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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e127-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976940

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = −0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = −0.922, P 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e301-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001246

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tuberculosis (TB) exposure in congregate settings related to neonates is a serious medical and social issue. TB exposure happens during the neonatal period, but contact investigations for exposed infants are usually conducted after the neonatal period.Generally, recommendations for screening and managing close contact are different for neonates and children. Thus, there are challenges in contact investigations. We aimed to report contact investigations with a single tuberculin skin test (TST) on infants exposed to infectious TB in a postpartum care center. @*Methods@#The index case was a healthcare worker with active pulmonary TB: sputum acidfast bacilli smear negative, culture positive, and no cavitary lesion. All exposed infants underwent medical examinations and chest X-ray. After TB disease was ruled out, contacts received window period prophylaxis with isoniazid (INH) until three months after the last exposure. TST was performed only once after completing the prophylaxis. @*Results@#A total of 288 infants were selected as high-priority contacts. At the initial contact investigation, the age of infants ranged from 8 to 114 days. None of these exposed infants had TB disease. The prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) was 25.3% (73/288; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.7–30.7). There were no serious adverse events related to the window period prophylaxis or LTBI treatment with INH. During the 1-year follow-up period, no infants progressed to overt TB disease. The size of TST induration in infants vaccinated with percutaneous Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was significantly larger than that of infants vaccinated with intradermal BCG vaccine (median, 8 mm vs. 5 mm; P = 0.002). In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with TST positivity (≥ 10 mm induration) were male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.98; 95% CI, 1.6–5.64), percutaneous BCG vaccination (aOR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.75–6.48), TST reading between 60 and 72 hours after injecting purified protein derivative (aOR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.53–5.49), and INH prophylaxis more than four weeks (aOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.94). @*Conclusion@#A single TST at three months after the last TB exposure with INH prophylaxis could be used as a main protocol in contact investigations for infants exposed to infectious TB during the neonatal period in congregate settings in Korea.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 279-287, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000126

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Even though studies using machine learning on sleep-wake states have been performed, studies in various conditions are still necessary. This study aimed to examine the performance of the prediction model of locomotor activities on sleep-wake states using machine learning algorithms. @*Methods@#The processed data using moving average of locomotor activities were used as predicting features. The sleep-wake states were used as true labels. The prediction models were established by machine learning classifiers such as support vector machine with radial basis function (SVM-RBF), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), naïve Bayes, and random forest (RF). The prediction model was evaluated by a six-fold cross validation. @*Results@#The SVM-RBF and RF showed acceptable performance within a window of moving average from 480 to 1,200 seconds. The highest accuracy (0.869) was shown by the RF at the interval of 480 seconds. Meanwhile, the highest area under the curve (0.939) was shown by LDA at the interval of 870 seconds. @*Conclusion@#This study suggested that the prediction model on sleep-wake state using machine learning could show an improvement of the model performance when using moving average with raw data. The prediction model using locomotor activity can be useful in research on sleep-wake state.

4.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 228-235, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968306

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated how quiz activities can improve summative assessment outcomes by analyzing the relationship between them. @*Methods@#We used 217 first-year medical students’ medical informatics data from 3 consecutive years. We analyzed summative assessment outcomes between quiz completion and incompletion groups, one-time and multiple-time quiz learning groups, and three combined comparisons between subgroups of quiz learning activity frequencies: 1 versus 2, 3, 4, and 6 (group 1), 1 and 2 versus 3, 4, and 6 (group 2), and 1, 2, and 3 versus 4 and 6 (group 3). We then analyzed correlations between the final quiz scores and summative assessment outcomes. @*Results@#The summative assessment means for students who completed quizzes and those who did not were 87.16±8.73 and 83.22±8.31, respectively (p=0.001). The means for the one-time and multiple-time quiz learning groups were 86.54±8.94 and 88.71±8.10, respectively (p=0.223). The means for combined subgroups were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05), although a statistically significant increasing trend was found from groups 1 to 3 (0.223>0.203>0.075 using the t-test and 0.225>0.150>0.067 using the Mann-Whitney test, respectively). Summative assessment scores were not significantly correlated with quiz scores (r=0.115, p=0.213). @*Conclusions@#Quizzes helped students who used self-directed learning obtain better summative assessment outcomes. Formative quizzes presumably did not provide students with direct knowledge, but showed them their weak points and motivated them to work on areas where their knowledge was insufficient.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 380-385, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926922

