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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874824

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of high mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) on the phenotyptic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). @*Methods@#Gene silencing and overexpression of HMGA1 were introduced to evaluate the effect of HMGA1 expression on the phenotypic change of VSMCs. Marker gene expression of VSMCs was measured by promoter assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis. Common left carotid artery ligation model was used to establish in vivo neointima formation. @*Results@#HMGA1 was expressed strongly in the synthetic type of VSMCs and significantly downregulated during the differentiation of VSMCs. Silencing of HMGA1 in the synthetic type of VSMCs enhanced the expression of contractile marker genes thereby enhanced angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent contraction, however, significantly suppressed proliferation and migration. Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhanced HMGA1 expression concomitant with the downregulation of marker gene expression which was blocked significantly by the silencing of HMGA1. Silencing of HMGA1 retained the Ang II-dependent contractile function, which was curtailed by PDGF stimulation, however, overexpression of HMGA1 in the contractile type of VSMCs suppressed marker gene expression. Proliferation and migration were enhanced significantly by the overexpression of HMGA1. Furthermore, the Ang II-dependent contraction was reduced significantly by the overexpression of HMGA1. Finally, the expression of HMGA1 was enhanced significantly in the ligated artery, especially in the neointima area. @*Conclusion@#HMGA1 plays an essential role in the phenotypic modulation of VSMCs.Therefore, paracrine factors such as PDGF may affect vascular remodeling through the regulation of HMGA1.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903896

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multi-faceted neurodegenerative disease. Thus, current therapeutic strategies require multitarget-drug combinations to treat or prevent the disease. At the present time, single drugs have proven to be inadequate in terms of addressing the multifactorial pathology of AD, and multitarget-directed drug design has not been successful. Based on these points of views, it is judged that combinatorial drug therapies that target several pathogenic factors may offer more attractive therapeutic options. Thus, we explored that the combination therapy with lower doses of cilostazol and aripiprazole with add-on donepezil (CAD) might have potential in the pathogenesis of AD. In the present study, we found the superior efficacies of donepezil add-on with combinatorial mixture of cilostazol plus aripiprazole in modulation of expression of AD-relevant genes: Aβ accumulation, GSK-3β, P300, acetylated tau, phosphorylated-tau levels, and activation of α-secretase/ADAM 10 through SIRT1 activation in the N2a Swe cells expressing human APP Swedish mutation (N2a Swe cells). We also assessed that CAD synergistically raised acetylcholine release and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) expression that were declined by increased β-amyloid level in the activated N2a Swe cells. Consequently, CAD treatment synergistically increased neurite elongation and improved cell viability through activations of PI3K, BDNF, β-catenin and a7-nicotinic cholinergic receptors in neuronal cells in the presence of Aβ1-42. This work endorses the possibility for efficient treatment of AD by supporting the synergistic therapeutic potential of donepezil add-on therapy in combination with lower doses of cilostazol and aripiprazole.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896192

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multi-faceted neurodegenerative disease. Thus, current therapeutic strategies require multitarget-drug combinations to treat or prevent the disease. At the present time, single drugs have proven to be inadequate in terms of addressing the multifactorial pathology of AD, and multitarget-directed drug design has not been successful. Based on these points of views, it is judged that combinatorial drug therapies that target several pathogenic factors may offer more attractive therapeutic options. Thus, we explored that the combination therapy with lower doses of cilostazol and aripiprazole with add-on donepezil (CAD) might have potential in the pathogenesis of AD. In the present study, we found the superior efficacies of donepezil add-on with combinatorial mixture of cilostazol plus aripiprazole in modulation of expression of AD-relevant genes: Aβ accumulation, GSK-3β, P300, acetylated tau, phosphorylated-tau levels, and activation of α-secretase/ADAM 10 through SIRT1 activation in the N2a Swe cells expressing human APP Swedish mutation (N2a Swe cells). We also assessed that CAD synergistically raised acetylcholine release and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) expression that were declined by increased β-amyloid level in the activated N2a Swe cells. Consequently, CAD treatment synergistically increased neurite elongation and improved cell viability through activations of PI3K, BDNF, β-catenin and a7-nicotinic cholinergic receptors in neuronal cells in the presence of Aβ1-42. This work endorses the possibility for efficient treatment of AD by supporting the synergistic therapeutic potential of donepezil add-on therapy in combination with lower doses of cilostazol and aripiprazole.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 495-500, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715392

