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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835504

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Many patients with thyroid cancer are participating in the online community. Thyroid cancer patients write and read a variety of posts in the online community, and there is a great deal of data generated in the digital environment. However, few studies have analyzed the online community of thyroid cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the online community to understand the interests and information seeking behavior of thyroid cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Data were collected from August 2017 to September 2019 using statistics from an online community of thyroid cancer patients. The frequency analysis was performed by collecting the members’ gender, age, average usage time, time-of-day views, average monthly visits, device distribution, online community inflow query, query within online community, and content of a post with more than 1000 views per month. @*Results@#Analyzing the online community of thyroid cancer patients, women accounted for 80.4% of the total, and the age group of people in their 30s and 40s accounted for 77.5%. Online community subscribers averaged 0.7 visits a day using mobile, with the most frequent use time between 10pm and 12pm. Frequently used queries are medical staff names, surgery, recurrence and scar. Posts showed informational and emotional exchanges. @*Conclusion@#Patients with thyroid cancer have searched for a lot of information about surgery and recurrence. Analyzing the online community will help to understand the experience of thyroid cancer patients and contribute to the development of online community intervention.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most thyroid cancers progress slowly, have high survival rates, and have good prognosis. Therefore, the management of patients with thyroid cancer should be viewed from a long-term perspective, taking into account a return to normal social life. Cancer patients have a higher risk of unemployment than the general population, and so unemployment can be an economic problem for thyroid cancer patients. However, there have been few studies on factors affecting return to work in thyroid cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate occupational changes and the period of leave of absence for patients with thyroid cancer and to identify factors that affect the return to work after surgery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 427 questionnaires of thyroid cancer patients were used for the analysis. The occupational changes and sick leave periods were analyzed according to general characteristics, disease-related characteristics, and side effects.RESULTS: The factors related to occupational change and leave of absence in thyroid cancer patients were sex and type of occupation. Women had more occupational changes and longer leave of absence than men, office workers had the least change in occupation, and professional workers had a longer period of sick leave. Fatigue was the primary side effect that affected the leave of absence.CONCLUSION: Occupation is very important in the life of a thyroid cancer patient. Informing the patient of possible complications and planning proper leave of absence will help the patient return to work and improve the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Fatigue , Female , Humans , Male , Occupations , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Return to Work , Sick Leave , Survival Rate , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Unemployment
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare, it is one of the deadliest forms of thyroid cancer. The fatality rate for ATC is high, and the survival rate at one year after diagnosis is <20%. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor activities of paclitaxel, radiation, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) combined therapy in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and explore its effects on apoptotic cell death pathways.MATERIALS #SPCHAR_X0026; METHODS: ATC cell line was exposed to TKI, lenvatinib in the presence or absence of paclitaxel with radiation, and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Effects of the combined treatment on cell cycle and intracellular signaling pathways were assessed by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The ATC cell line xenograft model was used to examine the anti-tumor activity in vivo.RESULTS: Our data revealed that the combined administration of paclitaxel, TKI, and radiation decreased cell viability in ATC cells, and also significantly increased apoptotic cell death in these cells, as demonstrated by the cleavage of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. This combination therapy reduced anti-apoptotic factor levels in ATC cells, while significantly decreasing tumor volume and increasing survival in ATC xenografts.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that administering the combination of paclitaxel, TKI, and radiation therapy may exert significant anticancer effects in preclinical models, potentially suggesting a new clinical approach for treating patients with ATC.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Diagnosis , DNA Fragmentation , Flow Cytometry , Heterografts , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Paclitaxel , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Survival Rate , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tumor Burden
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226737

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FPTMC) is now recognized more frequently. However, the biological behavior of FPTMC is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FPTMC and its biological aggressiveness. METHODS: Between March 2006 and July 2010, 2,414 patients underwent primary surgical therapy for PTMC and 149 (6.2%) were further classified as FPTMC. To determine the biological aggressiveness of FPTMC, we compared the clinicopathological features and prognosis between FPTMC and sporadic PTMC (SPTMC). RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was higher in FPTMC than in sporadic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (SPTMC: 1:4.5 vs. 1:7.2, P = 0.041). The central lymph node (LN) metastasis rate was significantly higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (36.2% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.002). The local recurrence rate was also higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (4.5% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001). We identified familial occurrence in 6.2% of cases of PTMC. FPTMC is associated with a high rate of central LN metastasis and local recurrence. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that close follow-up can be beneficial in FPTMC patients to detect local recurrence.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Recurrence , Thyroid Gland
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 255-258, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126248

