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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875397

ABSTRACT

Accurate transfer of the maxillo-mandibular relationship to an articulator (i.e., mounting) is critical in prosthetic treatment procedures. In the current study, a PubMed search was performed to review the influencing factors for the maxillo-mandibular relationship’s accuracy. The search included digital mounting as well as conventional gypsum cast mounting. The results showed that a greater amount of displacement was introduced during positioning the maxillary and mandibular models to interocclusal records rather than the dimensional change of registration material. Most intraoral scanners resulted in an accurate reproduction of the maxillo-mandibular relationship for posterior quadrant scanning;however, the accuracy was declined as the scan area increased to a complete arch scan. The digital mounting accuracy was also influenced by the image processing algorithms and software versions, especially for complete arch scans.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, profiling a wide range of genomic alterations has become a possibility resulting in improved implementation of targeted cancer therapy. In Asian populations, the prevalence and spectrum of clinically actionable genetic alterations has not yet been determined because of a lack of studies examining high-throughput cancer genomic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, 1,071 tumor samples were collected from five major cancer institutes in Korea and analyzed using targeted NGS at a centralized laboratory. Samples were either fresh frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) and the quality and yield of extracted genomic DNA was assessed. In order to estimate the effect of sample condition on the quality of sequencing results, tissue preparation method, specimen type (resected or biopsied) and tissue storage time were compared. RESULTS: We detected 7,360 non-synonymous point mutations, 1,164 small insertions and deletions, 3,173 copy number alterations, and 462 structural variants. Fifty-four percent of tumors had one or more clinically relevant genetic mutation. The distribution of actionable variants was variable among different genes. Fresh frozen tissues, surgically resected specimens, and recently obtained specimens generated superior sequencing results over FFPE tissues, biopsied specimens, and tissues with long storage duration. CONCLUSION: In order to overcome, challenges involved in bringing NGS testing into routine clinical use, a centralized laboratory model was designed that could improve the NGS workflows, provide appropriate turnaround times and control costs with goal of enabling precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Asians , DNA , Humans , Korea , Methods , Paraffin , Point Mutation , Precision Medicine , Prevalence
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57562

ABSTRACT

12(S)-Hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid (12-HHT) is an enzymatic product of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) derived from cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Despite the high level of 12-HHT present in tissues and bodily fluids, its precise function remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that 12-HHT treatment in HaCaT cells remarkably down-regulated the ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with cutaneous inflammation. In an approach to identify the down-stream signaling mechanism by which 12-HHT down-regulates UVB-induced IL-6 synthesis in keratinocytes, we observed that 12-HHT inhibits the UVB-stimulated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). In addition, we found that 12-HHT markedly up-regulates MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a critical negative regulator of p38 MAPK. When MKP-1 was suppressed by siRNA knock-down, the 12-HHT-mediated inhibitory effects on the UVB-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB, as well as the production of IL-6, were attenuated in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that 12-HHT exerts anti-inflammatory effect via up-regulation of MKP-1, which negatively regulates p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB, thus attenuating IL-6 production in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Considering the critical role of IL-6 in cutaneous inflammation, our findings provide the basis for the application of 12-HHT as a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in UV-induced skin diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cell Line , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1/biosynthesis , Enzyme Activation , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Keratinocytes/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Receptors, Leukotriene B4/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Ultraviolet Rays , Up-Regulation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122575

ABSTRACT

Skin exposure to low-dose ultraviolet B (UVB) light up-regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), thus contributing to premature skin aging (photo-aging). Although cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), have been associated with UVB-induced signaling to MMP expression, very little are known about the roles of lipoxygenases and their products, especially leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE), in MMP-1 expression in skin keratinocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that BLT2, a cell surface receptor for LTB4 and 12(S)-HETE, plays a critical role in UVB-mediated MMP-1 upregulation in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Moreover, our results demonstrated that BLT2-mediated MMP-1 upregulation occurs through a signaling pathway dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the subsequent stimulation of ERK. Blockage of BLT2 via siRNA knockdown or with the BLT2-antagonist LY255283 completely abolished the up-regulated expression of MMP-1 induced by low-dose UVB irradiation. Finally, when HaCaT cells were transiently transfected with a BLT2 expression plasmid, MMP-1 expression was significantly enhanced, along with ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that BLT2 overexpression alone is sufficient for MMP-1 up-regulation. Together, our results suggest that the BLT2-ROS-ERK-linked cascade is a novel signaling mechanism for MMP-1 upregulation in low-dose UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and thus potentially contributes to photo-aging.


