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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874522

ABSTRACT

This report presents the status of diabetic neuropathy (DN) in Korea as determined using a National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). Annual prevalences of DN were estimated by age and gender using descriptive statistics. Pharmacological treatments for DN were also analyzed. The annual prevalence of DN increased from 24.9% in 2006 to 26.6% in 2007, and thereafter, gradually subsided to 20.8% in 2015. In most cases, pharmacological treatments involved a single drug, which accounted for 91.6% of total prescriptions in 2015. The most commonly used drugs (in decreasing order) were thioctic acid, an anti-convulsive agent, or a tricyclic antidepressant. In conclusion, the prevalence of DN decreased over the 10-year study period. Thioctic acid monotherapy was usually prescribed for DN. To reduce the socio-economic burden of DN, more attention should be paid to the diagnosis of this condition and to the appropriate management of patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

4.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 225-237, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918905

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which efficiently evaluates glycemic variability and hypoglycemia, are improving. There are two types of CGM: professional CGM and personal CGM. Personal CGM is subdivided into real-time CGM (rt-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM). CGM is being emphasized in both domestic and foreign diabetes management guidelines. Regardless of age or type of diabetes, CGM is useful for diabetic patients undergoing multiple insulin injection therapy or using an insulin pump. rt-CGM is recommended for all adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and can also be used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatments using multiple insulin injections. In some cases, short-term or intermittent use of CGM may be helpful for patients with T2D who use insulin therapy other than multiple insulin injections and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. CGM can help to achieve A1C targets in diabetes patients during pregnancy. CGM is a safe and cost-effective alternative to self-monitoring blood glucose in T1D and some T2D patients. CGM used in diabetes management works optimally with proper education, training, and follow up. To achieve the activation of CGM and its associated benefits, it is necessary to secure sufficient repetitive training and time for data analysis, management, and education. Various supports such as compensation, insurance coverage expansion, and reimbursement are required to increase the effectiveness of CGM while considering the scale of benefit recipients, policy priorities, and financial requirements.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903520

ABSTRACT

Obesity increases the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, ultimately contributing to mortality. The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) was established to improve the management of obesity through research and education; to that end, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the KSSO reviews systemic evidence using expert panels to develop clinical guidelines. Weight-loss medications are effective adjuncts to diet, physical activity, and behavioral counseling for select Korean patients with type 2 diabetes and body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Potential benefits must be weighed against the potential risks of these medications. If a patient's response to weight-loss medications is < 5% weight loss after 3 months or if there are significant safety or tolerability issues at any time, the medication should be discontinued and alternative medications or treatment approaches should be considered. Long-term medications for enduring obesity have traditionally fallen into two major categories, centrally-acting anorexiant medications and peripherally acting medications, such as orlistat. In this paper, I provide the definition of obesity in Korea and describe anti-obesity medications currently available for long-term treatment in diabetes.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895816

ABSTRACT

Obesity increases the risk of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, ultimately contributing to mortality. The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) was established to improve the management of obesity through research and education; to that end, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the KSSO reviews systemic evidence using expert panels to develop clinical guidelines. Weight-loss medications are effective adjuncts to diet, physical activity, and behavioral counseling for select Korean patients with type 2 diabetes and body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Potential benefits must be weighed against the potential risks of these medications. If a patient's response to weight-loss medications is < 5% weight loss after 3 months or if there are significant safety or tolerability issues at any time, the medication should be discontinued and alternative medications or treatment approaches should be considered. Long-term medications for enduring obesity have traditionally fallen into two major categories, centrally-acting anorexiant medications and peripherally acting medications, such as orlistat. In this paper, I provide the definition of obesity in Korea and describe anti-obesity medications currently available for long-term treatment in diabetes.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832406

ABSTRACT

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is caused by congenital or acquired causes and occurs in childhood or adulthood. GH replacement therapy brings benefits to body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life. Before initiating GH replacement, GH deficiency should be confirmed through proper stimulation tests, and in cases with proven genetic causes or structural lesions, repeated GH stimulation testing is not necessary. The dosing regimen of GH replacement therapy should be individualized, with the goal of minimizing side effects and maximizing clinical improvements. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology have developed a position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency. This position statement is based on a systematic review of evidence and expert opinions.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832339

