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1.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e58-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001924

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has posed significant financial threats to the domestic pig industry over the last three decades in South Korea. PEDV infection will mostly result in endemic persistence in the affected farrow-to-finish (FTF) herds, leading to endemic porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) followed by year-round recurrent outbreaks. This review aims to encourage collaboration among swine producers, veterinarians, and researchers to offer answers that strengthen our understanding of PEDV in efforts to prevent and control endemic PED and to prepare for the next epidemics or pandemics. We found that collaboratively implementing a PED risk assessment and customized four-pillar-based control measures is vital to interrupt the chain of endemic PED in affected herds: the former can identify on-farm risk factors while the latter aims to compensate for or improve weaknesses via herd immunity stabilization and virus elimination. Under endemic PED, long-term virus survival in slurry and asymptomatically infected gilts (“Trojan Pigs”) that can transmit the virus to farrowing houses are key challenges for PEDV eradication in FTF farms and highlight the necessity for active monitoring and surveillance of the virus in herds and their environments. This paper underlines the current knowledge of molecular epidemiology and commercially available vaccines, as well as the risk assessment and customized strategies to control PEDV. The intervention measures for stabilizing herd immunity and eliminating virus circulation may be the cornerstone of establishing regional or national PED eradication programs.

2.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 277-289, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001309

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This phase IV, multicenter, randomized controlled, open-label, and parallel clinical trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of ezetimibe and moderate intensity rosuvastatin combination therapy to that of high intensity rosuvastatin monotherapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). @*Methods@#This study enrolled patients with ASCVD and after a four-week screening period, patients were randomly assigned to receive either rosuvastatin and ezetimibe (RE 10/10 group) or high-intensity rosuvastatin (R20 group) only in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was the difference in the percent change in the mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level from baseline to 12 weeks between two groups after treatment. @*Results@#The study found that after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment, the RE10/10 group had a greater reduction in LDL-C level compared to the R20 group (−22.9±2.6% vs. −15.6 ± 2.5% [p=0.041] and −24.2±2.5% vs. −12.9±2.4% [p=0.001] at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively). Moreover, a greater number of patients achieved the target LDL-C level of ≤70 mg/dL after the treatment period in the combination group (74.6% vs. 59.9% [p=0.012] and 76.2% vs. 50.8% [p<0.001] at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively). Importantly, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of overall adverse events and adverse drug reactions between two groups. @*Conclusion@#Moderate-intensity rosuvastatin and ezetimibe combination therapy had better efficacy in lowering LDL-C levels without increasing adverse effects in patients with ASCVD than high-intensity rosuvastatin monotherapy.

3.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 327-336, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917580

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to create a 3D printable snack dish model for the elderly with low food or fluid intake along with barriers towards eating. @*Methods@#The decision was made by the hybrid-brainstorming method for creating the 3D model. Experts were assigned based on their professional areas such as clinical nutrition, food hygiene and chemical safety for the creation process. After serial feedback processes, the grape shape was suggested as the final model. After various concept sketching and making clay models, 3D-printing technology was applied to produce a prototype. @*Results@#3D design modeling process was conducted by SolidWorks program. After considering Dietary reference intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) and other survey data, appropriate supplementary water serving volume was decided as 285 mL which meets 30% of Adequate intake. To consider printing output conditions, this model has six grapes in one bunch with a safety lid. The FDM printer and PLA filaments were used for food hygiene and safety. To stimulate cognitive functions and interests of eating, numbers one to six was engraved on the lid of the final 3D model. @*Conclusions@#The newly-developed 3D model was designed to increase intakes of nutrients and water in the elderly with dementia during snack time. Since dementia patients often forget to eat, engraving numbers on the grapes was conducted to stimulate cognitive function related to the swallowing and chewing process. We suggest that investigations on the types of foods or fluids are needed in the developed 3D model snack dish for future studies.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 906-916, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831801

