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1.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 232-243, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918264

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To construct a urologic cancer database using a standardized, reproducible method, and to assess preliminary characteristics of this cohort. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers who were enrolled with diagnostic codes in the electronic medical record (EMR) at Asan Medical Center from 2007–2016 were included. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used to design the Asan Medical Center-Urologic Cancer Database (AMC-UCD). The process included developing a data dictionary, applying branching logic, mapping clinical data warehouse structures, alpha testing, clinical record summary testing, creating “standards of procedure,” importing data, and entering data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify rates of surgeries and numbers of patients. @*Results@#Clinical variables (n=407) were selected to develop a data dictionary from REDCap. In total, 20,198 urologic cancer patients visited our institution from 2007–2016 (bladder cancer, 4,616; kidney cancer, 5,750; prostate cancer, 10,330). The overall numbers of patients and surgeries increased over time, with robotic surgeries rapidly growing over a decade. The most common treatment for urologic cancer was surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. @*Conclusions@#Using a standardized method, the AMC-UCD fosters multidisciplinary research. This constructed database provides access to clinical statistics to effectively assist research. Preliminary data should be refined through EMR chart review. The successful organization of data from 2007–2016 provides a framework for future periods of investigation and prospective models.

2.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 244-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918263

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the association between microscopic hematuria (MH) detected by surveillance urinalysis and cancer recurrence in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,082 NMIBC patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) procedures at Asan Medical Center between January 2017 and December 2019 were included. We retrospectively reviewed the follow-up data for these cases including cystoscopy, urinalysis, and urine cytology. The association between urine testing and cancer recurrence was assessed by both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The study patients had a median age of 68 years (interquartile range, 60–75 years) and comprised 898 men and 184 women. Among the 1,428 TURB procedures conducted in this series, 548 of the lesions (38.4%) were diagnosed as low-grade and 880 (61.6%) as highgrade cancers. A total of 3,309 follow-up cystoscopies were conducted during the study period and were divided into high-grade (HG) (2,011 cases) and low-grade (LG) (1,298 cases) groups according to the latest TURB pathology. MH was found to have a statistically significant association with NMIBC recurrence in both the LG (odds ratio [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.107–2.223; p=0.011) and HG (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.434–2.517; p<0.001) groups. @*Conclusions@#Urinalysis during follow-up may provide important information on cancer recurrence in NMIBC patients.

3.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 271-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918260

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients who had undergone nephroureterectomy (NUx). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who underwent NUx during 2011–2019 and excluded patients with metastatic cancer. In total 646 patients were included in this study; of these, 532 had no previous bladder cancer history. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for 2 years after NUx was administered, and recurrence was confirmed using cystoscopy, urine cytology, computed tomography, and chest radiography. Bladder recurrence was confirmed through biopsy, urine cytology, or radiologic examination. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyzes were performed for statistical analysis of risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients undergoing NUx. @*Results@#Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (hazard ratio [HR], 4.728; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.463–15.570; p=0.011), previous transurethral resection of bladder tumor history (HR, 3.825; 95% CI, 1.164–12.571; p=0.027), and intravesical recurrence (IVR) within 6 months (HR, 3.733; 95% CI, 1.091–12.778; p=0.036) in patients undergoing NUx are predictors of radical cystectomy implementation. In a multivariate analysis of patients without bladder cancer history, bladder recurrence was identified as a predictor of radical cystectomy implementation, if it occurred within 6 months of NUx (HR, 8.608; 95% CI, 1.545–47.976; p=0.014). @*Conclusions@#LVI and IVR within 6 months and previous bladder cancer history are factors that can predict the need for radical cystectomy after NUx. Even in patients without bladder cancer history, early bladder recurrence within 6 months is a major predictor of radical cystectomy.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 758-768, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763120