ABSTRACT

We describe herein histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings and clinical manifestations of a rare case of an extremely well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EWD-PTC). Similarly, it is also difficult to diagnose follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), whose diagnosis is still met with controversy. A recently reported entity of well-differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) is added to the diagnostic spectrum harboring EWD-PTC and FVPTC. We report this case, because EWD-PTC is different from FVPTC in its papillary architecture, and also from WDT-UMP in its recurrence and metastatic pattern. These morphologically deceptive entities harbored diagnostic difficulties in the past because the diagnosis depended solely on histology. However, they are now diagnosed with more certainty by virtue of immunohistochemical and molecular studies. We experienced a case of EWD-PTC, which had been diagnosed as adenomatous hyperplasia 20 years ago and manifested recurrence with lymph node (LN) metastasis 7 years later. After another 7 years of follow-up, a new thyroid lesion had developed, diagnosed as FVPTC, with LN metastasis of EWD-PTC. One year later, the patient developed metastatic FVPTC in the skull. Immunohistochemically, the EWD-PTC was focally positive for CK19, negative for galectin-3, and focally negative for CD56. Molecular studies revealed BRAF-positivity and K-RAS negativity. The FVPTC in the left thyroid showed both BRAF and K-RAS negativity. In conclusion, EWD-PTC and FVPTC share similar histologic features, but they are different tumors with different molecular biologic and clinical manifestations. A large cohort of EWD-PTC should be included in further study.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/pathology , Adult , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/pathology , Female , Galectin 3/analysis , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Skull Neoplasms/secondary , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adrenal schwannomas are very rare and are usually incidentally found on autopsy and imaging. The aim of this study was to describe our experience of adrenal schwannoma and review the literature regarding this rare tumor. METHODS: To identify patients with adrenal schwannoma, the MEDLINE database was searched via the major electronic database PubMed using the medical subject heading terms “adrenal” and “schwannoma”. Thirty-nine adrenal schwannoma cases, including two from our institution were included. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 47.95 years (range, 11~89 years). The female:male ratio was 21:17. Sixteen patients had tumors on the right side, 19 on the left, while one patient had bilateral tumors. The mean tumor size was 6.12 cm (range, 0.6~14.5 cm), and the mean tumor weight was 161.3 g (range, 31.5~600.0 g). Sixteen tumors were solid, four cystic, one solid and cystic, and 18 were not described. Histologically, 14 cases were Antoni A, two were Antoni B, and 12 had concomitant Antoni A and B. CONCLUSION: Adrenal schwannoma is usually an incidental finding, and the clinician must have a high index of suspicion to recognize it when imaging reveals suggestive features.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Autopsy , Diagnosis , Humans , Incidental Findings , Medical Subject Headings , Neurilemmoma , Tumor Burden
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to review the clinical outcome and prognosis of patients with sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) who were treated at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case files of 85 patients treated from August 1982 to February 2012. RESULTS: In all, 65 patients (76.5%) had sporadic MTC and 20 patients (23.5%) had hereditary MTC. Patients in the sporadic group were older than in the hereditary group (P < 0.001). However, the hereditary group had more tumor multiplicity (P < 0.001) and bilaterality (P < 0.001). Neither survival rate was significantly different between the sporadic and hereditary groups (P = 0.775 and P = 0.866). By multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: In general, patients with MTC have favorable outcomes. Distant metastasis appears to be the strongest predictor of overall and progression-free survival.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tertiary Care Centers , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Phosphorus , Retrospective Studies , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Ultrasonography , Vitamin D
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether focused or complete parathyroidectomy was more appropriate and to compare follow-up data in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 225 operations for PHPT at Yonsei University Health System between 2000 and 2012. After excluding 93 patients, the remaining 132 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent focused parathyroidectomy (FP) and those who underwent conventional parathyroidectomy (CP). We compared clinicopathological features; preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium, and alkaline phosphatase levels; postoperative calcium and PTH levels; pathologic diagnosis; multiplicity; and results of a localization study between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rates of development of postoperative persistent hyperparathyroidism (1/122 FP patients and 1/10 CP patients) between the 2 groups due to a technical reason (FP 0.8% vs. CP 10.0%, P = 0.146). Multiglandular disease (MGD) was uncommon in all cases (6 of 132, 4.5%). All MGD cases were diagnosed using a preoperative localization study. Sestamibi scan and ultrasonography sensitivity were 94.2% and 90.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that FP is appropriate in PHPT, except in cases of MGD if detected before the operation using preoperative imaging. Knowledge of hereditary PHPT and improved preoperative localization studies, such as high-resolution ultrasonography, contributed to the decision to perform FP rather than CP in all cases of unilateral results of the localizing study.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Phosphorus , Retrospective Studies , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Ultrasonography , Vitamin D
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Postoperative hypocalcemia is a common complication of thyroidectomy. This study evaluated the incidence and predisposing risk factors for postoperative permanent hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy. METHODS: There were 1,247 consecutive patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and complete treatment and observation for differentiated thyroid cancer between January 2012 to December 2012 who were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups, those remaining normalcalcemic (Group I-824 pts) and those who had hypocalcemia requiring treatment (Groups II-423 pts). Group II was subdivided into a transient hypocalcemic group (Group IIA-409 pts) and a permanent hypocalcemic group (Group IIB-14 pts). RESULTS: Female gender, thyroiditis, preserved parathyroid number, lateral lymph node metastasis, RAI treatment, preoperative parathyroid hormone and preoperative vitamin D were significantly associated with the development of postoperative hypocalcemia by multivariate analysis. Comparing patients with transient versus permanent hypocalcemia, tumor size and multiplicity were significantly related to the development of permanent hypocalcemia by multivariate analysis. RAI treatment and parathyroid hormone level on the postoperative third day were significantly related to recovery from transient hypocalcemia to normo-calcemia. CONCLUSION: Risk factors of postoperative hypocalcemia were associated with preoperative patient factors and advanced thyroid cancer. Advanced thyroid cancer was a risk factor for permanent hypocalcemia. To prevent postoperative hypocalcemia, we should focus on patient condition and need to preserve parathyroid gland more carefully in thyroid surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyroiditis , Vitamin D
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123566

