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Immune Network ; : e14-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740198


T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies. Therefore, the tight regulation of ROS production by cellular antioxidant pathways is critical to maintaining proper signal transduction without compromising the integrity of the cell. This review intends to detail the common metabolic sources of intracellular ROS and the mechanisms by which ROS contributes to the development of T cell-mediated immunity. The regulation of ROS levels by the glutathione pathway and the Nrf2-Keap1-Cul3 trimeric complex will be discussed. Finally, T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases exacerbated by defects in ROS regulation will be further examined in order to identify potential therapeutic interventions for these disorders.

Antioxidants , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Cytotoxins , DNA , Glutathione , Immunity, Cellular , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Second Messenger Systems , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
Immune Network ; : 30-37, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192387


Collaboration of TLR and non-TLR pathways in innate immune cells, which acts in concert for the induction of inflammatory cytokines, can mount a specific adaptive immune response tailored to a pathogen. Here, we show that murine DC produced increased IL-23 and IL-6 when they were treated with LPS together with curdlan that activates TLR4 and dectin-1, respectively. We also found that the induction of the inflammatory cytokine production by LPS and curdlan requires activation of IKK. However, the same treatment did not induce DC to produce a sufficient amount of TGF-beta. As a result, the conditioned media from DC treated with LPS and curdlan was not able to direct CD4+ T cells to Th17 cells. Addition of TGF-beta but not IL-6 or IL-1beta was able to promote IL-17 production from CD4+ T cells. Our results showed that although signaling mediated by LPS together with curdlan is a potent stimulator of DC to secrete many pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-beta production is a limiting factor for promoting Th17 immunity.

Adaptive Immunity , Cooperative Behavior , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cytokines , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-6 , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta