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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874327

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation—a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease—is mediated by microglial activation. Thus, inhibiting microglial activation is vital for treating various neurological disorders. 7,3’,4’-Trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF)—a secondary metabolite of the soybean compound daidzein—possesses antioxidant and anticancer properties. However, the effects of 7,3’,4’-THIF on microglial activation have not been explored. In this study, antineuroinflammatory effects of 7,3’,4’-THIF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells were examined. 7,3’,4’-THIF significantly suppressed the production of the proinflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, 7,3’,4’-THIF markedly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blotting revealed that 7,3’,4’-THIF diminished LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Overall, 7,3’,4’-THIF exerts antineuroinflammatory effects against LPSinduced microglial activation by suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling, ultimately reducing proinflammatory responses. Therefore, these antineuroinflammatory effects of 7,3’,4’-THIF suggest its potential as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889597

ABSTRACT

Currently, the expanding recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) threatens public health. SCBs produce psychoactive effects similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinol, the main component of cannabis, and additionally induce unexpected pharmacological side effects. SCBs are falsely advertised as legal and safe, but in reality, SCB abuse has been reported to cause acute intoxication and addictive disorders. However, because of the lack of scientific evidence to elucidate their dangerous pharmacological effects, SCBs are weakly regulated and continue to circulate in illegal drug markets. In the present study, the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm was used to evaluate the abuse potential of three SCBs (AM-1248, CB-13, and PB-22) in rats. All three SCBs maintained IVSA with a large number of infusions and active lever presses, demonstrating their reinforcing effects.The increase of active lever presses was particularly significant during the early IVSA sessions, indicating the reinforcementenhancing effects of the SCBs (AM-1248 and CB-13). The number of inactive lever presses was significantly higher in the SCB groups (AM-1248 and CB-13) than that in the vehicle group, indicating their impulsive effects. In summary, these results demonstrated that SCBs have distinct pharmacological properties and abuse potential.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897301

ABSTRACT

Currently, the expanding recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) threatens public health. SCBs produce psychoactive effects similar to those of tetrahydrocannabinol, the main component of cannabis, and additionally induce unexpected pharmacological side effects. SCBs are falsely advertised as legal and safe, but in reality, SCB abuse has been reported to cause acute intoxication and addictive disorders. However, because of the lack of scientific evidence to elucidate their dangerous pharmacological effects, SCBs are weakly regulated and continue to circulate in illegal drug markets. In the present study, the intravenous self-administration (IVSA) paradigm was used to evaluate the abuse potential of three SCBs (AM-1248, CB-13, and PB-22) in rats. All three SCBs maintained IVSA with a large number of infusions and active lever presses, demonstrating their reinforcing effects.The increase of active lever presses was particularly significant during the early IVSA sessions, indicating the reinforcementenhancing effects of the SCBs (AM-1248 and CB-13). The number of inactive lever presses was significantly higher in the SCB groups (AM-1248 and CB-13) than that in the vehicle group, indicating their impulsive effects. In summary, these results demonstrated that SCBs have distinct pharmacological properties and abuse potential.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830922

ABSTRACT

Tryptamines are monoamine alkaloids with hallucinogenic properties and are widely abused worldwide. To hasten the regulations of novel substances and predict their abuse potential, we designed and synthesized four novel synthetic tryptamine analogs: Pyrrolidino tryptamine hydrochloride (PYT HCl), Piperidino tryptamine hydrochloride (PIT HCl), N,N-dibutyl tryptamine hydrochloride (DBT HCl), and 2-Methyl tryptamine hydrochloride (2-MT HCl). Then, we evaluated their rewarding and reinforcing effects using the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) paradigms. We conducted an open field test (OFT) to deter-mine the effects of the novel compounds on locomotor activity. A head-twitch response (HTR) was also performed to characterize their hallucinogenic properties. Lastly, we examined the effects of the compounds on 5-HTR1a and 5-HTR2a in the prefrontal cortex using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. None of the compounds induced CPP in mice or initiated SA in rats. PYT HCl and PIT HCl reduced the locomotor activity and elevated the 5-HTR1a mRNA levels in mice. Acute and repeated treatment with the novel tryptamines elicited HTR in mice. Furthermore, a drug challenge involving a 7-day abstinence from drug use produced higher HTR than acute and repeated treatments. Both the acute treatment and drug challenge increased the 5-HTR2a mRNA levels. Ketanserin blocked the induced HTR. Taken together, the findings suggest that PYT HCl, PIT HCl, DBT HCl, and 2-MT HCl produce hallucinogenic effects via 5-HTR2a stimulation, but may have low abuse potential.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763027

