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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 355-369, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926761

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the completeness of the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in a general radiology journal using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#Twenty-four articles (systematic review and meta-analysis, n = 18; systematic review only, n = 6) published between August 2009 and September 2021 in the Korean Journal of Radiology were analyzed. Completeness of the reporting of main texts and abstracts were evaluated using the PRISMA 2020 statement. For each item in the statement, the proportion of studies that met the guidelines’ recommendation was calculated and items that were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the studies were identified. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers. @*Results@#Of the 42 items (including sub-items) in the PRISMA 2020 statement for main text, 24 were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the included articles. The 24 items were grouped into eight domains: 1) assessment of the eligibility of potential articles, 2) assessment of the risk of bias, 3) synthesis of results, 4) additional analysis of study heterogeneity, 5) assessment of non-reporting bias, 6) assessment of the certainty of evidence, 7) provision of limitations of the study, and 8) additional information, such as protocol registration. Of the 12 items in the abstract checklists, eight were incorporated in fewer than 80% of the included publications. @*Conclusion@#Several items included in the PRISMA 2020 checklist were overlooked in systematic review and meta-analysis articles published in the Korean Journal of Radiology. Based on these results, we suggest a double-check list for improving the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors and reviewers should familiarize themselves with the PRISMA 2020 statement and check whether the recommended items are fully satisfied prior to publication.

2.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 473-485, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926442

ABSTRACT

and reliable assessment and precise detection are important for the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Artificial intelligence (AI) using brain MRI applied to the study of neurodegenerative diseases could promote early diagnosis and optimal decisions for treatment plans. MRI-based AI software have been developed and studied worldwide. Representatively, there are MRI-based volumetry and segmentation software. In this review, we present the development process of brain volumetry analysis software in neurodegenerative diseases, currently used and developed AI software for neurodegenerative disease in the Republic of Korea, probable uses of AI in the future, and AI software limitations.

3.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 237-245, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967022

ABSTRACT

In aging societies, incidences of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are increasing. Neurodegenerative diseases are bringing main challenges to the healthcare system in today’s world. Analyzing characteristic imaging patterns of patients with neurodegenerative diseases is important. Since objective and reliable imaging assessments and precise analyses can lead to early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, imaging patterns are being increasingly investigated. Artificial intelligence (AI) analyzing brain MRI has been applied to neurodegenerative diseases, providing added value in early diagnosis. MRI-based AI software has been developed and studied worldwide, with some AI-based software already being used in actual clinical care. Currently, there are MRI-based volumetry and segmentation software available. There is also an unmet demand for the application of AI in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review current status and unmet needs for application of AI in neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss current limitations of AI, suggestion for AI-based software, and how it can be clinically applied in the future.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 228-236, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919496

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy is influenced by several factors, including differences in the Bethesda categorization for malignancy, the inclusion or exclusion of non-diagnostic results, the definition used for the final diagnosis, and the definition of an inconclusive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the factors influencing the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy. @*Methods@#We collected data retrospectively between January and December 2013 from a cohort of 6,762 thyroid nodules from 6,493 consecutive patients who underwent biopsy. In total, 4,822 nodules from 4,553 patients were included. We calculated the biopsy sensitivity according to the inclusion of different Bethesda categories in the numerator and the exclusion of non-diagnostic results, as well as the diagnostic accuracy according to different definitions of a benign diagnosis. We obtained the conclusive and inconclusive diagnosis rates. @*Results@#The sensitivity increased when more Bethesda categories were included in the numerator and when non-diagnostic results were excluded. When a benign thyroid nodule diagnosis was defined as benign findings on surgical resection, concordant benign results on at least two occasions, or an initial benign biopsy result and follow-up for more than 12 months, the accuracy was higher than when the diagnosis was based on surgical resection alone (68.7% vs. 91.1%). A higher conclusive diagnosis rate was obtained (78.3% vs. 72.8%, P<0.001) when Bethesda categories I and III were considered inconclusive. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the concepts presented herein is important in order to appropriately interpret the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 256-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919493

