderstanding of the timing of prostate cancer screening after their 60s is very low. Two-thirds of all respondents (67.2%) were also confirmed that prostate cancer had no initial symptoms and was not included in the national cancer screening. Seventy-five percent of people look up information on their own in case of suspected prostate cancer, and 51.6% seek out knowledge on their own to prevent prostate cancer. Of the respondents, 27.4% of men contacted prostate cancer-related information within the past year, and the percentage of people contacted through ‘Internet/Phone,’ ‘People Around’ and ‘Television’ was high. The most trusted channel among prostate cancer information channels was ‘medical professionals,’ but the experience rate was not high, and the channel with high experience rate and reliability was shown as ‘television.’ @*Conclusions@#Much effort is still needed to understand the information acquisition behavior of Korean men and to improve awareness of early screening for prostate cancer.

6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895576

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated clinical outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were classified as high-risk prostate cancer and received definitive treatment between 2005 and 2015. Patients with previous pelvic radiotherapy, positive lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). @*Results@#Of 583 patients met the inclusion criteria (77 EBRT and 506 RP). The estimated 10-year PCSS was 97.0% in the RP and 95.9% in the EBRT (p = 0.770). No significant difference was seen in the DMFS (p = 0.540), whereas there was a trend in favor of RP over EBRT in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.068). Propensity score matching analysis with confounding variables was done, with 183 patients (66 EBRT and 117 RP) were included. No significant difference in DMFS, PCSS or OS was found. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated similar oncologic PCSS, OS, and DMFS outcomes between EBRT and RP patients.

7.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 174-182, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894823

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The survey was conducted on Korean men to examine information acquisition channel for prostate cancer high risk group as part of the “Blue Ribbon Campaign” of the Korean Urological Oncology Society. @*Materials and Methods@#An online survey of 500 men aged 50 years old or older was completed to query investigation of the status of prostate cancer awareness and information acquisition from February 4 to February 9, 2021. @*Results@#Most men in their 50s and older are well aware that prostate cancer can also occur in young men in their 40s, so the rate of misunderstanding of the timing of prostate cancer screening after their 60s is very low. Two-thirds of all respondents (67.2%) were also confirmed that prostate cancer had no initial symptoms and was not included in the national cancer screening. Seventy-five percent of people look up information on their own in case of suspected prostate cancer, and 51.6% seek out knowledge on their own to prevent prostate cancer. Of the respondents, 27.4% of men contacted prostate cancer-related information within the past year, and the percentage of people contacted through ‘Internet/Phone,’ ‘People Around’ and ‘Television’ was high. The most trusted channel among prostate cancer information channels was ‘medical professionals,’ but the experience rate was not high, and the channel with high experience rate and reliability was shown as ‘television.’ @*Conclusions@#Much effort is still needed to understand the information acquisition behavior of Korean men and to improve awareness of early screening for prostate cancer.

8.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 124-139, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015 was based on topics withcontroversy in the field of advanced prostate cancer. To understand the Korean urologists perspective regardingthe issues, we have conducted a questionnaire named Prostate Cancer Summit (PCAS) 2016, with 9 importantsubtopics. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 9 subtopics have been decided and questions were developed regarding eachsubtopic. The questions were based on that of APCCC 2015 and translated into Korean for better understanding.Total 51 panelists have voted online on 85 different questions. @*Results@#The survey concluded that testosterone should be measured as a diagnostic criterion for castrationresistance prostate cancer (CRPC) and that consensus was reached on issues such as the use of androgenreceptor pathway inhibitors in the treatment of predocetaxel and postdocetaxel in CRPC patients. In addition,76% of the participants agreed that imaging tests were needed before new treatment in CRPC patients, anda majority of participants agreed that periodic imaging tests are necessary regardless of symptoms during treatmentfor CRPC. However, some issues, such as the use of prostate-specific antigen-based triggers for remediationin CRPC patients, the endocrine manipulation in nonmetastatic CRPC patients, and the onset of treatment inasymptomatic metastatic CRPC patients, were not agreed. @*Conclusions@#The results from PCAS 2016 has addressed some of the issues with controversy. Although thevoting results are subjective, it will help guide treatment decisions in topics with less evidence.

