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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 27-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968732

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the gut microbiome using extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) to determine whether gut-microbe-derived EVs could be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC. @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the urine of patients with CRC and healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the EVs, and the bacterial composition was analyzed using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA. @*Results@#A total of 91 patients with CRC and 116 healthy controls were enrolled. We found some specific microbiomes that were more or less abundant in the CRC group than in the control group. The alpha-diversity of the gut microbiome was significantly lower in the CRC group than in the control group. A significant difference was observed in the beta-diversity between the groups. The alpha-diversity indices between patients with early- and late-stage CRC showed conflicting results; however, there was no significant difference in the beta-diversity according to the stage of CRC. There was no difference in the alpha- and beta-diversity of the gut microbiome corresponding to the location of CRC (proximal vs. distal). @*Conclusions@#A distinct gut microbiome is reflected in the urine EVs of patients with CRC compared with that in the healthy controls. Microbial signatures from EVs in urine could serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of CRC.

2.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 3-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967162

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea and the world. Since 2004, this is the 4th gastric cancer guideline published in Korea which is the revised version of previous evidence-based approach in 2018. Current guideline is a collaborative work of the interdisciplinary working group including experts in the field of gastric surgery, gastroenterology, endoscopy, medical oncology, abdominal radiology, pathology, nuclear medicine, radiation oncology and guideline development methodology. Total of 33 key questions were updated or proposed after a collaborative review by the working group and 40 statements were developed according to the systematic review using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and KoreaMed database. The level of evidence and the grading of recommendations were categorized according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation proposition. Evidence level, benefit, harm, and clinical applicability was considered as the significant factors for recommendation. The working group reviewed recommendations and discussed for consensus. In the earlier part, general consideration discusses screening, diagnosis and staging of endoscopy, pathology, radiology, and nuclear medicine. Flowchart is depicted with statements which is supported by meta-analysis and references. Since clinical trial and systematic review was not suitable for postoperative oncologic and nutritional follow-up, working group agreed to conduct a nationwide survey investigating the clinical practice of all tertiary or general hospitals in Korea. The purpose of this survey was to provide baseline information on follow up. Herein we present a multidisciplinary-evidence based gastric cancer guideline.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 243-258, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966895

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) shows sex difference.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on GC survival depending on sex. @*Methods@#The sex, age, location, histology, TNM stages, BMI, and survival were analyzed in GC patients from May 2003 to February 2020 at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. @*Results@#Among 14,688 patients, there were twice as many males (66.6%) as females (33.4%).However, under age 40 years, females (8.6%) were more prevalent than males (3.1%). Cardia GC in males showed a U-shaped distribution for underweight (9.6%), normal (6.4%), overweight (6.1%), obesity (5.6%), and severe obesity (9.3%) but not in females (p=0.003). Females showed decreased proportion of diffuse-type GC regarding BMI (underweight [59.9%], normal [56.8%], overweight [49.5%], obesity [44.8%], and severe obesity [41.7%]), but males did not (p<0.001). Both sexes had the worst prognosis in the underweight group (p<0.001), and the higher BMI, the better prognosis in males, but not females. Sex differences in prognosis according to BMI tended to be more prominent in males than in females in subgroup analysis of TNM stages I, II, and III and the operative treatment group. @*Conclusions@#GC-specific survival was affected by BMI in a sex-dependent manner. These differences may be related to genetic, and environmental, hormonal factors; body composition; and muscle mass (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 58-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966878