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Data processing in analysis of circadian rhythm was performed in various ways. However, there was a lack of evidence for the optimal analysis of circadian rest-activity rhythm. Therefore, we aimed to perform mathematical simulations of data processing to investigate proper evidence for the optimal analysis of circadian rest-activity rhythm. @*Methods@#Locomotor activities of 20 ICR male mice were measured by infrared motion detectors. The data of locomotor activities was processed using data summation, data average, and data moving average methods for cosinor analysis. Circadian indices were estimated according to time block, respectively. Also, statistical F and p-values were calculated by zero-amplitude test. @*Results@#The data moving average result showed well-fitted cosine curves independent of data processing time. Meanwhile, the amplitude, MESOR, and acrophase were properly estimated within 800 seconds in data summation and data average methods. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that data moving average would be an optimal method for data processing in a cosinor analysis and data average within 800-second data processing time might be adaptable. The results of this study can be helpful to analyze circadian restactivity rhythms and integrate the results of the studies using different data processing methods.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e114-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892290

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is underway globally to prevent the infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to investigate the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) for COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs). @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of the AEFIs associated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital from March 3 to March 22, 2021. We investigated the systemic and local adverse events during the 7 days following the vaccination using the Mobile Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (MVAERS) developed by our hospital. @*Results@#A total of 1,503 HCWs were vaccinated, and the data of 994 HCWs were reported in the MVAERS. The most commonly reported AEFIs were tenderness at the injection site (94.5%), fatigue (92.9%), pain at the injection site (88.0%), and malaise (83.8%). The severity of most AEFIs was mild-to-moderate, and the severity and number of AEFIs were less in the older age group. There were no serious events requiring hospitalization, and most AEFIs improved within a few days. @*Conclusion@#The AEFIs associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were tolerable, and the use of the MVAERS was helpful in monitoring the AEFIs. The use of MVAERS will help in sharing accurate and ample information about vaccination against COVID-19.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 303-312, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890207

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Behavioral assessments that effectively predict sleep-wake states were tried in animal research. This study aimed to examine the prediction power of an infrared locomotion detector on the sleep-wake states in ICR (Institute Cancer Research) mice. We also explored the influence of the durations and ways of data processing on the prediction power. @*Methods@#The locomotor activities of seven male mice in home cages were recorded by infrared detectors. Their sleep-wake states were assessed by video analysis. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off score was determined, then the area under the curve (AUC) values of the infrared motion detector that predicted sleep-wake states were calculated. In order to improve the prediction power, the four ways of data processing on the prediction power were performed by Matlab 2013b. @*Results@#In the initial analysis of raw data, the AUC value was 0.785, but it gradually reached to 0.942 after data summation. The simple data averaging and summation among four different methods showed the maximal AUC value. The 10-minute data summation improved sensitivity (0.889) and specificity (0.901) significantly from the baseline value (sensitivity 0.615; specificity 0.936) (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the locomotor activity measured by an infrared motion detector might be useful to predict the sleep-wake states in ICR mice. It also revealed that only simple data summation may improve the predictive power. Using daily locomotor activities measured by an infrared motion detector is expected to facilitate animal research related to sleep-wake states.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e114-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899994

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is underway globally to prevent the infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to investigate the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) for COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs). @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of the AEFIs associated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital from March 3 to March 22, 2021. We investigated the systemic and local adverse events during the 7 days following the vaccination using the Mobile Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (MVAERS) developed by our hospital. @*Results@#A total of 1,503 HCWs were vaccinated, and the data of 994 HCWs were reported in the MVAERS. The most commonly reported AEFIs were tenderness at the injection site (94.5%), fatigue (92.9%), pain at the injection site (88.0%), and malaise (83.8%). The severity of most AEFIs was mild-to-moderate, and the severity and number of AEFIs were less in the older age group. There were no serious events requiring hospitalization, and most AEFIs improved within a few days. @*Conclusion@#The AEFIs associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were tolerable, and the use of the MVAERS was helpful in monitoring the AEFIs. The use of MVAERS will help in sharing accurate and ample information about vaccination against COVID-19.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 303-312, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897911