9.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 215-221, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902518

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNU-PCRC) to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and to increase the detection rate of high-risk cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 546 patients who underwent prostate biopsy between 2014 and 2016. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the type of risk calculator used: conventional and SNU-PCRC group. In the SNU-PCRC group, prostate biopsy was recommended when the probability of SNU-PCRC was more than 30%. @*Results@#The SNU-PCRC group had significantly smaller prostate volume (p=0.010) and significantly more digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) abnormalities (p=0.011 and p=0.010, respectively). Overall detection (71.9% vs. 32.1%) and high-risk cancer detection rates (40.6% vs. 19.3%) were significantly higher in the gray zone (prostate-specific antigen=4-10 ng/mL) (p<0.001 and p=0.006). The group with prostate cancer risk ≥30% on the SNU-PCRC compared to <30% group, overall detection rate of 72.3% versus 30.2% and high-risk detection rate of 60.6% versus 18.3% were significantly different (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Applying the SNU-PCRC to the conventional group could avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy in 50.6%. @*Conclusions@#SNU-PCRC is clinically useful to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and increase overall detection rate and high-risk cancer detection rate.

10.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 215-221, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894814

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNU-PCRC) to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and to increase the detection rate of high-risk cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 546 patients who underwent prostate biopsy between 2014 and 2016. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the type of risk calculator used: conventional and SNU-PCRC group. In the SNU-PCRC group, prostate biopsy was recommended when the probability of SNU-PCRC was more than 30%. @*Results@#The SNU-PCRC group had significantly smaller prostate volume (p=0.010) and significantly more digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) abnormalities (p=0.011 and p=0.010, respectively). Overall detection (71.9% vs. 32.1%) and high-risk cancer detection rates (40.6% vs. 19.3%) were significantly higher in the gray zone (prostate-specific antigen=4-10 ng/mL) (p<0.001 and p=0.006). The group with prostate cancer risk ≥30% on the SNU-PCRC compared to <30% group, overall detection rate of 72.3% versus 30.2% and high-risk detection rate of 60.6% versus 18.3% were significantly different (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Applying the SNU-PCRC to the conventional group could avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy in 50.6%. @*Conclusions@#SNU-PCRC is clinically useful to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and increase overall detection rate and high-risk cancer detection rate.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 758-768, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763120