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk models were developed predominantly with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Accordingly, whether these two models could be applied to metastatic non-clear cell RCC (mNCCRCC) as well has not been well-known and was investigated herein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Korean metastatic RCC registry, a total of 156 patients (8.1%) with mNCCRCC among the entire cohort of 1,922 patients were analyzed. Both models were applied to predict first-line progression-free survival (PFS), total PFS, and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: The median first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS were 5, 6, and 24 months, respectively. The IMDC risk model reliably discriminated three risk groups to predict survival: the median first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS for the favorable, intermediate, and poor risk groups were 9, 5, and, 2 months (p=0.001); 14, 7, and 2 months (p < 0.001); and 41, 21, and 8 months (p < 0.001), all respectively. The MSKCC risk model also reliably differentiated three risk groups: 9, 5, and, 2 months (p=0.005); 10, 7, and 3 months (p=0.002); and 50, 21, and 8 months (p < 0.001), also all respectively. The concordance indices were 0.632 with the IMDC model and 0.643 with the MSKCC model for first-line PFS: 0.748 and 0.655 for CSS. CONCLUSION: The current IMDC and MSKCC risk models reliably predict first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS in mNCCRCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
5.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 119-125, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared subtypes of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC; types 1 and 2) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in patients with T1-stage RCC to analyze the impact of the subtype on oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviewed 75 patients with pRCC and 252 patients with ccRCC at T1-stage from 1998–2012. Thus, we assessed the impact of subtype on oncologic outcomes among patients with T1-stage RCC. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the overall survival and recurrence-free survival The median follow-up duration was 95 months (interquartile range, 75.4–119.3 months). RESULTS: The 5-year recurrence-free survivals of pRCC and ccRCC were 95.4% and 97.6%, respectively. pRCC is worse than ccRCC in terms of recurrence-free survival (p=0.008) and there was no significant difference in the overall survival between pRCC and ccRCC (p=0.32). In addition, there was no significant statistical difference between type 1 pRCC and type 2 pRCC in terms of either recurrence-free survival (p=0.526) or overall survival (p=0.701). Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.069; p < 0.001) and recurrence (HR, 4.93; p < 0.001) were predictors of overall survival. Only tumor size (HR, 1.071; p=0.004) was predictors in the case of cancer specific survival in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with T1-stage RCC, recurrence after surgery was more common in pRCC than ccRCC. The subtype of pRCC (types 1 and 2) had no impact on the recurrence-free survival or overall survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence
6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e325-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate survival outcomes and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ) as first-line therapy in real-world Korean clinical practice. METHODS: Data of 554 patients with mRCC who received SU or PZ at eight institutions between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the targeted therapy, the patients were divided into SU (n = 293) or PZ (n = 261) groups, and the clinicopathological variables and survival rates of the two groups were compared. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the prognostic factors for OS. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 16.4 months (interquartile range, 8.3–31.3). Patients in the PZ group were older, and no significant difference was observed in the performance status (PS) between the two groups. In the SU group, the dose reduction rate was higher and the incidence of grade 3 toxicity was more frequent. The objective response rates were comparable between the two groups (SU, 32.1% vs. PZ, 36.4%). OS did not differ significantly between the two groups (SU, 36.5 months vs. PZ, 40.2 months; log-rank, P = 0.955). Body mass index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS > 2, synchronous metastasis, poor Heng risk criteria, and liver and bone metastases were associated with a shorter OS. CONCLUSION: Our real-world data of Korean patients with mRCC suggested that SU and PZ had similar efficacies as first-line therapy for mRCC. However, PZ was better tolerated than SU in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 495-501, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56114

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine patients with T1b renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who could benefit from partial nephrectomy (PN) and method to identify them preoperatively using nephrometry score (NS). From a total of 483 radical nephrectomy (RN)-treated patients and 40 PN-treated patients who received treatment for T1b RCC between 1995 and 2010, 120 patients identified through 1:2 propensity-score matching were included for analysis. Probability of chronic kidney disease (CKD) until postoperative 5-years was calculated and regressed with respect to the surgical method and NS. Median follow-up was 106 months. CKD-probability at 5-years was 40.7% and 13.5% after radical and PN, respectively (P = 0.005). While PN was associated with lower risk of CKD regardless of age, comorbidity, preoperative estimated renal function, the effect was observed only among patients with NS ≤ 8 (P < 0.001) but not in patients with NS ≥ 9 (P = 0.746). Percent operated-kidney volume reduction and ischemia time were similar between the patients with NS ≥ 9 and ≤ 8. In the stratified Cox regression accounting for the interaction observed between the surgical method and the NS, PN reduced CKD-risk only in patients with NS ≤ 8 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.054; P = 0.005) but not in ≥ 9 (HR, 0.996; P = 0.994). In T1b RCC with NS ≥ 9, the risk of postoperative CKD was not reduced following PN compared to RN. Considering the potential complications of PN, minimally invasive RN could be considered with priority in this subgroup of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Ischemia , Methods , Nephrectomy , Propensity Score , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
8.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 212-217, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60932