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Thermal ablation is a novel treatment alternative for benign thyroid nodules, and one of the most promising thermal ablation techniques is radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Considering the increasing use of thyroid RFA, some scientific societies have proposed clinical practice guidelines. We systemically reviewed and compared these guidelines for thyroid RFA to identify a standard treatment strategy that represents the positions of most societies. @*Methods@#We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies with human participants that were published in English between January 1, 2000 and August 2, 2019. Studies containing clinical practice guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules were included. We extracted data regarding indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, treatment techniques, and the need to obtain informed consent. @*Results@#Of the 83 studies found, four studies were included, and one study was added after searching the bibliographies of those articles. The five included studies were guidelines developed by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology, a group of experts from Italian scientific societies, the Italian Working Group on Minimally Invasive Treatments of the Thyroid, the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, and a group of four professional Austrian thyroid associations. Indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, and techniques were similar across studies; however, differences in each of these categories were found. @*Conclusion@#While the reviewed guidelines are similar with regard to major categories, international guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules should be established in the future.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1875-1885, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918211

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. @*Results@#A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. @*Conclusion@#Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1680-1689, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894785

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnostic yield of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) and identify significant parameters affecting diagnostic yield. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic yield of DWI in patients with TGA. The pooled diagnostic yield of DWI in patients with TGA was calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were also performed of slice thickness, magnetic field strength, and interval between symptom onset and DWI. @*Results@#Twenty-two original articles (1732 patients) were included. The pooled incidence of right, left, and bilateral hippocampal lesions was 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30–44%), 42% (95% CI, 39–46%), and 25% (95% CI, 20–30%) of all lesions, respectively. The pooled diagnostic yield of DWI in patients with TGA was 39% (95% CI, 27–52%). The Higgins I2 statistic showed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 95%). DWI with a slice thickness ≤ 3 mm showed a higher diagnostic yield than DWI with a slice thickness > 3 mm (pooled diagnostic yield: 63% [95% CI, 53–72%] vs. 26% [95% CI, 16–40%], p 24 to 96 hours could increase the diagnostic yield.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 751-758, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894777

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Preoperative differentiation between inverted papilloma (IP) and its malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (IP-SCC) is critical for patient management. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging features and histogram parameters obtained from whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to predict IP-SCC in patients with IP, using decision tree analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed data generated from the records of 180 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed IP or IP-SCC who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging and 62 patients were included in the study. To obtain whole tumor ADC values, the region of interest was placed to cover the entire volume of the tumor. Classification and regression tree analyses were performed to determine the most significant predictors of IP-SCC among multiple covariates. The final tree was selected by cross-validation pruning based on minimal error. @*Results@#Of 62 patients with IP, 21 (34%) had IP-SCC. The decision tree analysis revealed that the loss of convoluted cerebriform pattern and the 20th percentile cutoff of ADC were the most significant predictors of IP-SCC. With these decision trees, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and C-statistics were 86% (18 out of 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65–95%), 100% (41 out of 41; 95% CI, 91–100%), 95% (59 out of 61; 95% CI, 87–98%), and 0.966 (95% CI, 0.912–1.000), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Decision tree analysis using conventional imaging features and histogram analysis of whole volume ADC could predict IP-SCC in patients with IP with high diagnostic accuracy.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894705

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1680-1689, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902489

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnostic yield of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) and identify significant parameters affecting diagnostic yield. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic yield of DWI in patients with TGA. The pooled diagnostic yield of DWI in patients with TGA was calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were also performed of slice thickness, magnetic field strength, and interval between symptom onset and DWI. @*Results@#Twenty-two original articles (1732 patients) were included. The pooled incidence of right, left, and bilateral hippocampal lesions was 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30–44%), 42% (95% CI, 39–46%), and 25% (95% CI, 20–30%) of all lesions, respectively. The pooled diagnostic yield of DWI in patients with TGA was 39% (95% CI, 27–52%). The Higgins I2 statistic showed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 95%). DWI with a slice thickness ≤ 3 mm showed a higher diagnostic yield than DWI with a slice thickness > 3 mm (pooled diagnostic yield: 63% [95% CI, 53–72%] vs. 26% [95% CI, 16–40%], p 24 to 96 hours could increase the diagnostic yield.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 751-758, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902481