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk models were developed predominantly with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Accordingly, whether these two models could be applied to metastatic non-clear cell RCC (mNCCRCC) as well has not been well-known and was investigated herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Korean metastatic RCC registry, a total of 156 patients (8.1%) with mNCCRCC among the entire cohort of 1,922 patients were analyzed. Both models were applied to predict first-line progression-free survival (PFS), total PFS, and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: The median first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS were 5, 6, and 24 months, respectively. The IMDC risk model reliably discriminated three risk groups to predict survival: the median first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS for the favorable, intermediate, and poor risk groups were 9, 5, and, 2 months (p=0.001); 14, 7, and 2 months (p < 0.001); and 41, 21, and 8 months (p < 0.001), all respectively. The MSKCC risk model also reliably differentiated three risk groups: 9, 5, and, 2 months (p=0.005); 10, 7, and 3 months (p=0.002); and 50, 21, and 8 months (p < 0.001), also all respectively. The concordance indices were 0.632 with the IMDC model and 0.643 with the MSKCC model for first-line PFS: 0.748 and 0.655 for CSS. CONCLUSION: The current IMDC and MSKCC risk models reliably predict first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS in mNCCRCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e277-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine survival rates and renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We studied 4,332 patients who underwent PN or RN for pathological T1a-T2N0M0 renal cell carcinoma from 1988 to 2014. Patients were divided into two subgroups of CKD stage I–II and stage III. Kidney function, and survival outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: We included 1,756 patients with CKD I–II and 276 patients with CKD III in the final pair-matched analysis. Kidney function was significantly better preserved in the PN than in the RN group among all patients. However, the beneficial effect of PN on kidney function gradually disappeared over time in CKD III patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates after PN and RN differed in patients with CKD I–II disease (99.4% vs. 96.5%, respectively, P = 0.015). The 5-year OS rates after surgery were not affected by mode of nephrectomy in CKD III patients (97.8% vs. 93.5%, P = 0.103). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates did not differ between treatment groups in all CKD stage. Cox hazard analysis showed that the operative method was a significant factor for OS in CKD I–II patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.320; confidence interval [CI], 0.122–0.840; P = 0.021). However, PN was not beneficial in terms of OS in CKD III patients (HR, 0.395; CI, 0.086–1.172; P = 0.117). CONCLUSION: PN is associated with a higher OS rate and better kidney function in patients with preoperative CKD stage I and II, but not in those with CKD stage III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney , Methods , Nephrectomy , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Survival Rate
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e325-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate survival outcomes and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ) as first-line therapy in real-world Korean clinical practice. METHODS: Data of 554 patients with mRCC who received SU or PZ at eight institutions between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the targeted therapy, the patients were divided into SU (n = 293) or PZ (n = 261) groups, and the clinicopathological variables and survival rates of the two groups were compared. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the prognostic factors for OS. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 16.4 months (interquartile range, 8.3–31.3). Patients in the PZ group were older, and no significant difference was observed in the performance status (PS) between the two groups. In the SU group, the dose reduction rate was higher and the incidence of grade 3 toxicity was more frequent. The objective response rates were comparable between the two groups (SU, 32.1% vs. PZ, 36.4%). OS did not differ significantly between the two groups (SU, 36.5 months vs. PZ, 40.2 months; log-rank, P = 0.955). Body mass index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS > 2, synchronous metastasis, poor Heng risk criteria, and liver and bone metastases were associated with a shorter OS. CONCLUSION: Our real-world data of Korean patients with mRCC suggested that SU and PZ had similar efficacies as first-line therapy for mRCC. However, PZ was better tolerated than SU in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
14.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 75-81, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the prognostic value of the 5-tiered grade group in Korean patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1996 and 2016, a number of 2,883 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were included for the analysis. The impacts of biopsy and pathologic grade group on predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) were assessed using multivariate analysis. Median follow-up duration was 49.0 months. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.5 years and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 11.8 ng/mL. Prostate cancer was locally advanced on magnetic resonance imaging in 13.4%. Biopsy grade group was as follows: 1 (46.8%), 2 (19.8%), 3 (14.2%), 4 (14.1%), and 5 (5.1%). Pathology stage was ≤T2 in 63.6%, T3a in 26.0%, and T3b/T4 in 10.4% patients. Pathologic grade was as follows: 1 (31.3%), 2 (37.9%), 3 (20.2%), 4 (4.7%), and 5 (5.1%). In multivariate analysis using biopsy-related variables, biopsy grade group (1, reference; 2, hazard ratio [HR], 1.771; p=0.001; 3, HR, 2.736; p < 0.001; 4, HR, 2.966; p < 0.001; 5, HR, 3.707; p < 0.001) was associated with BCR-free survival, PSA level and % positive core. In multivariate analysis using pathologic outcomes, pathologic grade group (1, reference; 2, HR, 1.882; p < 0.001; 3, HR, 3.352; p < 0.001; 4, HR, 3.890; p < 0.001; 5, HR: 3.118, p < 0.001) was associated with BCR-free survival in addition to pathologic stage and positive surgical margin. CONCLUSIONS: New 5-tiered grading system could be useful for predicting oncological outcomes in Korean patients although its role for distinguishing outcomes between patients with grade groups 3–5 need to be validated before wide application of this grade system in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Pathology , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 265-274, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739610