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are inconsistencies in the effects of low to moderate dose alcohol consumption on the development of hypertension in adult men. We hypothesized that a region-specific effect might participate in this heterogeneity. @*Methods@#We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of alcohol dose on hypertension incidence using contemporary data through December 2017. Subjects were categorized according to their level of alcohol consumption as non-drinkers (reference) and low- (0.01 to 20.0 g/day), moderate- (20.1 to 40.0 g/day), moderate- to high- (40.1 to 60.0 g/day), and high-dose (> 60.0 g/day) drinkers. We defined hypertension as a blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or the use of anti- hypertensive drugs. @*Results@#In total, 11 articles (seven Asian and four Western) were selected for our analysis. Among Asian men, a significantly elevated risk was observed even in the low alcohol dose group in comparison with the group with no alcohol consumption, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (pooled relative risks [95% confidence intervals (CI)]: 1.25 [1.13 to 1.38], 1.48 [1.27 to 1.72], 1.75 [1.43 to 2.15], and 1.78 [1.51 to 2.09]). Among Western men, a similar dose-response relationship was noted in general (p for subgroup difference > 0.1), but a significantly elevated risk was evident only in the high-dose group (pooled relative risks [95% CI]: 1.22 [0.85 to 1.74], 1.57 [0.90 to 2.75], 1.47 [0.44 to 4.91], and 1.49 [1.02 to 2.18]). @*Conclusions@#Even low doses of alcohol can lead to the development of hypertension, particularly in Asian men. Our findings could serve as additional evidence for developing an appropriate preventive strategy in each region.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1800-1806, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225693

