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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 861-869, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002758

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Individuals with dementia are at a substantially elevated risk for mortality; however, few studies have examined multimorbidity patterns and determined the inter-relationship between these comorbidities in predicting mortality risk. @*Methods@#This is a prospective cohort study. Data from 6,556 patients who were diagnosed with dementia between 1997 and 2012 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. Latent class analysis was performed using 16 common chronic conditions to identify mortality risk among potentially different latent classes. Logistic regression was performed to determine the adjusted association of the determined latent classes with the 5-year mortality rate. @*Results@#With adjustment for age, a three-class model was identified, with 42.7% of participants classified as “low comorbidity class (cluster 1)”, 44.2% as “cardiometabolic multimorbidity class (cluster 2)”, and 13.1% as “FRINGED class (cluster 3, characterized by FRacture, Infection, NasoGastric feeding, and bleEDing over upper gastrointestinal tract).” The incidence of 5-year mortality was 17.6% in cluster 1, 26.7% in cluster 2, and 59.6% in cluster 3. Compared with cluster 1, the odds ratio for mortality was 9.828 (95% confidence interval [CI]=6.708–14.401; p<0.001) in cluster 2 and 1.582 (95% CI=1.281–1.953; p<0.001) in cluster 3. @*Conclusion@#Among patients with dementia, the risk for 5-year mortality was highest in the subpopulation characterized by fracture, urinary and pulmonary infection, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and nasogastric intubation, rather than cancer or cardiometabolic comorbidities. These findings may improve decision-making and advance care planning for patients with dementia.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 10-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966700

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with increased risks of psychiatric sequelae. Depression, anxiety, cognitive impairments, sleep disturbance, and fatigue during and after the acute phase of COVID-19 are prevalent, long-lasting, and exerting negative consequences on well-being and imposing a huge burden on healthcare systems and society. This current review presented timely updates of clinical research findings, particularly focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the neuropsychiatric sequelae, and identified potential key targets for developing effective treatment strategies for long COVID. In addition, we introduced the Formosa Long COVID Multicenter Study (FOCuS), which aims to apply the inflammation theory to the pathogenesis and the psychosocial and nutrition treatments of post-COVID depression and anxiety.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 958-967, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918739

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To systematically examine the effectiveness and tolerability of psilocybin for treating end-of-life anxiety symptoms. @*Methods@#The Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and PsycINFO databases were searched up to November 25, 2020. We enrolled clinical trials investigating psilocybin for treating end-of-life anxiety symptoms. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects model. @*Results@#Overall, five studies were included, revealing that psilocybin was superior to the placebo in treating state anxiety at 1 day (Hedges’ g, -0.70; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.39) and 2 weeks (-1.03; -1.47 to -0.60) after treatment. Psilocybin was more effective than placebo in treating trait anxiety at 1 day (-0.71; -1.15 to -0.26), 2 weeks (-1.08; -1.80 to -0.36), and 6 months (-0.84; -1.37 to -0.30) after treatment. Psilocybin was associated with transient elevation in systolic (19.00; 13.58–24.41 mm Hg) and diastolic (8.66; 5.18–12.15 mm Hg) blood pressure compared with placebo. The differences between psilocybin and placebo groups with regard to allcause discontinuation, serious adverse events, and heart rates were nonsignificant. @*Conclusion@#Psilocybin-assisted therapy could ameliorate end-of-life anxiety symptoms without serious adverse events. Because of the small sample sizes of the included studies and high heterogeneity on long-term outcomes, future randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes are needed.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1191-1199, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903157

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Schizophrenia has been associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, alterations in neurotrophic factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a simulated laughter intervention on the levels of cortisol and BDNF and to determine whether the effects associated with simulated laughter could be sustained after discontinuation of the intervention. @*Methods@#In this randomized controlled study, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 8-week-long simulated laughter intervention (n=32) or treatment-as-usual group (control group, n=27). The serum levels of BDNF and cortisol were measured at baseline, week 8, and four weeks after discontinuation (week 12) of the intervention program. @*Results@#After an 8-week simulated laughter intervention, the laughter group had significantly higher levels of BDNF; however, four weeks after discontinuation of the intervention, the levels of BDNF significantly dropped. Interestingly, the levels of cortisol did not change significantly at week 8, but they were significantly elevated at week 12. The levels of BDNF and cortisol in the control group did not change significantly between week 0 and week 8. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the simulated laughter intervention has an early effect on neurogenesis with a significant delayed effect on stress regulation in subjects with schizophrenia.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1191-1199, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895453