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by various translocations of the TFE3 transcription factor gene. These rare cancers occur predominantly in children and young adults. Here, we review the clinicopathological features of Xp11.2 translocation RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 21 patients with Xp11.2 translocation RCC. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, and specific pathological features to assess definitive diagnosis, surgical and systemic treatments, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 43.4+/-20.0 years (range, 8-80 years; 8 males and 13 females). Eleven patients were incidentally diagnosed, nine patients presented with local symptoms, and one patient presented with systemic symptoms. The mean tumor size was 6.2+/-3.8 cm (range, 1.9-14 cm). At the time of diagnosis, 11, 1, and 5 patients showed stage I, II, and III, respectively. Four patients showed distant metastasis. At analysis, 15 patients were disease-free after a median follow-up period of 30.0 months. Four patients received target therapy but not effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Xp11 translocation RCC tends to develop in young patients with lymph node metastasis. Targeted therapy did not effectively treat our patients. Surgery is the only effective therapy for Xp11 translocation RCC, and further studies are needed to assess systemic therapy and long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Chromosomes, Human, X/chemistry , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymphatic Metastasis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic
9.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 572-579, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65717

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), we compared the surgical margin status and biochemical recurrence-free survival (BCRFS) rates between retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) and RARP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative analysis was conducted of high-risk PCa patients who underwent RRP or RARP by a single surgeon from 2007 to 2013. High-risk PCa was defined as clinical stage> or =T3a, biopsy Gleason score 8-10, or prostate-specific antigen>20 ng/mL. Propensity score matching was performed to minimize selection bias, and all possible preoperative and postoperative confounders were matched. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess the 5-year BCRFS, and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the effect of the surgical approach on biochemical recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 356 high-risk PCa patients (106 [29.8%] RRP and 250 [70.2%] RARP) were included in the final cohort analyzed. Before adjustment, the mean percentage of positive cores on biopsy and pathologic stage were poorer for RRP versus RARP (p=0.036 vs. p=0.054, respectively). The unadjusted 5-year BCRFS rates were better for RARP than for RRP (RRP vs. RARP: 48.1% vs. 64.4%, p=0.021). After adjustment for preoperative variables, the 5-year BCRFS rates were similar between RRP and RARP patients (48.5% vs. 59.6%, p=0.131). The surgical approach did not predict biochemical recurrence in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Five-year BCRFS rates of RARP are comparable to RRP in high-risk PCa. RARP is a feasible treatment option for high-risk PCa.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Databases, Factual , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Treatment Outcome
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 339-347, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8783

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of everolimus in Korean patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) for whom initial treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFr-TKI) has failed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with mRCC (any histology) who had progressed on or were intolerant of VEGFr-TKI therapy received oral everolimus (10 mg dose once daily). Tumor response was reassessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). RESULTS: This study included 100 patientswith a median follow-up duration of 10.2 months, a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.0 months), and an overall survival of 10.1 months (95% CI, 6.9 to 13.3 months). The most common grade 3 or greater adverse events (AEs) overall were anemia (13%), pneumonitis (9%), hyperglycemia (8%), and stomatitis (6%). While the incidence of pneumonitis was similar (26 cases, 26%) to the reported incidence in Western patients, the Korean presentations were more severe: 10 patients permanently discontinued everolimus due to pneumonitis, including two deaths on treatment. Statistically significant relationships were established between biologic toxicities, hyperglycemia and anemia, and PFS (hyperglycemia vs. non-hyperglycemia: hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; p=0.055 and anemia vs. non-anemia: HR, 0.51; p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Everolimus was effective in Korean patients with mRCC who had failed initial VEGFr-TKI therapy. While everolimus was well tolerated in general and the AE incidence of this study was similar to those of previous reports, severe pneumonitis was common. Hyperglycemia and anemia showed significant correlation with PFS and thus may be potentially useful as prognostic indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperglycemia , Incidence , Phosphotransferases , Pneumonia , Stomatitis , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Everolimus
11.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 446-452, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of nephron-sparing options (e.g., partial nephrectomy [PN]) and low-surgical-morbidity options (e.g., radical nephrectomy [RN]) in elderly patients with limited life expectancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients aged 70 years or older who underwent RN (n=82) or PN (n=53) for clinical T1 stage renal masses between January 2000 and December 2012. Clinicopathologic data were thoroughly analyzed and compared between the RN and PN groups. The modification of diet in renal disease equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration. Overall survival and cardiac events were assessed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 59.72 months, 17 patients (20.7%) in the RN group and 3 patients (5.7%) in the PN group died. Chronic kidney disease (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) developed more frequently in RN patients than in PN patients (75.6% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate did not differ significantly between the RN and PN groups (90.7% vs. 93.8%; p=0.158). According to the multivariate analysis, the Charlson comorbidity index score was an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.679, p=0.037). Type of nephrectomy was not significantly associated with overall survival (HR, 2.447; p=0.167) or cardiac events (HR, 1.147; p=0.718). CONCLUSIONS: Although chronic kidney disease was lower after PN, overall survival and cardiac events were similar regardless of type of nephrectomy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Age Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies
12.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 636-642, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192667