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Behavioral assessments that effectively predict sleep-wake states were tried in animal research. This study aimed to examine the prediction power of an infrared locomotion detector on the sleep-wake states in ICR (Institute Cancer Research) mice. We also explored the influence of the durations and ways of data processing on the prediction power. @*Methods@#The locomotor activities of seven male mice in home cages were recorded by infrared detectors. Their sleep-wake states were assessed by video analysis. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off score was determined, then the area under the curve (AUC) values of the infrared motion detector that predicted sleep-wake states were calculated. In order to improve the prediction power, the four ways of data processing on the prediction power were performed by Matlab 2013b. @*Results@#In the initial analysis of raw data, the AUC value was 0.785, but it gradually reached to 0.942 after data summation. The simple data averaging and summation among four different methods showed the maximal AUC value. The 10-minute data summation improved sensitivity (0.889) and specificity (0.901) significantly from the baseline value (sensitivity 0.615; specificity 0.936) (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the locomotor activity measured by an infrared motion detector might be useful to predict the sleep-wake states in ICR mice. It also revealed that only simple data summation may improve the predictive power. Using daily locomotor activities measured by an infrared motion detector is expected to facilitate animal research related to sleep-wake states.

11.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 89-98, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760897

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite the decline in tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality rates in the Republic of Korea through a national TB control program, TB remains one of the most critical infectious diseases in Korean children. We investigated the trends and research areas of published articles on TB in Korean children and adolescents. METHODS: In 6 Korean and overseas databases, we searched titles and abstracts including “tuberculo*” or “TB,” “child*” or “adolescen*” or “neonat*” or “infant*” or “pediatric*,” and “korea*.” The publication type, publication year, research areas, journal title, and research subjects were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of the 257 searched documents, 120 papers were included in the analysis. Of these, 82 were original articles (68.3%), 33 case reports (27.5%), 4 review articles (3.3%), and 1 guideline (0.8%). In the original articles, the most common subject of studies was the clinical characteristics of patients with TB (36.6%), followed by diagnostics (29.3%), contact investigations (9.8%), epidemiology (6.1%), treatment (4.9%), vaccine (3.6%), latent TB infection (3.6%), complications (3.6%), and surveys on perception of TB (2.4%). From 1962, 4 articles were published in the 1960s, 10 articles in the 1970s, 11 articles in the 1980s, 22 articles in the 1990s, 26 articles in the 2000s, and 47 articles since 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of research on TB in Korean children has increased over the past 5 decades; however, it has mainly focused on the clinical characteristics and diagnostics. Research in different areas, such as treatment and vaccine, is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Communicable Diseases , Epidemiology , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , Publications , Republic of Korea , Research Subjects , Tuberculosis
12.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 17-25, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741850