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronary artery diseases (CADs) are the leading causes of death in the world. Recent studies have reported that differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with prognosis or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in CAD patients. In a previous meta-analysis, the authors made serious mistakes that we aimed to correct through an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of altered miRNAs in patients with CADs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE (from inception to May 2017) and EMBASE (from inception to May 2017) for English-language publications. Studies of CADs with results on miRNAs that reported survival data or MACEs were included. Data were extracted from each publication independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: After reviewing 515 articles, a total eight studies were included in this study. We measured pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of miRNA 133a with a fixed-effect model (pooled HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.56–3.55). High expression of miRNA 133a, 208b, 126, 197, 223, and 122-5p were associated with high mortality. Additionally, high levels of miRNA 208b, 499-5p, 134, 328, and 34a were related with MACEs. CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed that miRNA 133a, which was associated with high mortality in CAD patients, holds prognostic value in CAD. More importantly, this study corrected issues raised against a prior meta-analysis and provides accurate information.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Humans , MicroRNAs , Mortality , Prognosis , Publications
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727575

ABSTRACT

α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms, but the mechanism responsible for this activity has not been determined. To determine the role played by ICB on the regulation of vascular tone, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ICB on vascular contractile responses by adrenergic α-receptor agonists. In addition, we investigated the role on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and cytosolic calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In aortic rings isolated from C57BL/6J mice, ICB significantly attenuated the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE) and norepinephrine (NE), whereas ICB had no effects on KCl (60 mM)-induced contraction. In vasculatures precontracted with PE, ICB caused marked relaxation of aortic rings with or without endothelium, suggesting a direct effect on VSMC. In cultured rat VSMC, PE or NE increased MLC phosphorylation and increased cytosolic calcium levels. Both of these effects were significantly suppressed by ICB. In conclusion, our results showed that ICB regulated vascular tone by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation and calcium flux into VSMC, and suggest that ICB has anti-hypertensive properties and therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disorders related to vascular hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium , Cytosol , Endothelium , Hypertension , Lignin , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myosin Light Chains , Myosins , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Relaxation , Schisandra
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727933

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis purified from honeybee hives, on photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice. Permanent focal ischemia was achieved in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices of anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice by irradiation of the skull with cold light laser in combination with systemic administration of rose bengal. The animals were treated with CAPE (0.5–5 mg/kg, i.p.) twice 1 and 6 h after ischemic insult. CAPE significantly reduced the infarct size as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, hypoxiainducible factor-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-1α, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the cerebral cortex ipsilateral to the photothrombosis. Moreover, it induced an increase in heme oxygenase-1 immunoreactivity and interleukin-10 expression. These results suggest that CAPE exerts a remarkable neuroprotective effect on ischemic brain injury via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby providing a benefit to the therapy of cerebral infarction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries , Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Cortex , Cerebral Infarction , Chemokine CCL2 , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Interleukin-10 , Ischemia , Male , Mice , Necrosis , Neuroprotective Agents , Propolis , Rose Bengal , Skull , Urticaria
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213640

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis has an essential role in many pathophysiologies. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) isoform regulates endothelial cell function and retinal angiogenesis. Silencing of PLC-β3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly delayed proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation. In addition, mice lacking PLC-β3 showed impaired retinal angiogenesis with delayed endothelial proliferation, reduced endothelial cell activation, abnormal vessel formation and hemorrhage. Finally, tumor formation was significantly reduced in mice lacking PLC-β3 and showed irregular size and shape of blood vessels. These results suggest that regulation of endothelial function by PLC-β3 may contribute to angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Vessels , Endothelial Cells , Hemorrhage , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mice , Phospholipases , Retinaldehyde
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728677

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis plays an essential role in embryo development, tissue repair, inflammatory diseases, and tumor growth. In the present study, we showed that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) regulates retinal angiogenesis. Mice that lack eNOS showed growth retardation, and retinal vessel development was significantly delayed. In addition, the number of tip cells and filopodia length were significantly reduced in mice lacking eNOS. Retinal endothelial cell proliferation was significantly blocked in mice lacking eNOS, and EMG-2-induced endothelial cell sprouting was significantly reduced in aortic vessels isolated from eNOS-deficient mice. Finally, pericyte recruitment to endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cell coverage to blood vessels were attenuated in mice lacking eNOS. Taken together, we suggest that the endothelial cell function and blood vessel maturation are regulated by eNOS during retinal angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Vessels , Embryonic Development , Endothelial Cells , Female , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Pericytes , Pregnancy , Pseudopodia , Retina , Retinal Vessels , Retinaldehyde , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728515