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is positively associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the long-term effects of eradication therapy on MS and sex differences have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects of HP eradication on MS and sex differences. @*Methods@#This study included 2,267 subjects who visited a tertiary referral center between May 2003 and May 2019. HP was diagnosed by histology, a Campylobacter-like organism test, and culture, and the subjects were prospectively followed up. The participants were categorized into three groups: HP uninfected, HP infected but non-eradicated, and HP eradicated. The baseline characteristics and changes in metabolic parameters after HP eradication were compared over a 5-year follow-up period. @*Results@#Among 1,521 subjects, there was no difference in baseline metabolic parameters between the HP-uninfected (n=509) and HP-infected (n=1,012) groups, regardless of sex. Analysis of the metabolic parameters during follow-up among HP-uninfected (n=509), HP-non-eradicated (n=346), and HP-eradicated (n=666) groups showed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the body mass index (BMI) increased after eradication, with a significant difference at 1-year of follow-up. In females, HDL increased after eradication (p=0.023), and the BMI increased after eradication in male subjects (p=0.010). After propensity score matching, the HDL change in female remained significant, but the statistical significance of the change in BMI in the male group became marginally significant (p=0.089). @*Conclusions@#HP eradication affected metabolic parameters differently depending on sex. HDL significantly increased only in females over time, especially at 1-year of follow-up. In contrast, BMI showed an increasing tendency over time in males, especially at the 1-year follow-up.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 108-118, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the stool microbiome and gut microbe-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to differentiate between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and healthy controls, and to predict relapse in patients with IBD. @*Methods@#Metagenomic profiling of the microbiome and bacterial EVs in stool samples of controls (n=110) and patients with IBD (n=110) was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing and then compared. Patients with IBD were divided into two enterotypes based on their microbiome, and the cumulative risk of relapse was evaluated. @*Results@#There was a significant difference in the composition of the stool microbiome and gut microbe-derived EVs between patients with IBD and controls. The alpha diversity of the microbiome in patients with IBD was significantly lower than that in controls, while the beta diversity also differed significantly between the two groups. These findings were more prominent in gut microbe-derived EVs than in the stool microbiome. The survival curve tended to be different for enterotypes based on the gut microbe-derived EVs; however, this difference was not statistically significant (log-rank test, p=0.166). In the multivariable analysis, elevated fecal calprotectin (>250 mg/kg) was the only significant risk factor associated with relapse (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.147; 95% confidence interval, 1.545 to 6.408; p=0.002). @*Conclusions@#Analysis of gut microbe-derived EVs is better at differentiating patients with IBD from healthy controls than stool microbiome analysis.

6.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 111-120, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915750

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential for clinical decision making, conduction of clinical research, and drug application acquisition in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study is to develop a PRO instrument and to determine the respondents’ perception of the efficacy of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#A self-evaluation questionnaire for dyspepsia (SEQ-DYSPEPSIA) was developed and validated through a structured process. The 2-week reproducibility was evaluated, and the construct validity was assessed by correlating the scores of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA (including typical and major FD symptom subscales). Finally, the response to medication was assessed by comparing the changes after 4 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#A total of 193 Korean patients (age 48.5 ± 13.6 years, 69.4% women) completed the questionnaire. SEQ-DYSPEPSIA with 11 items had a good internal consistency (alpha = 0.770-0.905) and an acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.733-0.859). The self-evaluation questionnaire (SEQ)-major FD score highly correlated with the postprandial fullness/early satiety domain of the Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (correlation coefficient r = 0.741, P < 0.001), Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K) (r = 0.839, P < 0.001), and NDI-K quality of life (r = −0.275 to −0.344, P < 0.001). After medical treatment, decrease in the SEQ-typical FD and SEQ-major FD was significantly greater in the responder group than in nonresponder group (P= 0.019 and P = 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Korean version of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA has good reliability and validity, and can be a useful PRO measurement tool in patients with FD.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 199-207, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913827

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains controversy about relationship between obesity and gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the association using obesity-persistence. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort which underwent health check-up between 2009 and 2012. Among them, those who had annual examinations during the last 5 years were selected. Gastric cancer risk was compared between those without obesity during the 5 years (never-obesity group) and those with obesity diagnosis during the 5 years (non-persistent obesity group; persistent obesity group). @*Results@#Among 2,757,017 individuals, 13,441 developed gastric cancer after median 6.78 years of follow-up. Gastric cancer risk was the highest in persistent obesity group (incidence rate [IR], 0.89/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.197; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.117 to 1.284), followed by non-persistent obesity group (IR, 0.83/1,000 person-years; HR, 1.113; 95% CI, 1.056 to 1.172) compared with never-obesity group. In subgroup analysis, this positive relationship was true among those < 65 years old and male. Among heavy-drinkers, the impact of obesity-persistence on the gastric cancer risk far increased (non-persistent obesity: HR, 1.297; 95% CI, 1.094 to 1.538; persistent obesity: HR, 1.351; 95% CI, 1.076 to 1.698). @*Conclusion@#Obesity-persistence is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a dose-response manner, especially among male < 65 years old. The risk raising effect was much stronger among heavy-drinkers.

8.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 119-130, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939077

ABSTRACT

Histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) suppress gastric acid production by blocking H2 receptors in parietal cells. Studies have shown that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are superior to H2RAs as a treatment for acid-related disorders, such as peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). PPIs reduce gastric acid production by irreversibly inhibiting the H+/K+ ATPase pump, and they also increase gastric emptying. Although PPIs have differing pharmacokinetic properties, each PPI is effective in managing GERD and PUDs. However, PPIs have some limitations, including short plasma half-lives, breakthrough symptoms (especially at night), meal-associated dosing, and concerns associated with long-term PPI use. Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) provide more rapid and profound suppression of intragastric acidity than PPIs. P-CABs are non-inferior to lansoprazole in healing erosive esophagitis and peptic ulcers, and may also be effective in improving symptoms in patients with non-erosive reflux disease. Acid suppressive drugs are the most commonly used drugs in clinical practice, and it is necessary to understand the pharmacological properties and adverse effects of each drug.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 17-27, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939066

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease that reduces the quality of life and incurs considerable medical expenses. Bisacodyl and sodium docusate are generally used to treat constipation. This study assessed the effectiveness and safety of Goodmorning S Granule® (Hanpoong Pharm. Co., Ltd., Wanju, Korea) in functional constipation by a comparison with bisacodyl. @*Methods@#A 2-week randomized, double-blind, active-controlled exploratory clinical trial was conducted to compare the treatment (Goodmorning S Granule® ) with the control (bisacodyl). The efficacy was measured by the changes in transition, Bristol stool type, stomachache, clinical manifestation, defecation time after drug consumption, 36-item short-form survey (SF-36), and the results of improvement evaluation. The safety was evaluated by the incidence of adverse drug events and vital signs. Additional analyses were conducted by dividing the severity according to the proportion of Bristol Stool Scale types 1 and 2. @*Results@#Subjects were randomized to the treatment (n=24) or control (n=26) groups. No significant differences were observed in demographics. After 2 weeks from the baseline, the changes in the complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) were higher in the treatment (4.00±2.62) group than in the control group (1.40±2.34) (p<0.05). The treatment group exhibited significant improvement in the score on the SF-36 questionnaire. The clinical side effects, such as stomachache and borborygmus, were reduced in the moderate constipation patients in the treatment group, according to additional analyses. @*Conclusions@#Goodmorning S Granule® , a herbal medicine, was more effective in improving quality of life and CSBM per week and safer in the moderate constipation groups because of the reduced clinical side effects.

10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 28-33, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939065

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Symptom-based subtyping of functional dyspepsia (FD) is used to segregate patients into groups with homogenous pathophysiological mechanisms. This study examined whether subtyping could reflect the duodenal and gastric microinflammation in FD patients. @*Methods@#Twenty-one FD patients without Helicobacter pylori infection were recruited. An endoscopic biopsy was performed in the duodenum 2nd portion, stomach antrum, and body. The eosinophil and mast cell counts per high-power field (×40) were investigated by H&E and c-kit staining, respectively. The degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia was also determined by H&E staining in the stomach. The baseline characteristics and eosinophil and mast cell infiltrations were compared among the three groups (epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and overlap). @*Results@#According to the symptom assessment, seven subjects were classified into the epigastric pain syndrome group, 10 into the postprandial syndrome group, and four into the overlap group. The baseline variables were similar in the three groups. Eosinophil infiltration was more prominent in the duodenum than in the stomach. In contrast, mast cell infiltration was similar in the duodenum and stomach. The eosinophil counts in the duodenum were similar in the three groups. The eosinophil counts in the stomach and mast cell counts in the duodenum and stomach were also similar in the three groups. @*Conclusions@#Duodenal eosinophil infiltration was prominent in FD patients, but the eosinophil counts were similar regardless of the symptom-based subtypes of FD. Hence, the current symptom-based subtyping of FD does not reflect duodenal eosinophil and mast cell infiltration.