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Blood culture is an essential diagnostic tool and requires clear indications, proper techniques, and quality control. We aimed to investigate whether blood cultures in children are appropriate for indications, are performed correctly, and receive proper quality control. METHODS: We conducted an online survey targeting pediatric infectious diseases (ID) specialists working in general hospitals and neonatologists (Neo) working at hospitals operating a neonatal intensive care unit in Korea. RESULTS: Approximately 81.1% (30/37) of pediatric ID specialists and 72.2% (52/72) of Neo responded to the survey. Some of the respondents (33.3% of ID and 59.6% of Neo) performed blood culture as a regular test irrespective of the indication. Approximately 40% of ID and 65.4% of Neo ordered only one set of blood culture in patients suspected with bacteremia. The most commonly used disinfectant for skin preparation was povidone-iodine, while the skin preparation method varied by institution. Approximately two-thirds of the institutions were monitoring the blood culture contamination rate, whereas relatively few provided staff with feedback on that rate. In addition, less than half of the institutions were providing regular staff training on blood culture (40% of ID and 28.8% of Neo). CONCLUSIONS: The indication and methods of blood culture for children varied according to institution, and few hospitals exert effort in improving the quality of blood culture. Institutions have to strive constantly toward improvement of blood culture quality and evidence-based recommendations for pediatric blood cultures should be standardized.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bacteremia , Communicable Diseases , Hospitals, General , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Korea , Methods , Povidone-Iodine , Quality Control , Skin , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 159-170, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare antibiotic resistance patterns between first urinary tract infection (UTI) and recurrent UTI groups and to obtain information regarding empirical antibiotic selection for treating recurrent UTI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 148 children treated for UTIs from January 2009 to June 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: first UTI (N = 148) and recurrent UTI (17 patients and 20 episodes). RESULTS: In both groups, Escherichia coli was the most frequent causative organism, accounting for 89.9% and 75.0% in the first and recurrent UTI groups, respectively. When E. coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae was the causative organism, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms were more frequent in the recurrent UTI group (17.6%) than in the first UTI group (14.0%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.684). Cefotaxime was the most frequently used first-line empirical antibiotic in both groups. In the first UTI and recurrent UTI groups, 7.4% and 15.0% of patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics as definitive therapy, respectively (P = 0.250). Fifteen out of 17 patients having a second UTI had different causative organisms or antibiotic susceptibility patterns compared to their previous episode. CONCLUSIONS: Escherichia coli was the most frequent causative organism in the recurrent UTI group. There were no differences in the proportion of ESBL-producing organisms between the first UTI and recurrent UTI groups. Therefore, when a UTI recurs in children, the antibiotics effective on the most common causative organism might be administered as empirical antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cefotaxime , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e45-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive bacterial infections in apparently immunocompetent children were retrospectively analyzed to figure causative bacterial organisms in Korea. METHODS: A total of 947 cases from 25 university hospitals were identified from 2006 to 2010 as a continuance of a previous 10-year period study from 1996 to 2005. RESULTS: Escherichia coli (41.3%), Streptococcus agalactiae (27.7%), and Staphylococcus aureus (27.1%) were the most common pathogens in infants < 3 months of age. S. agalactiae was the most prevalent cause of meningitis and pneumonia and E. coli was the major cause of bacteremia without localizing signs in this group. In children 3 to 59 months of age, Streptococcus pneumoniae (54.2%), S. aureus (20.5%), and Salmonella spp. (14.4%) were the most common pathogens. S. pneumoniae was the leading cause of pneumonia (86.0%), meningitis (65.0%), and bacteremia without localizing signs (49.0%) in this group. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (62.8%) was the predominant pathogen, followed by Salmonella species (12.4%) and S. pneumoniae (11.5%). Salmonella species (43.0%) was the most common cause of bacteremia without localizing signs in this group. The relative proportion of S. aureus increased significantly over the 15-year period (1996–2010) in children ≥ 3 months of age (P < 0.001), while that of Haemophilus influenzae decreased significantly in both < 3 months of age group (P = 0.036) and ≥ 3 months of age groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: S. agalactiae, E. coli, S. pneumoniae, and S. aureus are common etiologic agents of invasive bacterial infections in Korean children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Bacteremia , Bacterial Infections , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Haemophilus influenzae , Hospitals, University , Korea , Meningitis , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies , Salmonella , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
15.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 7-15, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Influenza vaccination coverage in adolescents is an important goal of informed vaccination policies and programs. This study aimed to estimate the influenza vaccination coverage rate and investigate the factors influencing influenza vaccination coverage in Korean adolescents. METHODS: The study population consisted of 5,213 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2014 (except for 2013). We analyzed influenza vaccination coverage in relation to the demographics, lifestyle, and medical characteristics of the participants. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination coverage rate, during the study period, was 23.2% (range, 21.1% to 24.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that factors influencing influenza vaccination were elementary school age (odds ratio [OR], 1.706; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.526 to 1.906), good self-rated health status (OR, 1.192; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.344), a drinking status of non-drinker (OR, 1.769; 95% CI, 1.474 to 2.122), a smoking status of non-smoker (OR, 1.459; 95% CI, 1.144 to 1.860), and a past diagnosis of pneumonia (OR, 1.469; 95% CI, 1.076 to 2.006). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination coverage in Korean adolescents is relatively low. Special efforts are needed to increase vaccination coverage for adolescent groups with low vaccination rates including adolescent smokers and drinkers, middle and high school age adolescents, and adolescents with a poor self-rated health status.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Demography , Diagnosis , Drinking , Immunization , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Life Style , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Pneumonia , Smoke , Smoking , Vaccination
16.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 183-187, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129030