Subject(s)
12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid/biosynthesis , Cell Line , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/biosynthesis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/biosynthesis , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Leukotriene B4/physiology , Signal Transduction , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14686

ABSTRACT

The identification of the DNA structure as a doublestranded helix consisting of two nucleotide chain molecules was a milestone in modern molecular biology. The DNA chip technology is based on reverse hybridization that follows the principle of complementary binding of doublestranded DNA. DNA chip can be described as the deposition of defined nucleic acid sequences, probes, on a solid substrate to form a regular array of elements that are available for hybridization to complementary nucleic acids, targets. DNA chips based on cDNA clones, oligonucleotides and genomic clones have been developed for gene expression studies, genetic variation analysis and genomic changes associated with diseases including cancers and genetic diseases. DNA chips for gene expression profiling can be used for functional analysis in human cells and animal models, diseaserelated gene studies, assessment of gene therapy, assessment of genetically modified food, and research for drug discovery. DNA chips for genetic variation detection can beused for the detection of mutations or chromosomal abnormalities in cancers, drug resistances in cancer cells or pathogenic microbes, histocompatibility analysis for transplantation, individual identification for forensic medicine, and detection and discrimination of pathogenic microbes. The DNA chip will be generalized as a useful tool in clinical diagnostics in the near future. Labona chip and informatics will facilitate the development of a variety of DNA chips for diagnostic purposes.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Clone Cells , Discrimination, Psychological , DNA , DNA, Complementary , Drug Discovery , Food, Genetically Modified , Forensic Medicine , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Variation , Histocompatibility , Humans , Informatics , Models, Animal , Molecular Biology , Nucleic Acids , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oligonucleotides
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The resurgence of tuberculosis and the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis have emphasized the importance of rapid and accurate diagnostic procedures. Recently, the oligonucleotide chip has proven to be a useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to rapidly and accurately detect specific mutations in the rpoB, katG and rpsL genes associated with rifampin, isoniazid and streptomycin resistance in M. tuberculosis, respectively, using a single oligonucleotide chip. METHOD: For detection of drug-resistance, 7 wild-type and 13 mutant-type probes for rifampin, 2 wild-type and 3 mutant-type probes for isoniazid, and 2 wild-type and 2 mutant-type probes for streptomycin were designed and spotted onto glass slides. Fifty-five cultured samples of M. tuberculosis were amplified by PCR, and then underwent hybridization and scanning. Direct sequencing was done to verify the results from the oligonucleotide chip and to analyze the types of mutations. RESULT: Thirty-five cases out of 40 rifampin-resistant strains(~88%) had mutations in the rpoB gene. One case had a new mutation(D516F, GAC R TTC) and another known mutation together. Twenty cases out of 42 isoniazid-resistant strains(~50%) had mutations in the katG gene, while 7 cases out of 9 streptomycin-resistant strains(~78%) had mutations in the rpsL gene. From these results, the oligonucleotide chip was confirmed to be able to detect the most frequent mutations from the genes associated with rifampin, isoniazid and streptomycin resistance. The results proved that the drug-resistance detection probes were specific. When the results from the oligonucleotide chip and DNA sequencing were compared, the types of mutations were exactly matched. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic oligonucleotide chip with mutation specific probes for drug resistance is a very reliable and useful tool for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of drug resistance against rifampin, isoniazid and streptomycin in M. tuberculosis infections.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Glass , Isoniazid , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rifampin , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Streptomycin , Tuberculosis
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oligonucleotide chip technology has proven to be a very useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of infectious disease. Rifampin resistance is considered as a useful marker of multidrug-resistance in tuberculosis. Mutations in the rpoB gene coding β subunit of RNA polymerase represent the main mechanism of rifampin resistance. The purpose of this study was to develop a diagnosis kit using oligonucleotide chip for the rapid and accurate detection of rifampin-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHOD: Tle sequence specific probes for mutations in the rpoB gene were designed and spotted onto the glass slide, oligonucleotide chip. 38 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium were tested. A part of rpoB was amplified, labelled, and hybridized on the oligonucleotide chip with probes. Results were analyzed with a laser scanner. Direct sequencing was done to verify the results. RESULT: The low-density oligonucleotide chip designed to determine the specific mutations in the rpoB gene of M. tuberculosis accurately detected rifampin resistance associated with mutations in 28 clinical isolates. Mutations at codons 531, 526, and 513 were confirmed by direct sequencing analysis. CONCLUSION: Mutant detection using oligonucleotide chip technology is a reliable and useful diagnostic tool for the detection of multidrug-resistance in M. tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Clinical Coding , Codon , Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Glass , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin , Tuberculosis
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