11.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 254-261, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968684

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Anorectal functions are influenced by gender and age. This study sought to define the normal anorectal pressure values measured with conventional anorectal manometry (ARM) and to evaluate the effects of age and gender on anorectal function in asymptomatic subjects. @*Methods@#Conventional ARM was used to measure the anorectal pressures of 164 asymptomatic healthy subjects, including 86 males and 76 females. @*Results@#The resting anal pressures of males and females aged >60 years were significantly lower than those ≤60 years (males, 44.09±14.22 vs. 57.45±17.69, p<0.001; females, 44.09±14.22 vs. 57.45±17.69, p<0.001). The anal high-pressure zone was significantly lower in older males than in younger males (2.42±0.93 vs. 2.82±0.739, p=0.048). In both age groups (<60 and ≥60 years), the anal squeezing pressures of males were significantly higher than those of females (<60 years old, 168.40±75.94 vs. 119.15±57.53, p=0.001; ≥60 years, 149.61±64.68 vs. 101.3±54.92, p=0.006). @*Conclusions@#The normal anorectal pressure values measured with ARM in males and females were different. Older males and females had lower anal resting pressures than those of the younger subjects, but squeezing pressure was not affected by age.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 579-590, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the metabolic syndrome or diabetes are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or prediabetes mellitus (preDM). @*Methods@#A total of 124 asymptomatic subjects with T2DM or preDM were divided into H. pylori-negative (n = 40), H. pylori-positive with non-eradicated (n = 34), and eradicated (n = 50) groups. We measured H. pylori status (culture, histology, and rapid urease test) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels and followed-up at the 1st year and the 5th year of follow-up. @*Results@#The A1C levels significantly decreased in the eradicated group compared to the negative group and the non-eradicated groups (at the 1st year, p = 0.024; at the 5th year, p = 0.009). The A1C levels decreased in male, and/or subjects < 65 years of age in subgroup analyses (in male subjects, p = 0.047 and p = 0.020 at the 1st and the 5th year; in subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.028 and p = 0.006 at the 1st and the 5th year; in male subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.039 and p = 0.032 at the 1st and the 5th year). The eradication of H. pylori was related to the decrease in A1C values throughout the follow-up period, compared to the non-eradicated group (p = 0.017). @*Conclusions@#H. pylori eradication was related to the decreasing of A1C levels in patients with T2DM or preDM over a long-term follow-up period, especially in male and subjects < 65 years of age.

13.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 265-275, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926119

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To assess the effects and safety of DA-9701 (Motilitone) in patients with constipation-type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) whichfrequently accompany functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#FD and IBS-C were diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Randomized subjects were administered 30 mg of DA-9701 or placebo 3times a day for 4 weeks. The study endpoints were evaluated the percentage of responders in the overall symptom evaluation of IBS-C and FD. @*Results@#Thirty IBS-C patients and 30 placebos were prospectively enrolled. The proportion of responders with improvement in overall symptoms of IBS-C was 53.33% in the DA-9701 group and 40.00% in the placebo group (P = 0.301). Compared to the placebo group, the decrease of abdominal pain score in the DA-9701 group was significantly higher at week 3 in the DA-9701 group (0.96 ± 0.77 vs 0.55 ± 0.79, P = 0.042) but no significance at week 4. There was no significant difference in total IBS quality of life score at week 4 between the 2 groups (P = 0.897). Among patients with IBS-C accompanied by FD, the proportion of responders in the DA-9701 group was 50.00% (15/30), which was higher than 31.03% (9/29) of the placebo group (P = 0.138). @*Conclusions@#DA-9701 showed trend of treatment efficacy in patients with IBS-C and FD overlap including overall improvement, and safety,compared to placebo but without significance probably due to small numbers. It is suggested the need for a large-scale clinical trial toconfirm this preliminary effect of DA-9701.

14.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 191-199, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925467

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cancers, little is known about the risk of psoriasis in cancer patients. @*Objective@#We aimed to comparatively analyze the incidence and risk factors of psoriasis in gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy and in the general population. @*Methods@#A nationwide retrospective cohort of 52,608 gastric cancer survivors (2007~2015) was compared to 123,438 matched controls from the general population to estimate the incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset psoriasis. We also calculated the HRs for psoriasis according to adjuvant cancer treatment, obesity, and vitamin B12 supplementation in gastric cancer survivors. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 6.85 years, 645 of the 52,608 gastric cancer patients developed psoriasis, while 1,806 in the 123,438 matched control group developed psoriasis. Gastric cancer patients had a decreased risk of psoriasis (HR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.79~0.94), especially those who underwent subtotal gastrectomy. We found that vitamin B12 supplementation for more than 3 years had an additive effect on decreasing the risk of psoriasis in gastric cancer patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Total gastrectomy, radio/chemotherapy, and obesity did not affect the risk of psoriasis in gastric cancer survivors. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of psoriasis is slightly lower in gastric cancer survivors than in the general population. Our results suggest that the development of psoriasis may be reduced by removing the source of systemic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection through subtotal gastrectomy in gastric cancer survivors.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 465-473, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925016