ABSTRACT

Group A streptococcus is a common cause of upper respiratory infection in children; however, it is a rare cause of pseudoaneurysm in pediatrics with only limited reports of cases associated with cardiac surgery and underlying disease. We report a case of infectious pseudoaneurysm of the right internal iliac artery caused by group A streptococcus in a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who presented with scarlet fever and group A streptococcal bacteremia. He was admitted to the hospital with fever, rash on the whole body, and sore throat, accompanied by severe leg pain. He was treated with surgical removal and antibiotics. Because a pseudoaneurysm may develop in children without vascularrelated underlying diseases, we should consider the possibility of this important clinical diagnosis in patients with scarlet fever.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Aneurysm, False , Aneurysm, Infected , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Diagnosis , Exanthema , Fever , Iliac Artery , Leg , Pediatrics , Pharyngitis , Scarlet Fever , Streptococcus pyogenes , Streptococcus , Thoracic Surgery
17.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 193-193, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129026

ABSTRACT

The authors found an error in the title. Th etitle has been updated from “A Retrospective Analysis of Use in Hospitalized Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infection” to “A Retrospective Analysis of Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infection.”


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Child, Hospitalized , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
18.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 183-187, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129015

ABSTRACT

Group A streptococcus is a common cause of upper respiratory infection in children; however, it is a rare cause of pseudoaneurysm in pediatrics with only limited reports of cases associated with cardiac surgery and underlying disease. We report a case of infectious pseudoaneurysm of the right internal iliac artery caused by group A streptococcus in a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who presented with scarlet fever and group A streptococcal bacteremia. He was admitted to the hospital with fever, rash on the whole body, and sore throat, accompanied by severe leg pain. He was treated with surgical removal and antibiotics. Because a pseudoaneurysm may develop in children without vascularrelated underlying diseases, we should consider the possibility of this important clinical diagnosis in patients with scarlet fever.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Aneurysm, False , Aneurysm, Infected , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Diagnosis , Exanthema , Fever , Iliac Artery , Leg , Pediatrics , Pharyngitis , Scarlet Fever , Streptococcus pyogenes , Streptococcus , Thoracic Surgery
19.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 193-193, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129011

ABSTRACT

The authors found an error in the title. Th etitle has been updated from “A Retrospective Analysis of Use in Hospitalized Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infection” to “A Retrospective Analysis of Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infection.”


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Child, Hospitalized , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
20.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 87-94, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89167

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The inappropriate prescription of antibiotics in children with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is common. This study evaluated the factors that influence antibiotics use in hospitalized children with viral URTI confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)assay. METHODS: The medical records of admitted patients who performed RT-PCR assay for respiratory virus pathogens from January 2013 to November 2014 were examined. The demographic and clinical features were compared between patients who were administered antibiotics at admission and those who were not. We also investigated differences between children who continued antibiotics and those who stopped antibiotics after a viral pathogen was identified. RESULTS: In the total 393 inpatients, the median age was 23 months (interquartile range, 13 to 41.3 months). Antimicrobial agents were prescribed in 79 patients (20.1%) at admission. Patients with acute otitis media (AOM) had higher rates of antibiotics prescription than those without AOM (48.1% vs. 2.2%, P <0.001), with an adjusted odds ratio of 91.1 (95% confidence interval, 30.5 to 271.7). Level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the proportion of acute rhinosinusitis were also significantly associated with antibiotics use (P <0.001). Among the 44 patients with viruses identified using the RT-PCR method during hospitalization, antibiotic use was continued in 28 patients (63.6%). AOM was statistically associated with continued antibiotic use in the patients (P =0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Although the respiratory virus responsible for URTI etiology is identified, clinicians might not discontinue antibiotics if AOM is accompanying. Therefore, careful diagnosis and management of AOM could be a strategy to reduce unjustified antibiotic prescriptions for children with URTI.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , C-Reactive Protein , Child, Hospitalized , Diagnosis , Hospitalization , Inappropriate Prescribing , Inpatients , Medical Records , Methods , Odds Ratio , Otitis Media , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prescriptions , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
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