ABSTRACT

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in 5-LO expression on monocytes induced by LPS. Stimulation of THP-1 monocytes with LPS (0~3 microg/ml) increased 5-LO promoter activity and 5-LO protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. LPS-induced 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the Akt pathway, but not by inhibitors of MAPK pathways including the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, LPS increased the phosphorylation of Akt, suggesting a role for the Akt pathway in LPS-induced 5-LO expression. In a promoter activity assay conducted to identify transcription factors, both Sp1 and NF-kappaB were found to play central roles in 5-LO expression in LPS-treated monocytes. The LPS-enhanced activities of Sp1 and NF-kappaB were attenuated by an Akt inhibitor. Moreover, the LPS-enhanced phosphorylation of Akt was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with an anti-TLR4 antibody. Taken together, 5-LO expression in LPS-stimulated monocytes is regulated at the transcriptional level via TLR4/Akt-mediated activations of Sp1 and NF-kappaB pathways in monocytes.


Subject(s)
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase , Atherosclerosis , Monocytes , NF-kappa B , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Transcription Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727362

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the inhibitory effect of bevacizumab on human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs) cultured from primary and recurrent pterygium. Cultured HTFs were exposed to 2.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 15.0 mg/mL concentration of bevacizumab for 24 hours. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays were then performed to assess fibroblast metabolism and viability. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), procollagen type I C terminal propeptide (PIP), and laminin immunoassays were performed to examine extracellular matrix production. Changes in cellular morphology were examined by phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy. Both metabolic activity and viability of primary and recurrent pterygium HTFs were inhibited by bevacizumab in a dose-dependent manner, especially at concentrations greater than 7.5 mg/mL. Both types of HTFs had significant decreases in MMP-1, PIP, and laminin levels. Distinctly, the inhibitory effect of bevacizumab on MMP-1 level related with collagenase in primary pterygium HTFs was significantly higher than that of recurrent pterygium. Significant changes in cellular density and morphology both occurred at bevacizumab concentrations greater than 7.5 mg/mL. Only primary pterygium HTFs had a reduction in cellular density at a bevacizumab concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. Bevacizumab inhibits primary and recurrent pterygium HTFs in a dose-dependent manner, especially at concentrations greater than 7.5 mg/mL. As the primary HTFs produces larger amounts of MMP-1 compared to recurrent HTFs, significant reduction in MMP-1 level in primary pterygium HTFs after exposure to bevacizumab is likely to be related to the faster cellular density changes in primary pterygium HTFs.


Subject(s)
Collagen Type I , Collagenases , Extracellular Matrix , Fibroblasts , Humans , Immunoassay , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Laminin , Metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Pterygium , Bevacizumab
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727374

ABSTRACT

A large body of evidence has indicated that induction of endogenous antioxidative proteins seems to be a reasonable strategy for delaying the progression of cell injury. In our previous study, cilostazol was found to increase the expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in synovial cells. Thus, the present study was undertaken to examine whether cilostazol is able to counteract tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cell death in endothelial cells via the induction of HO-1 expression. We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to TNF-alpha (50 ng/ml), with or without cilostazol (10 microM). Pretreatment with cilostazol markedly reduced TNF-alpha-induced viability loss in the HUVECs, which was reversed by zinc protoporphyrine IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1. Moreover, cilostazol increased HO-1 protein and mRNA expression. Cilostazol-induced HO-1 induction was markedly attenuated not only by ZnPP but also by copper-protoporphyrin IX (CuPP). In an assay measuring peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) transcription activity, cilostazol directly increased PPAR-gamma transcriptional activity which was completely abolished by HO-1 inhibitor. Furthermore, increased PPAR-gamma activity by cilostazol and rosiglitazone was completely abolished in cells transfected with HO-1 siRNA. Taken together, these results indicate that cilostazol up-regulates HO-1 and protects cells against TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cytotoxicity via a PPAR-gamma-dependent pathway.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Endothelial Cells , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Peroxisomes , Proteins , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Tetrazoles , Thiazolidinediones , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Zinc
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728748

ABSTRACT

Although anti-atherogenic effects of cilostazol have been suggested, its effects on the expression of SR in macrophages are unclear. This study investigated the role of cilostazol on CD36 expression of murine macrophages enhanced by HNE, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. The stimulation of macrophages with HNE led to an increased expression of CD36, which was significantly attenuated by NAC, an antioxidant. Moreover, the increased production of ROS by HNE was completely abolished by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, DPI and apocynin, as well as by the 5-LO inhibitor, MK886, but not by inhibitors for other oxidases. This suggested that NADPH-oxidase and 5-LO were major sources of ROS induced by HNE. In addition, HNE-enhanced expression of CD36 was reduced by these inhibitors, which indicated a role for NADPH oxidase and 5-LO on CD36 expression. In our present study, cilostazol was a significant inhibitor of ROS production, as well as CD36 expression induced by HNE. An increase in NADPH oxidase activity by HNE was significantly attenuated by cilostazol, however cilostazol had no effect on HNE-enhanced 5-LO activity. Together, these results suggest that cilostazol attenuates HNE-enhanced CD36 expression on murine macrophages thorough inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation.