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Preoperative differentiation between inverted papilloma (IP) and its malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (IP-SCC) is critical for patient management. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging features and histogram parameters obtained from whole tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values to predict IP-SCC in patients with IP, using decision tree analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed data generated from the records of 180 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed IP or IP-SCC who underwent head and neck magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging and 62 patients were included in the study. To obtain whole tumor ADC values, the region of interest was placed to cover the entire volume of the tumor. Classification and regression tree analyses were performed to determine the most significant predictors of IP-SCC among multiple covariates. The final tree was selected by cross-validation pruning based on minimal error. @*Results@#Of 62 patients with IP, 21 (34%) had IP-SCC. The decision tree analysis revealed that the loss of convoluted cerebriform pattern and the 20th percentile cutoff of ADC were the most significant predictors of IP-SCC. With these decision trees, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and C-statistics were 86% (18 out of 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65–95%), 100% (41 out of 41; 95% CI, 91–100%), 95% (59 out of 61; 95% CI, 87–98%), and 0.966 (95% CI, 0.912–1.000), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Decision tree analysis using conventional imaging features and histogram analysis of whole volume ADC could predict IP-SCC in patients with IP with high diagnostic accuracy.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902409

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

13.
Ultrasonography ; : 315-330, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835342

ABSTRACT

Doppler ultrasonography (US) is widely used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid cancer, and diffuse parenchymal disease, as well as for guidance in various US-guided procedures, including biopsy and ablation. However, controversies remain regarding the appropriate use and interpretation of Doppler US. Therefore, the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology organized a taskforce to develop a consensus statement on the clinical use of Doppler US for thyroid disease. The review and recommendations in this article are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 684-694, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833559

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose was to review the diagnostic performance of the length of tumor capsular contact (LCC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting prostate cancer extraprostatic extension (EPE). @*Materials and Methods@#PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 24, 2019. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that evaluated LCC on MRI for EPE detection using radical prostatectomy specimen histopathology as the reference standard. Quality of studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled and graphically presented using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) plots. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were conducted to explore heterogeneity. @*Results@#Thirteen articles with 2136 patients were included. Study quality was generally good. Summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–0.83) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.60–0.74), respectively. Area under the HSROC was 0.81 (95% CI 0.77–0.84). Substantial heterogeneity was present among the included studies according to Cochran’s Q-test (p < 0.01) and Higgins I2 (62% and 86% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively). In terms of heterogeneity, measurement method (curvilinear vs. linear), prevalence of Gleason score ≥ 7, MRI readers’ experience, and endorectal coils were significant factors (p ≤ 0.01), whereas method to determine the LCC threshold, cutoff value, magnet strength, and publication year were not (p = 0.14–0.93). Diagnostic test accuracy estimates were comparable across all assessed MRI sequences. @*Conclusion@#Greater LCC on MRI is associated with a higher probability of prostate cancer EPE. Due to heterogeneity among the studies, further investigation is needed to establish the optimal cutoff value for each clinical setting.

15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 908-918, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To categorize the radiological patterns of recurrence after bevacizumab treatment and to derive the pooled proportions of patients with recurrent malignant glioma showing the different radiological patterns. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search in the Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify studies reporting radiological recurrence patterns in patients with recurrent malignant glioma after bevacizumab treatment failure until April 10, 2019. The pooled proportions according to radiological recurrence patterns (geographically local versus non-local recurrence) and predominant tumor portions (enhancing tumor versus non-enhancing tumor) after bevacizumab treatment were calculated. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The systematic review and meta-analysis included 17 articles. The pooled proportions were 38.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.6–46.1%) for a geographical radiologic pattern of non-local recurrence and 34.2% (95% CI, 27.3–41.5%) for a non-enhancing tumor-predominant recurrence pattern. In the subgroup analysis, the pooled proportion of non-local recurrence in the patients treated with bevacizumab only was slightly higher than that in patients treated with the combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy (34.9% [95% CI, 22.8–49.4%] versus 22.5% [95% CI, 9.5–44.6%]). @*Conclusion@#A substantial proportion of high-grade glioma patients show non-local or non-enhancing radiologic patterns of recurrence after bevacizumab treatment, which may provide insight into surrogate endpoints for treatment failure in clinical trials of recurrent high-grade glioma.