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the clinical significance of frailty and changes of frailty after dialysis initiation in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We prospectively enrolled 46 elderly patients with incident ESRD at a dialysis center of a tertiary hospital between May 2013 and March 2015. Frailty was assessed by using a comprehensive geriatric assessment protocol and defined as a multidimensional frailty score of ≥ 10. The main outcome was the composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization, as determined in June 2016. The median age of the 46 participants was 71.5 years, and 63.0% of them were men. During the median 17.7 months follow-up, the rate of composite outcome was 17.4%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and time of predialytic nephrologic care, female sex, and increased BMI were associated with increased and decreased odds of frailty, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, BMI, and time of predialytic nephrologic care, frailty was significantly associated with the composite adverse outcome. In repeated frailty assessments, the multidimensional frailty score significantly improved 12 months after the initiation of dialysis, which largely relied on improved nutrition. Therefore, frailty needs to be assessed for risk stratification in elderly patients with incident ESRD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Body Mass Index , Dialysis , Follow-Up Studies , Geriatric Assessment , Hospitalization , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Logistic Models , Malnutrition , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1025-1036, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fimasartan is an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) which has comparable efficacy and tolerability with other ARBs. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and the tolerability of the low dose fimasartan compared with valsartan in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. METHODS: This study was a phase II, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-grouped trial. A total of 75 hypertensive patients, whose mean ambulatory BP monitoring values were ≥ 135/85 mmHg, were randomized to either fimasartan 30 mg or valsartan 80 mg daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) values from the baseline and at the week 8. Secondary endpoints included the change in the mean 24-hour diastolic BP values, the daytime and the nighttime mean BP values at week 8, the trough-to-peak (T/P) ratio and the smoothness index. RESULTS: At week 8, the mean 24-hour SBP values significantly decreased in both groups; –10.5 ± 11.9 mmHg (p < 0.0001) in the fimasartan group and –5.5 ± 11.6 mmHg (p = 0.0307) in the valsartan group. The difference between two groups was 4.3 ± 2.9 mmHg but there was no statistical significance (p = 0.1392). The global T/P ratio in the fimasartan 30 mg groups were 0.48 and 0.40 in the valsartan 80 mg group, respectively (p = 0.3411). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were acute pharyngitis and there were no cases of severe AEs. CONCLUSIONS: In mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients, low dose (30 mg) fimasartan showed comparable 24-hour BP lowering efficacy compared with valsartan (80 mg). There was no difference in tolerability between two groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Blood Pressure , Hypertension , Pharyngitis , Prospective Studies , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Valsartan
7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 594-600, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight (FRAIL) scale is a screening tool for frailty status using a simple 5-item questionnaire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and validity of the Korean version of the FRAIL (K-FRAIL) scale. METHODS: Questionnaire items were translated and administered to 103 patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. In this cross-sectional study, the K-FRAIL scale was compared with the domains and the multidimensional frailty index of the comprehensive geriatric assessment. We also assessed the time required to complete the scale. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 76.8 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.1), and 55 (53.4%) were males. The mean overall frailty index was 0.19 (SD, 0.17). For K-FRAIL-robust, prefrail, and frail patients, the mean frailty indices were 0.09, 0.18, and 0.34, respectively (p for trend < 0.001). A higher degree of impairment in the K-FRAIL scale was associated with worse nutritional status, poor physical performance, functional dependence, and polypharmacy. The number of items with impairment in the K-FRAIL scale was positively associated with the frailty index (B = 3.73, p < 0.001). The K-FRAIL scale could differentiate vulnerability from robustness with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.33. Of all patients, 75 (72.8%) completed the K-FRAIL scale within < 3 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The K-FRAIL scale is correlated with the frailty index and is a simple tool to screen for frailty in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Fatigue , Geriatric Assessment , Mass Screening , Nutritional Status , Polypharmacy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Walking
8.
Korean Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology ; : 1-6, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease is characterized by a progressive stenosis or occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery and/or the proximal portion of the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. Whether the onset time was childhood or adulthood, the bony carotid canal diameter might be different, but reflects the size of internal carotid artery passing through the bony carotid canal. In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship between bony carotid canal diameter and clinical manifestation. METHODS: 146 consecutive patients diagnosed with moyamoya disease by brain imaging studies were included. We measured the diameter of a transverse portion of bony carotid canal on bone window of a brain computed tomography(CT) image. Patients were divided into two groups, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke according to clinical manifestation. As a result, 115 patients were included. The Suzuki stage was used as criteria for disease progression. RESULTS: Bony carotid canal diameter was 3.6 ± 0.5 (right) and 3.6 ± 0.4 (left) in the hemorrhagic stroke group, and 3.7 ± 0.4 (right) and 3.6 ± 0.4 (left) in the ischemic stroke group. The bony carotid canal diameter of the moyamoya vessels (3.6 mm) was smaller than the diameter of non-moyamoya vessels (3.8 mm), significantly (p= 0.042). However, there was no difference in the collateral patterns and clinical manifestation in a comparison of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, there was no significant difference of clinical manifestations and collateral patterns depend on the bony carotid canal diameter in patients with moyamoya disease. These findings suggest that the clinical presentations of moyamoya disease are not related to the onset time of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Constriction, Pathologic , Disease Progression , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Neuroimaging , Stroke
9.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 122-135, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are widely used to approve the efficacy and discover adverse reactions of new drugs. However, there has been much concern about the unjustified exclusion of the older adults in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to assess ageism in clinical trials and to find solution to any discovered discrimination. METHODS: An online questionnaire was completed by 1,650 experts including doctors, pharmaceutical staff, and contract research organization members. An offline inquiry was conducted by 250 experienced professors from a single tertiary hospital and other allied professions. The questions covered the current state of elderly participation, possible reasons for under-representation, and plans for its solution. RESULTS: Among 1,900 subjects, 246 (12.9%) individuals completed the survey. We excluded the six subjects who did not answer more than 10 questions, and analyzed the remaining 240 respondents. They agreed that there are tendencies to exclude the aged from clinical trials (69.2%), and that under-representation would cause difficulties for doctors and geriatric patients. Most people (84.6%) thought that treating older adults with the results from trials which exclude aged participants is inappropriate. Because respondents had difficulties explaining the trial process and obtaining informed consent, they thought establishing a geriatric clinical trial team would be highly effective. Experts also believed that financial inducements and legal regulations are required to increase elderly enrollment. CONCLUSION: Because the elderly have a unique physiology, the participation of older adults in clinical research is indispensable for verifying efficacy and determining potential adverse reactions. Consequently, clinical research professionals should be concerned about the participation of older subjects, and the authorities must begin to care about age discrimination in research fields.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Ageism , Surveys and Questionnaires , Discrimination, Psychological , Drug Approval , Ethics Committees , Informed Consent , Physiology , Social Control, Formal , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 28-36, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Beers criteria are used to identify the potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly patients. However, the criteria have limitations such as lacking consideration of drug-drug and duplicated prescriptions. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of newly developed screening tool of older person's prescriptions (STOPP) with Beers criteria in identifying PIMs and adverse drug events (ADEs) in elderly patients. METHODS: We included 115 elderly patients older than 65 years who visited the outpatients' clinic or have been hospitalized for medical illness. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including medication review by the pharmacists were performed by the multidisciplinary team. Beers criteria and STOPP were used to find out PIMs. The association between PIMs defined by both criteria with ADEs was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 59 patients (50.4%) by Beers criteria and 76 patients (65.0%) by STOPP had been prescribed with PIMs. Compared with Beers criteria, STOPP had advantage in identifying more PIMs. In addition, STOPP could identify more ADEs related medications than Beers criteria. STOPP was also useful to detect duplicate drug class prescription and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for renal impaired patients. CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria PIMs can detect more duplicated prescription and are significantly associated with avoidable ADEs in older individuals compared with that of Beers criteria PIMs.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Beer , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Geriatric Assessment , Imidazoles , Mass Screening , Nitro Compounds , Pharmacists , Prescriptions
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 154-160, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-calcified plaque (NCP) identified by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has been reported in up to 10% of individuals with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of zero. However, clinical risk factors and the prognostic value of NCP in asymptomatic subjects with CACS of zero are unknown. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive asymptomatic subjects (48+/-8 years, 57% men) who underwent CCTA from December 2005 to January 2008 as part of a general health evaluation. RESULTS: Among 4491 of overall asymptomatic individuals with CACS of zero, 313 subjects (7%) had NCP: 279 patients (6%) with non-obstructive and 34 (1%) with obstructive. In multivariable analyses, age, male gender, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with presence of NCP (all p<0.05). During the median follow-up duration of 22 months (interquartile percentile: 18 to 28 months) of subjects with NCP (n=313) and age, gender, and CCTA date matched individuals without NCP (n=313), there was no clinical event including all-cause death nor composite outcome of cardiac death, myocardial infarct, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, and revascularization after 90 days from index CCTA in both groups. CONCLUSION: In the largest series of asymptomatic individuals with CACS of zero undergoing CCTA, age, male gender, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with NCP. However, a future risk of exclusive NCP in asymptomatic subjects with CACS of zero was negligible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Angina, Unstable , Angiography , Calcium , Coronary Vessels , Death , Dyslipidemias , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Hypertension , Myocardial Infarction , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Prevalence , Risk Factors
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 167-173, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality has been reported. However, controversy exists as to whether skeletal muscle mass affects mortality in healthy older adults. We evaluated the independent association of BMI or appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) with mortality in elderly people. METHODS: A total of 4,261 consecutive subjects older than 65 years who underwent health examinations at Seoul National University Gangnam Center between 2005 and 2009 were included in the analysis. ASM, ASM/height2 and ASM/weight were estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle mass of 1-2 SD below (class I) or more than 2 SD below (class II) the gender-specific mean for healthy young adults. BMI was grouped into five groups (A-E). RESULTS: During the follow-up period (27.2 +/- 13.5 months), 63 subjects died. The subjects who died were significantly older and had a male predominance, increased levels of inflammatory markers and poor nutritional statuses. In a fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, BMI was not associated with mortality. However, class I sarcopenia (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.17-3.79) and class II sarcopenia (HR 3.47, 95% CI 1.62-7.43), defined by ASM/height2, were related to all-cause mortality. This association was not observed when sarcopenia was defined by ASM/weight. Class II sarcopenia defined by ASM/height2 was associated with cancer-related mortality (HR 5.73, 95% CI 2.22-14.78), but not with cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.56, 95% CI 0.17-14.27). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that lower skeletal muscle mass is a risk marker for cancer-related and all-cause mortality in Korean elderly people.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Body Mass Index , Electric Impedance , Follow-Up Studies , Muscle, Skeletal , Nutritional Status , Proportional Hazards Models , Sarcopenia
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 797-798, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90151