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Schizophrenia has been associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, alterations in neurotrophic factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a simulated laughter intervention on the levels of cortisol and BDNF and to determine whether the effects associated with simulated laughter could be sustained after discontinuation of the intervention. @*Methods@#In this randomized controlled study, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 8-week-long simulated laughter intervention (n=32) or treatment-as-usual group (control group, n=27). The serum levels of BDNF and cortisol were measured at baseline, week 8, and four weeks after discontinuation (week 12) of the intervention program. @*Results@#After an 8-week simulated laughter intervention, the laughter group had significantly higher levels of BDNF; however, four weeks after discontinuation of the intervention, the levels of BDNF significantly dropped. Interestingly, the levels of cortisol did not change significantly at week 8, but they were significantly elevated at week 12. The levels of BDNF and cortisol in the control group did not change significantly between week 0 and week 8. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the simulated laughter intervention has an early effect on neurogenesis with a significant delayed effect on stress regulation in subjects with schizophrenia.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 607-614, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the inflammatory process has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorder, an important issue emerging is to assess the test-retest reliability of cytokine measurement in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of bead-based multiplex immunoassay technology (BMIT) for cytokine measurement by using a Bland-Altman plot (BAP). METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and twenty patients with schizophrenia were enrolled, and a 17-plex cytokine assay was used to measure inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and two weeks later. The test-retest reliability was examined by BAP, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). RESULTS: In the healthy controls, only interleukin (IL)-2, IL-13, IL-10, IL-17, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed excellent ICC. The BAP with 95% LOA determined that 13 cytokines showed acceptable 95% LOA for a 2-week test-retest reliability, and only IL-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had significant test-retest bias. The CoR of cytokines varied significantly, ranging from 1.72 to 218.1. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α and significantly lower levels of IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Of these six cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α were considered suboptimal reliability. CONCLUSION: The findings from ICC and CoR implied that the test-retest reliability of BMIT for cytokine measurement were suboptimal. However, the BAP with 95% LOA confirmed that BMIT can reliably distinguish schizophrenia from healthy individuals in cytokine measurement, while significant within-subject variation and between-group overlapping were evident in cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bias , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Immunoassay , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Loa , Macrophages , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 900-906, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cellular, animal, and human epidemiological studies suggested that benzodiazepines increase the risk of cancer and cancer mortality. Obesity is also clearly linked to carcinogenesis. However, no human studies have examined benzodiazepine-associated carcinogenesis as assessed by changes in cancer biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 19 patients were recruited, and received a 6-week treatment of 0.5 mg lorazepam. The measured cancer biomarkers were angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), soluble CD40 ligand, epidermal growth factor, endoglin, soluble Fas ligand (sFASL), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-18, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PLGF), placental growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, urokinase-type plasminogen (uPA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. RESULTS: Six cancer biomarkers were significantly increased in all patients as a whole. The subgroup analysis revealed a distinct pattern of change. Overweight patients showed a significant increase in 11 cancer biomarkers, including ANG-2, sFASL, HB-EGF, IL-8, PLGF, TGF-α, TNF-α, uPA, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. However, normal-weight patients did not show any changes in cancer biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Adiposity may have primed the carcinogenic potential, leading to lorazepam-associated carcinogenesis in overweight patients. Epidemiological studies addressing this issue should consider the potential modulator contributing to benzodiazepine-associated carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adiposity , Angiopoietin-2 , Benzodiazepines , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinogenesis , Carrier Proteins , CD40 Ligand , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fas Ligand Protein , Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Lorazepam , Mortality , Obesity , Overweight , Plasminogen , Plasminogen Activators , Transforming Growth Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
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