17.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 471-482, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the optimized image-based surrogate endpoints (IBSEs) in targeted therapies for glioblastoma through a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of OVID-MEDLINE and EMBASE for phase III RCTs on glioblastoma was performed in December 2017. Data on overall survival (OS) and IBSEs, including progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS (6moPFS), 12-month PFS (12moPFS), median PFS, and objective response rate (ORR) were extracted. Weighted linear regression analysis for the hazard ratio for OS and the hazard ratios or odds ratios for IBSEs was performed. The associations between IBSEs and OS were evaluated. Subgroup analyses according to disease stage (newly diagnosed glioblastoma versus recurrent glioblastoma), types of test treatment, and types of response assessment criteria were performed.RESULTS: Twenty-three phase III RCTs published between 2000 and 2017, including 8387 patients, met the inclusion criteria. OS showed strong correlations with PFS (standardized β coefficient [R] = 0.719), 6moPFS (R = 0.647), and 12moPFS (R = 0.638). OS showed no correlations with median PFS and ORR. In subgroup analysis according to types of therapies, PFS showed the highest correlations with OS in targeted therapies for cell cycle pathways (R = 0.913) and growth factor receptors and their downstream pathways (R = 0.962). 12moPFS showed the highest correlation with OS in antiangiogenic therapy (R = 0.821). The response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria provided higher correlation coefficients between OS and IBSEs than the Macdonald criteria.CONCLUSION: Overall, PFS is an optimized IBSE in targeted therapies for glioblastoma; however, 12moPFS is optimal in antiangiogenic therapy.

18.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1075-1090, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916821

ABSTRACT

Neuroimaging plays a key role in assessing the detection of acute hemorrhage, diagnosis of infarct core, detection of steno-occlusive arteries, mismatch between infarct core and penumbra, and collateral circulation in patients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke. The recent announcement of randomized clinical trials that demonstrated the usefulness of intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy and the guidelines of 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke from American Heart Association/American Stroke Association led to a larger role of neuroimaging and required new neuroimaging strategy for acute cerebral ischemic stroke. In this review, we summarize the recommendation on neuroimaging from the 2018 Guidelines, and review pros and cons between CT and MR and fast scanned stroke MR. Based on the new guidelines and recent research, we discuss the appropriate neuroimaging strategy for acute cerebral ischemic stroke patients.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 649-661, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and change in ADC during the intra- or post-treatment period, for the prediction of locoregional failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ovid-MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched up to September 8, 2018, for studies on the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the prediction of locoregional treatment response in patients with HNSCC treated with chemoradiation or radiation therapy. Risk of bias was assessed by using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in the systematic review, and diagnostic accuracy assessment was performed using seven studies. High pre-treatment ADC showed inconsistent results with the tendency for locoregional failure, whereas all studies evaluating changes in ADC showed consistent results of a lower rise in ADC in patients with locoregional failure compared to those with locoregional control. The sensitivities and specificities of pre-treatment ADC and change in ADC for predicting locoregional failure were relatively high (range: 50–100% and 79–96%, 75–100% and 69–95%, respectively). Meta-analytic pooling was not performed due to the apparent heterogeneity in these values. CONCLUSION: High pre-treatment ADC and low rise in early intra-treatment or post-treatment ADC with chemoradiation, could be indicators of locoregional failure in patients with HNSCC. However, as the studies are few, heterogeneous, and at high risk for bias, the sensitivity and specificity of these parameters for predicting the treatment response are yet to be determined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bias , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diffusion , Epithelial Cells , Head , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Population Characteristics , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 487-497, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) to compressed sensing plus SENSE (CS) for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) of intracranial and extracranial arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HR-MRI was performed in 14 healthy volunteers. Three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and proton density-weighted imaging (PD) were acquired using CS or SENSE under the same total acceleration factors (AF(t))-5.5, 6.8, and 9.7 for T1WI and 3.2, 4.0, and 5.8 for PD-to achieve reduced scanning times in comparison with the original imaging sequence (SENSE T1WI, AF(t) 3.5; SENSE PD, AF(t) 2.0) using the 3-tesla system. Two neuroradiologists measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and used visual scoring systems to assess image quality. Acceptable imaging was defined as a visual score ≥ 2. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cochran's Q test were performed. RESULTS: CS yielded better image quality and vessel delineation than SENSE in T1WI with AF(t) of 5.5, 6.8, and 9.7, and in PD with AF(t) of 5.8 (p 0.05). SNR and CNR in CS were higher than they were in SENSE, but lower than they were in the original images (p < 0.05). CS yielded higher proportions of acceptable imaging than SENSE (CS T1WI with AF(t) of 6.8 and PD with AF(t) of 5.8; p < 0.0167). CONCLUSION: CS is superior to SENSE, and may be a reliable acceleration method for vessel HR-MRI using AF(t) of 5.5 for T1WI, and 3.2 and 4.0 for PD.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Arteries , Healthy Volunteers , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Protons , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
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