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was a multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, noninferiority trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) relative to α-lipoic acid (ALA) over a 12-week treatment period in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). @*Methods@#This study included 100 T2DM patients between 20 and 75 years of age who had painful DPN and received either GLA (320 mg/day) and placebo or ALA (600 mg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were mean changes in pain intensities as measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the total symptom scores (TSS). @*Results@#Of the 100 subjects who initially participated in the study, 73 completed the 12-week treatment period. Per-protocol analyses revealed significant decreases in the mean VAS and TSS scores compared to baseline in both groups, but there were no significant differences between the groups. The treatment difference for the VAS (95% confidence interval [CI]) between the two groups was −0.65 (−1.526 to 0.213) and the upper bound of the 95% CI did not exceed the predefined noninferiority margin (δ1 =0.51). For the TSS, the treatment difference was −0.05 (−1.211 to 1.101) but the upper bound of the 95% CI crossed the noninferiority margin (δ2 =0.054). There were no serious adverse events associated with the treatments. @*Conclusion@#GLA treatment in patients with painful DPN was noninferior to ALA in terms of reducing pain intensity measured by the VAS over 12 weeks.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder with an increasing prevalence worldwide. According to a previous study, physicians' treatment patterns or patients' behaviors change when they become aware of the risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with DM. However, there exist controversial reports from previous studies in the impact of physicians' behaviors on the patients' quality of life (QoL) improvements. So we investigate the changes in QoL according to physicians and patients' behavioral changes after the awareness of CV risks in patients with type 2 DM.METHODS: Data were obtained from a prospective, observational study where 799 patients aged ≥40 years with type 2 DM were recruited at 24 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Changes in physicians' behaviors were defined as changes in the dose/type of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and anti-platelet therapies within 6-month after the awareness of CV risks in patients. Changes in patients' behaviors were based on lifestyle modifications. Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life comprising 19-life-domains was used.RESULTS: The weighted impact score change for local or long-distance journey (P=0.0049), holidays (P=0.0364), and physical health (P=0.0451) domains significantly differed between the two groups; patients whose physician's behaviors changed showed greater improvement than those whose physician's behaviors did not change.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that changes in physicians' behaviors, as a result of perceiving CV risks, improve QoL in some domains of life in DM patients. Physicians should recognize the importance of understanding CV risks and implement appropriate management.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Holidays , Humans , Korea , Life Style , Observational Study , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Management , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Humans , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
14.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 160-167, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726699

ABSTRACT

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, although it is often overlooked. Abnormal autonomic function tests are often found in peoples with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Autonomic neuropathies affect the autonomic neurons (parasympathetic, sympathetic, or both) and are associated with a variety of site-specific symptoms. The symptoms and signs of DAN should be elicited carefully during the medical history and physical examination. Major clinical manifestations of DAN include hypoglycemia unawareness, resting tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, erectile dysfunction, neurogenic bladder, and sudomotor dysfunction with either increased or decreased sweating. When a patient has signs and symptoms of DAN, various autonomic function tests should be performed. Recognition and management of DAN may improve symptoms, reduce sequelae, and improve quality of life. Clinically relevant diabetic autonomic neuropathies such as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and sudomotor dysfunction should be considered in the optimal care of patients with diabetes. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of DAN.


Subject(s)
Constipation , Diabetic Neuropathies , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Erectile Dysfunction , Fecal Incontinence , Gastroparesis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Male , Neurons , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Physical Examination , Quality of Life , Sweat , Sweating , Tachycardia , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
15.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 125-133, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727038