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Korean patients with prostate cancer (PC) typically present with a more aggressive disease than patients in Western populations. Consequently, it is unclear if the current criteria for active surveillance (AS) can safely be applied to Korean patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to define appropriate selection criteria for AS for patients with PC in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 2,126 patients with low risk PC who actually underwent radical prostatectomy. The primary outcome was an unfavorable disease, which was defined by non-organ confined disease or an upgrading of the Gleason score to ≥ 7 (4+3). Predictive variables of an unfavorable outcome were identified by multivariate analysis using randomly selected training samples (n=1,623, 76.3%). We compared our selected criteria to various Western criteria for the primary outcome and validated our criteria using the remaining validation sample (n=503, 23.7%). RESULTS: A non-organ confined disease rate of 14.9% was identified, with an increase in Gleason score ≥ 7 (4+3) of 8.7% and a final unfavorable disease status of 20.8%. The following criteria were selected: Gleason score ≤ 6, clinical stage T1-T2a, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 10 ng/mL, PSA density < 0.15 ng/mL/mL, number of positive cores ≤ 2, and maximum cancer involvement in any one core ≤ 20%. These criteria provided the lowest unfavorable disease rate (11.7%) when compared to Western criteria (13.3%-20.7%), and their validity was confirmed using the validation sample (5.9%). CONCLUSION: We developed AS criteria which are appropriate for Korean patients with PC. Prospective studies using these criteria are now warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Pathology , Patient Selection , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 984-991, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), statin, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor on the development of kidney, prostate, and urothelial cancers by analyzing the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among a representative sample cohort of 1,025,340 participants in NHIS-NSC database in 2002, we extracted data of 799,850 individuals who visited the hospital more than once, and finally included 321,122 individuals aged 40 and older. Following a 1-year washout period between 2002 and 2003, we analyzed 143,870 (male), 320,861 and 320,613 individuals for evaluating the risk of prostate cancer, kidney cancer and urothelial cancer developments, respectively, during 10-year follow-up periods between 2004 and 2013. The medication group consisted of patients prescribed these drugs more than 60% of the time in 2003. To adjustfor various parameters of the patients, a multivariate Cox regression model was adopted. RESULTS: During 10-year follow-up periods between 2004 and 2013, 9,627 (6.7%), 1,107 (0.4%), and 2,121 (0.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, kidney cancer, and urothelial cancer, respectively. Notably, multivariate analyses revealed that NSAIDs significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35). Also, it was found that aspirin (HR, 1.28) and statin (HR, 1.55) elevated the risk of kidney cancer. No drugs were associated with the risk of urothelial cancer. CONCLUSION: In sum, our study provides the valuable information for the impact of aspirin, NSAID, statin, and COX-2 inhibitor on the risk of prostate, kidney, and urothelial cancer development and its survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , Cohort Studies , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Follow-Up Studies , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Kidney , Kidney Neoplasms , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , National Health Programs , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms
17.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 21-29, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168709