ABSTRACT

The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased rapidly worldwide, although most patients can survive for a long time without developing symptoms. While most thyroid cancers are treated with thyroidectomy alone, some patients are given additional radioactive iodine (RAI) in the form of 131I to treat thyroid cancer metastasis. RAI is associated with acute and chronic complications. Secondary malignancies are the most important in long-term cancer survivors. While many studies have reported the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemia after high-dose RAI, there are few reports on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after low-dose RAI treatment. Moreover, previous cases of CML following thyroid cancer were reported before the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era. Here, we describe two cases of CML following thyroid cancer that were successfully treated with second-generation TKIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Iodine , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasm Metastasis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Survivors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1632-1637, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70409

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although guidelines indicate that routine dissection of the central lymph nodes in patients with thyroid carcinoma should include the right para-oesophageal lymph nodes (RPELNs), located between the right recurrent laryngeal nerve and the cervical oesophagus and posterior to the former, RPELN dissection is often omitted due to high risk of injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the right inferior parathyroid gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma who underwent total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection, including the RPELNs, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. RESULTS: Of 5556 patients, 148 were positive for RPELN metastasis; of the latter, 91 had primary tumours greater than 1 cm (p<0.001). Extrathyroidal extension by the primary tumour (81.8%; p<0.001), bilaterality, and multifocality were more common in patients with than without RPELN metastasis; however, there were no significant differences in age and sex between groups. A total of 95.9% of patients with RPELN metastasis had central node (except right para-oesophageal lymph node) metastasis, and the incidence of lateral neck node metastasis was significantly higher in patients with than without RPELN metastasis (63.5% vs. 14.3%, p<0.001). Forty-one patients underwent mediastinal dissection, with 11 patients confirmed as having mediastinal lymph node metastasis with RPELN metastasis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: RPELN metastasis is significantly associated with lateral neck and mediastinal lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/secondary , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1021-1027, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150482