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#Contradictory findings on the association between cholecystectomy and cancer have been reported. We aimed to investigate the risk of all types of cancers or site-specific cancers in patients who underwent cholecystectomy using a nationwide dataset. @*Methods@#Subjects who underwent cholecystectomy from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014, who were older than 20 years and who underwent an initial baseline health check-up within 2 years were enrolled. Those who were diagnosed with any type of cancer before the enrollment or within 1 year after enrollment were excluded. Ultimately, patients (n=123,295) who underwent cholecystectomy and age/sex matched population (n=123,295) were identified from the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cancer were estimated, and Cox regression analysis was performed. @*Results@#The incidence of cancer in the cholecystectomy group was 9.56 per 1,000 person-years and that in the control group was 7.95 per 1,000 person-years. Patients who underwent cholecystectomy showed an increased risk of total cancer (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24; p<0.001), particularly leukemia and malignancies of the colon, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, thyroid, pharynx, and oral cavity. In the subgroup analysis according to sex, the risk of developing cancers in the pancreas, biliary tract, thyroid, lungs and stomach was higher in men than in women. @*Conclusions@#Physicians should pay more attention to the possibility of the occurrence of secondary cancers among patients who undergo cholecystectomy.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 366-374, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925013

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Less invasive surgical treatment is performed in East Asia to preserve postoperative digestive function and reduce complications such as postgastrectomy syndromes, but there is an issue of metachronous gastric cancer (GC) in the remaining stomach. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of metachronous GC and its risk factors in patients who had undergone partial gastrectomy. @*Methods@#A total of 3,045 GC patients who had undergone curative gastric partial resection at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively for risk factors, including age, sex, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, family history of GC, histological type, and surgical method. @*Results@#Metachronous GC in the remaining stomach occurred in 35 of the 3,045 patients (1.1%): 23 in the distal gastrectomy group (18 with Billroth-I anastomosis, five with Billroth-II anastomosis), seven in the proximal gastrectomy (PG) group, and five in the pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) group. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that age ≥60 years (p=0.005) and surgical method used (PG or PPG, p<0.001) were related risk factors for metachronous GC, while male sex and intestinal type histology were potential risk factors. @*Conclusions@#Metachronous GC was shown to be related to older age and the surgical method used (PG or PPG). Regular and careful follow-up with endoscopy should be performed in the case of gastric partial resection, especially in patients with male sex and intestinal type histology as well as those aged ≥60 years undergoing the PG or PPG surgical method.

17.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 313-319, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918946

ABSTRACT

Superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) is an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma confined to the mucosa or superficial submucosa. Recent Korean Guidelines recommend an endoscopic resection as the first-line treatment for SESCC without a distant or lymph node metastasis (LNM) after excluding those with an obvious submucosal invasion. Before endoscopic treatment of SESCC, Lugol chromoendoscopy or image-enhanced endoscopy is recommended to define the extent of the lesion, and endoscopic ultrasound is recommended to determine the T stage. The tumor size, macroscopic type of tumor, pathologic differentiation, depth of tumor, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) are risk factors of LNM in SESCC. No additional treatment is necessary after an en bloc complete resection of SESCC invading no more than the lamina propria without LVI. Although the risk of LNM in a SESCC invading into muscularis mucosa without LVI is low, a close follow-up is recommended without additional treatment. On the other hand, additional treatment is recommended in the case of a tumor with submucosal invasion or an LVI positive or positive vertical resection margin.Adjuvant therapy includes esophagectomy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but it is unclear which treatment is better. The 5-year overall survival rates were reportedly 90-100% for esophagectomy and 75-85% for CRT. Nevertheless, patients with high-risk features including poorly differentiated histology, LVI positive, perineural invasion positive, T1b-SM2/T1b-SM3 cancer, and vertical resection margin positive need to be treated with an additional esophagectomy. Elderly patients, those with a physical condition and co-morbidities, and those with LNM or cancer-specific mortality require additional treatment after a non-curative endoscopic resection of SESCC.

18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S9-S17, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875502

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Combination therapy with immunomodulators (IMMs) was proposed as a strategy to prevent the development of loss of response (LOR) to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the effect is unclear in patients already exposed to IMMs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combination therapy with IMMs is superior to monotherapy for prevention of LOR to anti-TNF. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of patients in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital with IBD between January 2009 and October 2018. LOR was defined as clinical deterioration after maintenance of anti-TNF for at least 6 months. We investigated the difference in incidence of LOR to anti-TNF between the monotherapy and combination groups. We additionally assessed factors affecting LOR development to anti-TNF. @*Results@#A total of 116 patients with IBD were included in this study (monotherapy 61 patients; combination 55 patients). Overall, LOR to anti-TNF occurred in 31 patients during the follow-up period. The combination of an anti-TNF agent and IMM showed no significant difference in the incidence of LOR compared to anti-TNF agent monotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.786 to 3.148; p = 0.182). Female sex was significantly associated with the development of LOR to anti-TNF (HR, 3.032; 95% CI, 1.467 to 6.268; p = 0.003). @*Conclusions@#Anti-TNF and IMM combination therapy did not prove efficacious in preventing the development of LOR in IBD patients. Female sex was associated with the development of LOR to anti-TNF; further studies are required to confirm these results.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 322-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875475

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The length of colon is known to be longer in females than in males. In addition, the morphology of colon cancer is different between males and females. The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in Boston bowel preparation score (BBPS) and colonoscopy insertion time. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively analyzed medical records and colonoscopy readings of subjects who underwent colonoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from March 2015 to April 2018. BPPS was used to evaluate the degree of colon cleanness before colonoscopy. Statistical analysis was performed to compare demographic, clinical, and outcome variables between two groups. @*Results@#The study group consisted of a total of 12,561 patients (6,148 females and 6,413 males). Mean age was 57.8 ± 13.5 years for females and 57.5 ± 13.8 years for males (p = 0.695). Females showed better bowel preparation than males (mean total score: 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 7.2 ± 1.9, p = 0.001; total score ≥ 6: 5,340 [86.9%] vs. 5,437 [84.8%], p = 0.001; BBPS ≥ 2 for all segments: 5,048 [82.1%] vs. 5,097 [79.5%], p < 0.001). However, cecal intubation time (8.3 ± 6.2 minutes vs. 6.2 ± 6.1 minutes, p < 0.001) and withdrawal time (7.9 ± 3.5 minutes vs. 7.4 ± 3.1 minutes, p < 0.001) were longer in males. @*Conclusions@#There were sex differences in BBPS, cecal intubation time, and withdrawal time for subjects undergoing colonoscopy.

20.
Gut and Liver ; : 243-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874595

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#South Korean soldiers are exposed to similar environmental factors. In this study, we sought to evaluate the gut microbiome of healthy young male soldiers (HYMS) and to identify the primary factors influencing the microbiome composition. @*Methods@#We prospectively collected stool from 100 HYMS and performed next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of fecal bacteria. Clinical data, including data relating to the diet, smoking, drinking, and exercise, were collected. @*Results@#The relative abundances of the bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were 72.3%, 14.5%, 8.9%, and 4.0%, respectively. Fifteen species, most of which belonged to Firmicutes (87%), were detected in all examined subjects. Using cluster analysis, we found that the subjects could be divided into the two enterotypes based on the gut microbiome bacterial composition. Compared with enterotype 2 subjects, subjects classified as enterotype 1 tended to be characterized by higher frequencies of potentially harmful lifestyle habits (current smoker: 55.6% vs 36.6%, p=0.222; heavy drinker: 16.7% vs 3.7%, p=0.120; insufficient physical activity: 27.8% vs 14.6%, p=0.318). We identified a significant difference in the microbiome compositions of current and noncurrent smokers (p=0.008); the former differed from the latter mainly in a relatively lower abundance of Bifidobacterium species and a higher abundance of Negativicutes. @*Conclusions@#A high abundance of Actinobacteria and low abundance of Bacteroidetes

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