ABSTRACT

The incidence of low-stage renal cell carcinoma is rising and is observed to demonstrate excellent prognosis following surgical treatment irrespective of method. However, several epidemiologic observational and population-based studies suggest that radical nephrectomy is associated with increased adverse renal outcomes such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with partial nephrectomy. This is suggested in turn to lead to increased mortality via an increase in cardiovascular complications and mortality. Prospective data are scarce, and there are conflicting data as well on whether surgically induced CKD is as debilitating as medically induced CKD. Further research is needed to assess the presence and the extent of the relationship between nephrectomy, CKD, and noncancer mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods
13.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 824-829, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In radical prostatectomy (RP) procedures, sparing the neurovascular bundles adjacent to the posterolateral aspect of the prostatic fascia has often been suggested as a possible risk factor for positive surgical margins. Here we aimed to quantify the probability of extracapsular extension (ECE) at the posterolateral side of the prostate to aid in nerve-sparing decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 472 patients who underwent RP between July 2007 and January 2012. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. We analyzed 944 side-specific prostate lobes with preoperative variables. To quantify the risk of side-specific posterolateral ECE after RP, we developed a risk-stratification scoring system through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 20.6% of 944 prostate lobes had ECE. In the multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason score > or =7, percentage of side-specific cores with tumor, and posterolateral ECE on MRI were independent predictive factors of posterolateral ECE. On internal and external validation to calculate the predicted risk, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showed good calibration (p=0.396). CONCLUSIONS: PSA, biopsy Gleason score, percentage of side-specific cores with tumor, and posterolateral ECE on MRI are independent predictors of posterolateral ECE. The scoring system derived from this study will provide objective parameters for use when deciding if the neurovascular bundle can be safely spared.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Calibration , Diffusion , Fascia , Logistic Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 543-549, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190367

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent changes in the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in Korea and to compare these features with those of Western populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 1582 men undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1995 and 2007 at 10 institutions in Korea for comparison with Western studies. The patients were divided into two groups in order to evaluate the recent clinicopathological changes in prostate cancer: Group 1 had surgery between 1995 and 2003 (n=280) and Group 2 had surgery between 2004 and 2007 (n=1302). The mean follow-up period was 24 months. RESULTS: Group 1 had a higher prostate-specific antigen level than Group 2 (10.0 ng/mL vs. 7.5 ng/mL, respectively; p<0.001) and a lower proportion of biopsy Gleason scores < or =6 (35.0% vs. 48.1%, respectively; p<0.001). The proportion of patients with clinical T1 stage was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. Group 1 had a lower proportion of organ-confined disease (59.6% vs. 68.6%; p<0.001) and a lower proportion of Gleason scores < or =6 (21.3% vs. 33.0%; p<0.001), compared to Group 2. However, the relatively higher proportion of pathologic Gleason scores < or =6 in Group 2 was still lower than those of Western men, even though the proportion of organ-confined disease reached to that of Western series. CONCLUSION: Korean men with prostate cancer currently present better clinicopathologic parameters. However, in comparison, Korean men still show relatively worse pathologic Gleason scores than Western men.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Korea , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 507-512, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173913

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical significance of large difference (> or = 2 points) between biopsy-derived (bGS) and post-prostatectomy Gleason scores (pGS). At 14 medical centers in Korea, 1,582 men who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included. According to the difference between bGS and pGS, the patients were divided into three groups: A (decreased in pGS > or = 2, n = 30), B (changed in pGS or = 2, n = 55). We evaluated various clinicopathological factors of prostate cancer and hazards for biochemical failure. Group A showed significantly higher mean maximal percentage of cancer in the positive cores (max%) and pathological T stage than control. In group C, the number of biopsy core was significantly smaller, however, tumor volume and max% were significantly higher and more positive biopsy cores were presented than control. Worse pathological stage and more margin-positive were observed in group A and C than in control. Hazard ratio for biochemical failure was also higher in group A and C (P = 0.001). However, the groups were not independent factors in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, large difference between bGS and pGS shows poor prognosis even in the decreased group. However it is not an independent prognostic factor for biochemical failure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age Factors , Biopsy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 741-745, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12939