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. RESULTS: This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. CONCLUSION: A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Ablation Techniques , Adult , Carcinoma/metabolism , Diet , Female , Humans , Iodides/urine , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine Radioisotopes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Thyroidectomy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 182-188, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174635

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ultrasound (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) are considered the modalities of choice for assessing lymph nodes suspected of containing metastases, but the sensitivity of FNAB varies and is specific to the operator. We analyzed the risk of FNAB providing false negative results of lateral neck node metastasis, and evaluated diagnostic accuracy of FNAB, in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FNAB was performed in 242 patients suspected of having lateral neck node metastasis on preoperative imaging. Thyroglobulin in the fine-needle aspirate washout (FNA wash-out Tg) and computed tomography enhancement (Hounsfield units) were measured. Patients with negative results on FNAB were examined by intraoperative frozen section. The false negative and true negative groups were compared. RESULTS: Of the 242 patients, 130 were confirmed as having lateral neck node metastases. In 74 patients, the metastasis was identified by FNAB. False positive results were observed in 2 patients (0.8%) and false negatives in 58 (44.6%). Risk analysis showed that patient age 1 cm (p=0.008) and elevated FNA wash-out Tg (p=0.004) were significantly associated with false negative results on FNAB. The accuracy of FNAB increased significantly when combined with FNA wash-out Tg (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: To reduce the false negative rate of FNAB, patient age (1 cm) and FNA wash-out Tg (>34.8 ng/mL) should be considered in preoperative planning. Accuracy may be improved by combining the results of FNAB and FNA wash-out Tg.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma/diagnosis , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Preoperative Care , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroglobulin/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16068

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Endometriosis is defined as functioning endometrial tissue outside of the uterus. Endometriosis of the appendix is uncommon. Its clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic to acute abdominal pain. The aims of this study were to describe our experience of managing patients with appendiceal endometriosis and to review the clinical characteristics of this medical condition. METHODS: Five cases of appendiceal endometriosis diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients treated for intra-abdominal endometriosis were excluded. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 33.8 years old. One patient was in the second trimester of pregnancy. Two patients were asymptomatic. Three patients had clinical symptoms including two with acute pain in the right lower quadrant and one with abdominal discomfort. Four patients showed appendiceal abnormalities in imaging studies including two cases of suspected mucocele and two cases of appendiceal infection. There were no suspicions of endometriosis of the appendix based on preoperative imaging studies. Three patients underwent appendectomy due to clinical symptoms, and two underwent incidental appendectomy combined with another operation. None of the patients received adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION: Appendiceal endometriosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for acute abdominal pain, especially when women of childbearing age present with clinical symptoms of acute appendicitis.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Abdominal Pain , Acute Pain , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Appendix , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endometriosis , Female , Humans , Mucocele , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Retrospective Studies , Uterus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170798

ABSTRACT

Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has increased dramatically; however, simultaneous occurrence of different tumors in a single thyroid gland is rare and the embryologic or molecular explanations for such cases lack a solid basis. We report on a 67-year-old woman who underwent surgery for cytologically undetermined nodules in the bilateral thyroid glands. Postoperative pathology findings indicated synchronous occurrence of discrete papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. She has remained disease-free after postoperative radioactive iodine therapy (130 mCi). This is the fifth report on the synchronous occurrence of different tumors in a single thyroid gland worldwide, and the first ever in Asia.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Aged , Asia , Carcinoma, Medullary , Female , Humans , Incidence , Iodine , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Pathology , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor. Early detection is difficult and prognosis is poor. We report on 20 years of ACC surgical experience at our institution. METHODS: This study included 32 ACC patients who underwent surgical resection at the Department of Surgery of the Yonsei University Health System in South Korea between January 1990 and February 2012. We reviewed these 32 patients and retrospectively analyzed long-term clinical outcomes and prognosis after radical surgery for ACC. RESULTS: The median age of the 32 patients at diagnosis was 42.25 years (range 3~81 years). There were 16 (50%) female and 16 (50%) male patients. Mean tumor size was 12.36 cm (range 1.8~20 cm). Twenty-five patients (78.12%) had nonfunctioning tumors while the other seven patients (21.87%) had functioning tumors. Seventeen patients (53.12%) were classified as stage II, two (6.25%) as stage III, and 13 (40.62%) as stage IV. Fourteen patients underwent radical surgical resection, while 14 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, two received adjuvant radiotherapy, and two received adjuvant chemoradiation. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 28 patients, 15 patients survived. The 5- and 10-year overall survival was 60.6% and 37.8%, respectively (median survival=85+/-24.3 months). Seventeen patients (53%) experienced disease recurrence. Five- and 10-year recurrence-free survival was 41.5% and 29.7%, respectively (median survival=18+/-5.5 months). CONCLUSION: Early stage at diagnosis and surgical resection were the most important prognostic factors associated with prolonged survival. The role of additional therapy remains controversial and new agents should continually be evaluated for efficacy.