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Caloric Restriction , Chronic Disease , Health Promotion , Life Expectancy , Life Style , Malnutrition
14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 551-557, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Small dense low density lipoproteins (sd-LDL) are a risk factor for coronary artery disease and are known to stimulate platelet function in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate whether high proportion of sd-LDL is associated with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HOPR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From January 2009 to March 2010, 439 subjects (mean age: 64.3+/-9.7, Male : Female=306 : 133) were enrolled from the low density LIPOProtein-cholesterol Size measurement Registry with coronary artery disease, who had undergone elective percutaneous coronary intervention and measured both LDL particle size and on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR). Mean LDL particle size was measured by gradient gel electrophoresis (Quantimetrix, Lipoprint(TM)) and OPR by the VerifyNow(TM) system (aspirin and P2Y12). RESULTS: Between pattern A (large, buoyant LDL dominant) and B (sd-LDL dominant) population, there were no significant difference in OPR to aspirin (441.3+/-71.9 vs. 434.07+/-63.45 aspirin reaction units, p=0.351) or clopidogrel (237.9+/-87.3 vs. 244.9+/-80.7 P2Y12 reaction units, p=0.465). There was no difference in LDL particle size between patients with HOPR compared with non-HOPR patients (aspirin: 26.8+/-0.5 vs. 26.7+/-0.6 nm, p=0.078, clopidogrel: 26.7+/-0.6 vs. 26.8+/-0.5 nm, p=0.857). Pearson's correlation coefficients between LDL particle size and platelet reactivity were not statistically significant (aspirin assay: r=0.080, p=0.098, P2Y12 assay: r=-0.027, p=0.568). CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between LDL particle size and OPR in patients with coronary artery disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aspirin , Blood Platelets , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Electrophoresis , Lipoproteins , Lipoproteins, LDL , Particle Size , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Function Tests , Risk Factors , Ticlopidine
15.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 414-423, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to develop and test the validity of the Korean Nursing Delirium Scale (Nu-DESC) for older patients in hospital. METHODS: The Korean Nu-DESC was developed based on the Nu-DESC (Gaudreau, 2005), and revised according to nursing records related to signs and symptoms of older patients with delirium (n=361) and the results of a pilot study (n=42) in one general hospital. To test the validity of the Korean Nu-DESC, 75 older patients whom nurses suspected of delirium from 731 older patients from 12 nursing units were assessed by bedside nurses using the Korean Nu-DESC. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of the Korean Nu-DESC was constructed with an accompanying Area Under the Curve (AUC). RESULTS: Specific examples such as irritable, kidding, sleeping tendency, which were observed by bedside nurses in Korea, were identified in the five features of signs and symptoms of delirium in the instrument. The Korean Nu-DESC was psycho-metrically valid and had a sensitivity and specificity of .81-.76 and .97-.73, respectively. The AUC were .89, .74. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that the Korean Nu-DESC is well-suited for widespread clinical use in busy inpatients settings and shows promise as a research instrument.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Area Under Curve , Behavior , Communication , Confusion , Delirium/diagnosis , Hallucinations , Hospitals, General , Illusions , Pilot Projects , Program Development , Psychomotor Performance , Surveys and Questionnaires , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea , Translating
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1178-1184, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28042