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The survival benefits of adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer and lymph node metastasis remain unclear. We assessed the role of ADT in disease progression after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 937 patients who underwent RP, we identified 40 (4.2%) who had lymph node metastasis. A total of 18 received adjuvant ADT (ADT group) and 22 were observed (observation group). Clinical progression-free survival (PFS), cancer- specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared in the 2 groups. Prognostic factors for clinical progression and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were analyzed. RESULTS: The 5-year PFS, CSS, and OS of the entire cohort were 75.0%, 85.0%, and 72.5%, respectively. In the ADT group, 6 patients (33.3%) showed clinical progression at a median 42.7 months. The 5-year PFS, CSS, and OS rates of this group were 72.2%, 83.3%, and 72.2%, respectively. In the observation group, 14 patients (63.6%) received salvage therapy owing to BCR. Nine patients (40.9%) with BCR in the observation group showed clinical progression at a median 43.4 months after RP. The 5-year PFS, CSS, and OS rates of this group were 77.2%, 86.4%, and 72.8%, respectively. In the observation group, the BCR rate was lower in patients with pT3a or less disease than in those with pT3b disease. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant ADT in node-positive prostate cancer did not reduce or delay disease progression or improve survival. Because a substantial number of untreated patients with pT3a or less disease did not experience recurrence, administration of ADT should be initiated carefully. However, in patients with pT3b disease, adjuvant ADT and radiotherapy could be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androgens , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Salvage Therapy
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 74-80, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146143

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Due to the availability of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, the detection rate of insignificant prostate cancer (IPC) is increasing. To ensure better treatment decisions, we developed a nomogram to predict the probability of IPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,471 patients who were treated at multiple institutions by radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant therapy from 1995 to 2008. We obtained nonrandom samples of n = 1,031 for nomogram development, leaving n = 440 for nomogram validation. IPC was defined as pathologic organ-confined disease and a tumor volume of 0.5 cc or less without Gleason grade 4 or 5. Multivariate logistic regression model (MLRM) coefficients were used to construct a nomogram to predict IPC from five variables, including serum prostate specific antigen, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score, positive cores ratio and maximum % of tumor in any core. The performance characteristics were internally validated from 200 bootstrap resamples to reduce overfit bias. External validation was also performed in another cohort. RESULTS: Overall, 67 (6.5%) patients had a so-called "insignificant" tumor in nomogram development cohort. PSA, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score, positive core ratio and maximum % of biopsy tumor represented significant predictors of the presence of IPC. The resulting nomogram had excellent discrimination accuracy, with a bootstrapped concordance index of 0.827. CONCLUSION: Our current nomogram provides sufficiently accurate information in clinical practice that may be useful to patients and clinicians when various treatment options for screen-detected prostate cancer are considered.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asian People , Logistic Models , Nomograms , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis
18.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 241-246, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prognosis of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma is poor, but the predictive factors are not well understood. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics predictive of malignancy after initial surgical removal in patients with pheochromocytoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 152 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, including 5 (3.3%) with metastasis at the time of the initial surgical excision and 12 (7.9%) who developed metastasis during follow-up. To determine the factors predictive of malignancy, we compared clinical, radiographical, and urinary chemical findings between patients with benign and malignant disease. Mean follow-up was 41.5 months (range, 0.9-298 months) after surgery. RESULTS: Malignant tumors were significantly larger than benign tumors (11.1+/-4.0 cm vs. 6.2+/-3.4 cm, p5.5 cm; 90.6% vs. 81.2%, p=0.025) and higher 24-hour secretion of vanillylmandelic acid (>2.1 vs. 5.5 cm) and minimally elevated 24-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (< or =2.1 mg/day/cm) were significantly associated with a higher probability of a malignant pheochromocytoma portending a lower metastasis-free survival and mandating more rigorous follow-up after surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Catecholamines , Epinephrine , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension , Neoplasm Metastasis , Norepinephrine , Pheochromocytoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden , Vanilmandelic Acid
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 524-530, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the validity of the 2009 TNM classification for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and compare its ability to predict survival relative to the 2002 classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 1,691 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for unilateral, sporadic RCC between 1989 and 2007. Cancer-specific survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and was compared among groups by the log-rank test. Associations of the 2002 and 2009 TNM classifications with death from RCC were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. The predictive abilities of the two classifications were compared by using Harrell's concordance (c) index. RESULTS: There were 234 deaths from RCC a mean of 38 months after nephrectomy. According to the 2002 primary tumor classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 97.6% in T1a, 92.0% in T1b, 83.3% in T2, 61.9% in T3a, 51.1% in T3b, 40.0% in T3c, and 33.6% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). According to the 2009 classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 83.2% in T2a, 83.8% in T2b, 62.6% in T3a, 41.1% in T3b, 50.0% in T3c, and 26.1% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). The c index for the 2002 primary tumor classification was 0.810 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.906 in the multivariate analysis. The c index for the 2009 primary tumor classification was 0.808 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.904 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the predictive ability the 2009 TNM classification is not superior to that of the 2002 classification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy , Prognosis
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