Subject(s)
Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Korea , Lost to Follow-Up , Male , Prognosis , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200085

ABSTRACT

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare carcinoma. We herein report on a case of SMECE with metastasis to bilateral lateral neck nodes, esophagus, and trachea. A 72-year-old woman presented with a neck mass found incidentally during a medical check-up. She had a history of cerebral stroke without sequelae 20 years ago and was taking aspirin regularly. The neck mass was confirmed as papillary thyroid carcinoma by fine needle aspiration biopsy. The patient underwent bilateral total thyroidectomy with central compartment and bilateral compartment lateral neck dissection. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve was sacrificed due to tumor invasion. The trachea wall and esophagus were also invaded by the cancer. Histologically, the tumor showed dense fibrohyaline stroma and a goblet cell, nested islands of squamoid cells, and marked stromal eosinophilia with perineural invasion and lymphovascular invasion, confirming the diagnosis of SMECE. After radiation therapy for three months, distant metastasis to the liver, lung, and bone were found on PET-CT. This case appears to be more aggressive than previously reported cases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspirin , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Diagnosis , Eosinophilia , Esophagus , Female , Goblet Cells , Humans , Islands , Liver , Lung , Neck , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Stroke , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Trachea
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Blood culture is the most important tool for detecting bacteremia in children with fever. However, blood culture contamination rates range from 0.6% to 6.0% in adults; rates for young children have been considered higher than these, although data are limited, especially in Korea. This study determined the contamination rate and risk factors in pediatric patients visiting the emergency room (ER) or being admitted to the ward. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of blood cultures obtained from children who visited Yonsei Severance Hospital, Korea between 2006 and 2010. Positive blood cultures were labeled as true bacteremia or contamination according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection, after exclusion of cultures drawn from preexisting central lines only. RESULTS: Among 40,542 blood cultures, 610 were positive, of which 479 were contaminations and 131 were true bacteremia (overall contamination rate, 1.18%). The contamination rate in the ER was significantly higher than in the ward (1.32% vs. 0.66%, P6 years, respectively). CONCLUSION: Overall, contamination rates were higher in younger children than in older children, given the difficulty of performing blood sampling in younger children. The contamination rates from the ER were higher than those from the ward, not accounted for only by overcrowding and lack of experience among personnel collecting samples. Further study to investigate other factors affecting contamination should be required.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteremia , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever , Humans , Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193458

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to review the literature of latent papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) discovered at autopsy and describe the available pathologic and demographic differences from a group of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) the reported in a previous publication. We searched the PubMed for published articles describing latent thyroid carcinomas detected at autopsy. Meta-analysis was performed to identify differences between the clinicopathologic features of PTMCs analyzed previously in our institution (Group I) and those of latent PTCs described in autopsy studies (Group II). We identified 1,355 patients with PTMC (Group I) and 989 with latent PTCs (Group II). Mean patient age was 47.3 yr in Group I and 64.5 yr in Group II. The male:female ratio was 1:10.9 in Group I and 1:1 in Group II. Most PTMCs (67.6%) were larger than 0.5 cm in size, whereas most latent PTCs were <1-3 mm in diameter. The rates of multifocality were 24.7% in Group I and 30.5% in Group II, and the rates of cervical lymph node metastasis were 33.4% in Group I and 10.0% in Group II. Currently available data indicated that clinically evident PTMCs differ from latent PTCs detected at autopsy. Therefore, these two entities should be regarded as different.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
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