ABSTRACT

Schistosoma haematobium is a biocarcinogen of human urinary bladder (UB). The present study investigated developing UB cancer mouse model by injecting S. haematobium eggs into the bladder wall and introduction of chemical carcinogens. Histopathological findings showed mild hyperplasia to epithelial vacuolar change, and high grade dysplasia. Squamous metaplasia was observed in the S. haematobium eggs+NDMA group at week 12 but not in other groups. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly high expression of Ki-67 in urothelial epithelial cells of the S. haematobium eggs+BBN group at week 20. The qRT-PCR showed high expression of p53 gene in S. haematobium eggs group at week 4 and S. haematobium eggs+BBN group at week 20. E-cadherin and vimentin showed contrasting expression in S. haematobium eggs+BBN group. Such inverse expression of E-cadherin and vimentin may indicate epithelial mesenchymal transition in the UB tissue. In conclusion, S. haematobium eggs and nitrosamines may transform UB cells into squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in correlation with increased expression of Ki-67. Marked decrease in E-cadherin and increase in p53 and vimentin expressions may support the transformation. The present study introduces a promising modified animal model for UB cancer study using S. haematobium eggs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Cadherins , Carcinogens , Dimethylnitrosamine , Eggs , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Genes, p53 , Hyperplasia , Immunohistochemistry , Metaplasia , Models, Animal , Nitrosamines , Ovum , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder , Vimentin
18.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 143-151, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic and oncological outcomes of advanced metastatic testicular cancer in Korean men who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 26 patients with testicular cancer who underwent RPLND after chemotherapy at 2 hospitals in Korea between September 2004 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and histopathological variables such as stage of the testicular cancer, age of the patients during surgery, size of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (RPLNs), histopathological results, duration and complications related to the surgery, cancer recurrence, and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: During testicular surgery, the T stage was pT1, pT2, and pT3 in 50% (n=13), 26.9% (n=7), and 15.3% (n=4) of the patients, respectively. Mixed germ cell tumor was the most common finding, seen in 73.1% (n=19) of patients. The indications for RPLND were residual lymph nodes after chemotherapy, 84.6% (n=22); and disease progression and remission, 7.7% (n=2). Pathological analysis revealed viable tumors in 19.2% of patients (n=5), necrotic/fibrotic tissue in 42.3% (n=11), and teratoma in 34.6% (n=9). Intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred in 23.1% (n=6) and 19.2% of patients (n=5). The median duration of follow-up was 27.5 months (interquartile range, 1.3–108.2 months); 11.5% (n=3) patients had recurrence, and 3.8% (n=1) died of progressive metastatic testicular cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Viable germ cell tumors were present in 19.2% of patients with testicular cancer who underwent RPLND after chemotherapy. This is the first study of its kind in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mortality , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Teratoma , Testicular Neoplasms
19.
Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; : 202-211, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786940

ABSTRACT

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for both diagnosis and therapy because of its high expression in the vast majority of prostate cancers. Development of small molecules for targeting PSMA is important for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of prostate cancer. Recent evidence implies that androgendeprivation therapy increase PSMA-ligand uptake in some cases. The reported upregulations in PSMA-ligand uptake after exposure to second-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide and abiraterone might disturb PSMA-targeted imaging for staging and response monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with antiandrogen-based drugs. On the other hand, second-generation antiandrogens are emerging as potential endoradio-/chemosensitizers. Therefore, the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of PSMA-targeted theranostic methods can be listed as a new capability of antiandrogens. In this manuscript, we will present what is currently known about the mechanism of increasing PSMA uptake following exposure to antiandrogens. In addition, we will discuss whether these above-mentioned antiandrogens could play the role of endoradio-/chemosensitizers in combination with the well-established PSMA-targeted methods for pre-targeting of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androgen Antagonists , Diagnosis , Hand , Membranes , Molecular Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prostatic Neoplasms , Theranostic Nanomedicine
20.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Transplantation ; : 24-30, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For various reasons, kidney transplant recipients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) often undergo native nephrectomy in preparation for the transplantation. Simultaneous nephrectomy can result in hypotensive events perioperatively and affect transplant outcome adversely. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of simultaneous native nephrectomy (SNx) on perioperative blood pressure and graft outcome compared to non-nephrectomy (NNx) in renal transplant recipients with ADPKD. METHODS: Data regarding renal function and blood pressure were collected from 42 renal transplant recipients with ADPKD. The primary outcome was graft function over 1 year post-transplant. The secondary outcomes were patient and graft survival, postoperative hypotensive events, and blood pressure control. We compared units of anti-hypertensive medication used by transplanted ADPKD patients in the SNx and NNx groups. RESULTS: Patients with SNx during kidney transplantation showed similar rates of patient and graft survival and renal function. Although they had significantly more hypotensive events during the perioperative period (69.2% vs. 37.5% in NNx, P=0.045), no harmful influence on renal function was observed. No difference in mean blood pressure during the 1-year post-transplant period was observed between the two groups; however, the SNx group required fewer units of anti-hypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS: SNx is a relatively safe procedure. Graft outcome in the SNx group was not inferior to that of the NNx group, and patients with SNx can have well-controlled blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Graft Survival , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Nephrectomy , Perioperative Period , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant , Transplantation , Transplants
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