ABSTRACT

DKK1 modulates Wnt signaling, which is involved in the atherosclerosis. However, no data exist regarding the usefulness of measuring serum DKK1 concentration in predicting coronary atherosclerosis. A total of 270 consecutive patients (62.8 +/- 11.2 yr; 70% male) were included. A contrast-enhanced 64-slice coronary MDCT was performed to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Agatston calcium scores (CS) were calculated to quantify the coronary artery calcification (CAC). DKK1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each subsequent DKK1 quartile, there was a significant increase in CAC (P = 0.004) and the number of segments with coronary atherosclerosis (P or = 68.6 pg/mL demonstrated coronary atherosclerotic plaques even when they had low CS. Serum DKK1 concentrations correlate with the coronary atherosclerosis and play an independent role in predicting the presence of coronary atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Calcinosis/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Odds Ratio , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society ; : 207-214, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is a common symptom of heart failure and has a detrimental impact on the quality of life. Skeletal muscle atrophy has been considered an important contributor to exercise intolerance; however, most studies have been conducted in patients with advanced systolic heart failure. METHODS: We studied 39 ambulatory heart failure patients (age, 77.9+/-6.5; male, 17 [43.6%]) and 39 age and gender-matched, community-dwelling, elderly subjects. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to assess the body composition. Exercise capacity was measured by a six-minute walk test. Comprehensive geriatric assessments were also performed to evaluate comorbidity, medication, physical function, cognitive function, and nutritional status. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle mass of heart failure patients showed no differences when compared with that of age- and gender-matched control subjects in any part of the body or in the whole body. Although diastolic heart failure patients showed lower levels of skeletal muscle mass than systolic heart failure patients, no significant difference was identified in either systolic or diastolic heart failure patients compared with respective age- and gender-matched control groups. The six-minute walk distances showed no difference between the groups (257.2+/-117.8 m in the diastolic heart failure group versus 302.7+/-109.4 m in the systolic heart failure group, p=0.226). CONCLUSION: Although skeletal muscle mass has been known to be an independent factor associated with exercise capacity in advanced heart failure patients, skeletal muscle mass was not decreased in ambulatory, elderly heart failure patients when comparing age- and gender-matched control subjects.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Absorptiometry, Photon , Atrophy , Body Composition , Comorbidity , Geriatric Assessment , Heart , Heart Failure , Heart Failure, Diastolic , Heart Failure, Systolic , Muscle, Skeletal , Quality of Life
18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Hypertension ; : 125-132, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of metabolic syndrome (MetS) evaluation in predicting cardiovascular disease is recently criticized. We investigated, in hypertensive patients without diabetes mellitus, the influence of MetS on the target organ damage. METHODS: Data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey performed in 2008 were analyzed. Metabolic syndrome is defined by the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel guideline. The category of hypertension is defined following the seventh report of the Joint National Commitee-7 guideline. RESULTS: The prevalence of target organ damage (TOD), defined as history of myocardial infarction/angina/stroke/chronic renal disease as well as the presence of macroalbuminuria, was increased according to blood pressure; 8.5% in the population of normal blood pressure, 12.5% in those of prehypertensive range, and 20.5% in hypertensive population. Hypertensive population associated with MetS showed greater prevalence of TOD than those without MetS even excluding diabetic population. The presence of MetS in hypertensive population showed 2.2 fold increased risk for TOD. Any single parameter of MetS diagnostic criteria as well as obesity did not show the comparable range of risk prediction as MetS. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a strong relationship of Mets with TOD in hypertensive population. Evaluating the metabolic components in hypertensive population is necessary in establishing management strategies for overall risk.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Joints , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Prevalence
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 16-23, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225001