Subject(s)
Acetophenones , Lipid Peroxidation , Macrophages , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tetrazoles
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34743

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (AngII) is a crucial hormone that affects vasoconstriction and exerts hypertrophic effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. Here, we showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent calcium mobilization plays pivotal roles in AngII-induced vascular constriction. Stimulation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell (RASMC)-embedded collagen gel with AngII rapidly induced contraction. AngII-induced collagen gel contraction was blocked by pretreatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) whereas ERK inhibitor (PD98059) was not effective. AngII-induced collagen gel contraction was significantly blocked by extracellular calcium depletion by EGTA or by nifedipine which is an L-type calcium channel blocker. In addition, AngII-induced calcium mobilization was also blocked by nifedipine and EGTA, whereas intracellular calcium store-depletion by thapsigargin was not effective. Finally, pretreatment of rat aortic ring with LY294002 and nifedipine significantly reduced AngII-induced constriction. Given these results, we suggest that PI3K-dependent activation of L-type calcium channels might be involved in AngII-induced vascular constriction.


Subject(s)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Animals , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Calcium Channels, L-Type/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vasoconstriction/drug effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727526

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) attenuate brain injury and facilitate recovery following photothrombotic cortical ischemia in mice. Male ICR mice were anesthetized and systemically administered Rose Bengal. Permanent focal ischemia was induced in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices by irradiating the skull with cold light laser. The animals were treated with fluoxetine or sertraline once a day for 14 d starting 1 h after ischemic insult. Treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline significantly reduced the infarct size. The Evans blue extravasation indices of the fluoxetine- and sertraline-treated groups were significantly lower than that of the vehicle group. Treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline shifted the lower limit of the mean arterial blood pressure for cerebral blood flow autoregulation toward normal, and significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) proteins in the ischemic region. These results suggest that SSRIs, such as fluoxetine and sertraline, facilitate recovery following photothrombotic cortical ischemia via enhancement of HO-1 and HIF-1alpha proteins expression, thereby providing a benefit in therapy of cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arterial Pressure , Brain , Brain Injuries , Brain Ischemia , Cold Temperature , Evans Blue , Fluoxetine , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Homeostasis , Humans , Ischemia , Light , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Proteins , Rose Bengal , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Sertraline , Skull
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219392

ABSTRACT

Abstract In many clinical situations which cause thymic involution and thereby result in immune deficiency, T cells are the most often affected, leading to a prolonged deficiency of T cells. Since only the thymic-dependent T cell production pathway secures stable regeneration of fully mature T cells, seeking strategies to enhance thymic regeneration should be a key step in developing therapeutic methods for the treatment of these significant clinical problems. This study clearly shows that receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) stimulates mouse thymic epithelial cell activities including cell proliferation, thymocyte adhesion to thymic epithelial cells, and the expression of cell death regulatory genes favoring cell survival, cell adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and thymopoietic factors including IL-7. Importantly, RANKL exhibited a significant capability to facilitate thymic regeneration in mice. In addition, this study demonstrates that RANKL acts directly on the thymus to activate thymus regeneration regardless of its potential influences on thymic regeneration through an indirect or systemic effect. In light of this, the present study provides a greater insight into the development of novel therapeutic strategies for effective thymus repopulation using RANKL in the design of therapies for many clinical conditions in which immune reconstitution is required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Interleukin-7/genetics , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RANK Ligand/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/genetics , Regeneration/drug effects , Thymus Gland/cytology , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , bcl-X Protein/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728591