ABSTRACT

The primary causes of uncontrolled diabetes are poor life-style, infection, ischemic heart disease and inappropriate usage of oral anti-diabetic agents and insulin. Supplementary causes are stroke, acute pancreatitis and endocrine diseases. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, pituitary neoplasia, and foregut lineage neuroendocrine tumors, and is associated with increased glucose levels. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman who had polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss and hyperglycemia over 6 months. She had hypertrophy of the face, hand, and foot, and active bleeding and large folds were observed in the stomach and duodenum upon esophagogastroduodenoscopy. She also had high levels of IGF-1 and gastrin and got the failure of growth hormone suppression after an oral glucose load (75 g). These findings suggested a diagnosis of acromegaly and gastrinoma, which was clinically diagnosed along with MEN 1. The patient improved glycemic control and symptoms after being treated with somatostatin analogues and insulin therapy over a 5-month follow-up period. Here, we report a case of MEN 1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a poorly controlled blood glucose level. Clinicians should consider endocrine disease in patients with poor glycemic control in diabetes.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Aged , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Duodenum , Endocrine System Diseases , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Foot , Gastrinoma , Gastrins , Glucose , Growth Hormone , Hand , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Hypertrophy , Insulin , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Myocardial Ischemia , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatitis , Polydipsia , Polyuria , Somatostatin , Stomach , Stroke , Weight Loss
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism; however conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between people with and without SCH in Korean population. METHODS: Serum lipid parameters of 37 patients with SCH and 44 euthyroid control subjects were evaluated in a retrospective cross-sectional study. RESULTS: The mean serum triglycerides (TG) level was significantly higher in patients with SCH than in controls (p < 0.05). The mean serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was significantly lower in patients with SCH than in controls (p < 0.05). When adjusted by age, the odds ratio for the association of HDL-C with SCH was significant at 0.893 (95% confidence interval 0.809–0.986) compared with that of the euthyroid controls. No association with SCH was found with total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level or serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level. In addition, the lipid profile did not differ significantly between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: We found variations of lipid profiles in patients with SCH, characterized by a significantly lower HDL-C level.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipoproteins , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Thyrotropin , Triglycerides
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is one of the important complications of diabetes. It is characterized by reduced heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, 75 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group (n=41) received α-lipoic acid (ALA) at an oral dose of 600 mg/day for the first 12 weeks and then 1,200 mg/day for the next 12 weeks. The other group (n=34) received placebo treatment for 24 weeks. CAN was assessed by measuring HRVs in people with diabetes. RESULTS: Most of the baseline measures for HRVs were similar between the ALA and placebo groups. Although there were no statistically significant HRV changes in the ALA group compared to the placebo group after 24 weeks of trial, we found a positive tendency in some of the HRV parameters of the ALA group. The standard deviations of normal-to-normal RR intervals in the standing position increased by 1.87 ms in the ALA group but decreased by −3.97 ms in the placebo group (P=0.06). The power spectrum of the low frequency (LF) band in the standing position increased by 15.77 ms² in the ALA group, whereas it declined by −15.04 ms² in the placebo group (P=0.08). The high frequency/LF ratio in the upright position increased by 0.35 in the ALA group, whereas it declined by −0.42 in the placebo group (P=0.06). There were no differences between the two groups regarding rates of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although a slight improvement tendency was seen in HRV in the ALA group, there were no statistically significant HRV changes in the ALA group compared to the placebo group after 24 weeks of trial. However, the high oral dose of ALA was well-tolerated.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Rate , Heart , Humans , Korea , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Posture , Thioctic Acid
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29548

ABSTRACT

Benign teratomas of the thyroid are very rare in adolescence and adults. In this review, we report a case of 14-year-old Korean girl with huge neck mass. She presented with anterior neck enlargement and compression symptom which was rapidly aggravated in 2 months. In physical examination, enlarged and firm right thyroid lobe was palpated and laboratory test of thyroid function was normal. In ultrasonography, right lobe was mainly occupied with a solid nodule size of 44×23×25 mm, showing markedly inhomogeneous hypoechogenicity. As fine needle aspiration cytology was non-diagnostic, lobectomy was done. Histological examination demonstrated that the tumor is benign thyroid teratoma composed of tissue from all three germ layers. When large thyroid nodule is detected in adolescence and malignancy could not be ruled out, final diagnosis should be made with surgical resection. And we should at least attentive for possibility of teratomas when ultrasonographic findings are suspicious.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Female , Germ Layers , Humans , Neck , Physical Examination , Teratoma , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
20.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 147-154, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726780

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrates are a primary source of energy and a major component of the structure of living things-; there are many different kinds. As eating behavior is a part of life, it was usually not described in addiction. However, sometimes it seems aspects of addiction. This eating behavior can also appear with regard to other food. A bio-psycho-social model is required for complex analysis of addiction. When highly addictive agents are excluded, we can usually identify a key factor related to the vulnerability of the individual to addictive behavior. Considering that every source of happiness can potentially lead to addictive behaviors, we need to be cautious about the controlling. Not every carbohydrate can be connected with addictive behavior. Addictive behavior could be associated with a variety of ingredients other than carbohydrates. Until recently, sweet substances were thought to be the primary culprit behind addictive behavior. It is necessary to identify the food component or other factors associated with a specific craving. A multidimensional approach to the psychology of addictive behaviors might be more useful than opposing carbohydrate consumption in general.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Carbohydrates , Craving , Feeding Behavior , Happiness , Psychology , Sweetening Agents
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