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk. Caveolin-1 regulates nitric oxide (NO) signaling by modulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The purpose of this study was to examine whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor improves impaired endothelial function of the aorta in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved. Eight-week-old male SHR were assigned to either a control group (CON, n=11) or a rosuvastatin group (ROS, n=12), rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) administered for eight weeks. Abdominal aortic rings were prepared and responses to acetylcholine (10-9-10-4 M) were determined in vitro. To evaluate the potential role of NO and caveolin-1, we examined the plasma activity of NOx, eNOS, phosphorylated-eNOS and expression of caveolin-1. The relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced in ROS compared to CON. Expression of eNOS RNA was unchanged, whereas NOx level and phosphorylated-eNOS at serine-1177 was increased accompanied with depressed level of caveolin-1 in ROS. We conclude that 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor can improve impaired endothelial dysfunction in SHR, and its underlying mechanisms are associated with increased NO production. Furthermore, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor can activate the eNOS by phosphorylation related to decreased caveolin-1 abundance. These results imply the therapeutic strategies for the high blood pressure-associated endothelial dysfunction through modifying caveolin status.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcholine/metabolism , Aorta/metabolism , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Drug Administration Schedule , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Fluorobenzenes/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hypertension/enzymology , Nitric Oxide/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Rats, Inbred SHR , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Vasodilation/drug effects
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 514-519, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efonidipine hydrochloride, an L- and T-type dual calcium channel blocker, is suggested to have a heart rate (HR)-slowing action in addition to a blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of efonidipine on HR and BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a multi-center, prospective, open-labeled, single-armed study, we enrolled 53 patients who had mild-to-moderate hypertension {sitting diastolic BP (SiDBP) 90-110 mmHg}. After a 2-week washout, eligible patients were treated with efonidipine (40 mg once daily for 12 weeks). The primary end point was the change in HR from baseline to week 12. The secondary end-point included the change in trough sitting BP and 24-hour mean BP between baseline and week 12. Laboratory and clinical adverse events were monitored at each study visit (4, 8, and 12 weeks). RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After 12 weeks of treatment with efonidipine, the resting HR decreased significantly from baseline to week 12 {from 81.5+/-5.3 to 71.8+/-9.9 beats/minute (difference, -9.9+/-9.0 beats/minute), p<0.0001}. The trough BP {sitting systolic blood pressure (SiSBP) and SiDBP} and 24-hour mean BP also decreased significantly (SiSBP: from 144.6+/-8.2 to 132.9+/-13.5 mmHg, p<0.0001; SiDBP: from 96.9+/-5.4 to 88.3+/-8.6 mmHg, p<0.0001, 24-hour mean systolic BP: from 140.4+/-13.5 to 133.8+/-11.6 mmHg, p<0.0001; 24-hour mean diastolic BP: from 91.7+/-8.7 to 87.5+/-9.5 mmHg, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Efonidipine was effective in controlling both HR and BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Calcium , Calcium Channel Blockers , Calcium Channels , Dihydropyridines , Heart , Heart Rate , Hypertension , Nitrophenols , Organophosphorus Compounds , Prospective Studies
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