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we aimed to identify the synergistic effects of concurrent treatment of low concentrations of cilostazol and probucol to inhibit the oxidative stress with suppression of inflammatory markers in the cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Combination of cilostazol (0.3~3micrometer) with probucol (0.03~0.3micrometer) significantly suppressed TNF-alpha-stimulated NAD(P)H-dependent superoxide, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and TNF-alpha release in comparison with probucol or cilostazol alone. The combination of cilostazol (0.3~3micrometer) with probucol (0.1~0.3micrometer) inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) more significantly than did the monotherapy with either probucol or cilostazol. In line with these results, combination therapy significantly suppressed monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Taken together, it is suggested that the synergistic effectiveness of the combination therapy with cilostazol and probucol may provide a beneficial therapeutic window in preventing atherosclerosis and protecting from cerebral ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Chemokine CCL2 , Coronary Vessels , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Monocytes , Oxidative Stress , Probucol , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides , Tetrazoles , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153292

ABSTRACT

Akt plays pivotal roles in many physiological responses including growth, proliferation, survival, metabolism, and migration. In the current studies, we have evaluated the isoform-specific role of akt in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration. Ascites from ovarian cancer patients (AOCP) induced mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, ascites from liver cirrhosis patients (ALCP) did not induce MEF cell migration. AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely blocked by pre-treatment of cells with LPA receptor antagonist, Ki16425. Both LPA- and AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely attenuated by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, cells lacking Akt1 displayed defect in LPA-induced cell migration. Re-expression of Akt1 in DKO (Akt1(-/-)Akt2(-/-)) cells restored LPA-induced cell migration, whereas re-expression of Akt2 in DKO cells could not restore the LPA-induced cell migration. Finally, Akt1 was selectively phosphorylated by LPA and AOCP stimulation. These results suggest that LPA is a major factor responsible for AOCP-induced cell migration and signaling specificity of Akt1 may dictate LPA-induced cell migration.


Subject(s)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/physiology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Ascites/pathology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Embryo, Mammalian , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Lysophospholipids/isolation & purification , Mice , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Pregnancy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/agonists , Substrate Specificity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728490

ABSTRACT

To elucidate a potential molecular link between diabetes and atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) for NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide generation in the enhanced proliferative capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. An enhanced proliferative response to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and superoxide generation with an increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity were observed in diabetic (OLETF) VSMC. Both the enhanced proliferation and superoxide generation in diabetic VSMC were significantly attenuated by AG490, JAK2 inhibitor, and PP2, Src kinase inhibitor. Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in diabetic VSMC, especially JAK2, was increased compared to control VSMC. Furthermore, the enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase activity in diabetic VSMC was significantly attenuated by AG490 in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results indicate that the signal pathway which leads to diabetes-associated activation of Src kinase/JAK is critically involved in the diabetic VSMC proliferation through NAD(P)H oxidase activation and superoxide generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Rats , Signal Transduction , Superoxides , Tyrosine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201424

ABSTRACT

Neurogenesis can be induced by pathological conditions such as cerebral ischemia. However the molecular mechanisms or modulating reagents of the reactive neurogenesis after the cerebral ischemia are poorly characterized. Retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to increase neurogenesis by enhancing the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of forebrain neuroblasts. Here, we examined whether RA can modulate the reactive neurogenesis after the cerebral ischemia. In contrast to our expectation, RA treatment decreased the reactive neurogenesis in subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ) and penumbral region. Furthermore, RA treatment also decreased the angiogenesis and gliosis in penumbral region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/blood supply , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Ischemic Attack, Transient/metabolism , Male , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tretinoin/pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727662

ABSTRACT

Endothelial activation and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells are important steps in atherogenesis. The increased levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have been identified in diabetic vasculatures, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the relationship among vascular production of superoxide, expression of CAM and diabetes, superoxide generation and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E- and P-selectin in the aorta from control (C57BL/6J) and diabetic mice (ob/ob) were measured. In situ staining for superoxide using dihydroethidium showed an increased superoxide production in diabetic aorta, accompanied with an enhanced NAD (P) H oxidase activity. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the endothelial expression of ICAM-1 (3.5+/-0.4) and VCAM-1 (3.8+/-0.3) in diabetic aorta was significantly higher than those in control aorta (0.9+/-0.5 and 1.6+/-0.3, respectively), accompanied with the enhanced expression of gp91phox, a membrane subunit of NAD (P) H oixdase. Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation (r=0.89, P< 0.01 in ICAM-1 and r=0.88, P< 0.01 in VCAM-1) between ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and vascular production of superoxide. The present data indicate that the increased production of superoxide via NAD (P) H oxidase may explain the enhanced expression of CAM in diabetic vasculatures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Cell Adhesion , E-Selectin , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Membranes , Mice , NAD , Oxidoreductases , P-Selectin , Superoxides , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
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