ABSTRACT

Daidzein isolated from soybean (Glycine max) has been widely studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of 7,8,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), a major metabolite of daidzein, on 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity are not well understood. In the current study, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly inhibited neuronal cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells, which were used as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, pretreatment with 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly recovered 6-OHDA-induced cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), increased Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 levels. Additionally, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly restored the expression levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Further, 7,8,4′-THIF significantly increased the reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) level induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells. Collectively, these results suggest that 7,8,4′-THIF protects against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death in cellular PD models. Also, these effects are mediated partly by inhibiting activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Catalase , Cell Death , Glutathione , Glycogen Synthase , In Vitro Techniques , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Malondialdehyde , Neurons , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Soybeans , Superoxide Dismutase , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713586

ABSTRACT

Liquiritigenin (LQ) is a flavonoid that can be isolated from Glycyrrhiza radix. It is frequently used as a tranditional oriental medicine herbal treatment for swelling and injury and for detoxification. However, the effects of LQ on cognitive function have not been fully explored. In this study, we evaluated the memory-enhancing effects of LQ and the underlying mechanisms with a focus on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) in mice. Learning and memory ability were evaluated with the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests following administration of LQ. In addition, the expression of NMDAR subunits 1, 2A, and 2B; postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95); phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII); phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2); and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) proteins were examined by Western blot. In vivo, we found that treatment with LQ significantly improved memory performance in both behavioral tests. In vitro, LQ significantly increased NMDARs in the hippocampus. Furthermore, LQ significantly increased PSD-95 expression as well as CaMKII, ERK, and CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Taken together, our results suggest that LQ has cognition enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by activation of the NMDAR and CREB signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 , Cognition , Glycyrrhiza , Hippocampus , In Vitro Techniques , Learning , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Memory , Mice , N-Methylaspartate , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Response Elements
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716599

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, caffeine is among the most commonly used stimulatory substances. Unfortunately, significant caffeine consumption is associated with several adverse effects, ranging from sleep disturbances (including insomnia) to cardiovascular problems. This study investigates whether treatment with the Evodia rutaecarpa aqueous extract (ERAE) from berries and its major molecular component, evodiamine, can reduce the adverse caffeine-induced sleep-related and excitation effects. We combined measurements from the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, the open field test, and the locomotor activity test in mice that had been dosed with caffeine. We found that ERAE and evodiamine administration reduced the degree of caffeine-induced sleep disruption during the sleep test. Additionally, we found that evodiamine significantly inhibits caffeine-induced excitation during the open field test, as well as decreasing hyperlocomotion in the locomotor activity test. Additional in vitro experiments showed that caffeine administration decreased the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor subunits in the mouse hypothalamus. However, evodiamine treatment significantly reversed this expression reduction. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ERAE and its major compound, evodiamine, provide an excellent candidate for the treatment or prevention of caffeine-induced sleep disturbances and excitatory states, and that the mechanism of these beneficial effects acts, at least in part, through the GABA(A)-ergic system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caffeine , Evodia , Fruit , Hypothalamus , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Motor Activity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32632

ABSTRACT

A diversity of synthetic cathinones has flooded the recreational drug marketplace worldwide. This variety is often a response to legal control actions for one specific compound (e.g. methcathinone) which has resulted in the emergence of closely related replacement. Based on recent trends, the nitrogen atom is one of the sites in the cathinone molecule being explored by designer type modifications. In this study, we designed and synthesized two new synthetic cathinones, (1) α-piperidinopropiophenone (PIPP) and (2) α-piperidinopentiothiophenone (PIVT), which have piperidine ring substituent on their nitrogen atom. Thereafter, we evaluated whether these two compounds have an abuse potential through the conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice and self-administration (SA) in rats. We also investigated whether the substances can induce locomotor sensitization in mice following 7 days daily injection and challenge. qRT-PCR analyses were conducted to determine their effects on dopamine-related genes in the striatum. PIPP (10 and 30 mg/kg) induced CPP in mice, but not PIVT. However, both synthetic cathinones were not self-administered by the rats and did not induce locomotor sensitization in mice. qRT-PCR analyses showed that PIPP, but not PIVT, reduced dopamine transporter gene expression in the striatum. These data indicate that PIPP, but not PIVT, has rewarding effects, which may be attributed to its ability to affect dopamine transporter gene expression. Altogether, this study suggests that PIPP may have abuse potential. Careful monitoring of this type of cathinone and related drugs are advocated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Gene Expression , Mice , Nitrogen , Rats , Reward
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10724

ABSTRACT

Recently, there has been a rise in the number of amphetamine derivatives that serve as substitutes for controlled substances (e.g. amphetamine and methamphetamine) on the global illegal drug market. These substances are capable of producing rewarding effects similar to their parent drug. In anticipation of the future rise of new and similar psychoactive substances, we designed and synthesized four novel amphetamine derivatives with N-benzyl, N-benzylamphetamine HCl (NBNA) substituent on the amine region, 1,4-dioxane ring, ethylenedioxy-amphetamine HCl (EDA), methyl, para-methylamphetamine HCl (PMEA), and naphthalene, 2-(aminopropyl) naphthalene HCl (2-APN) substituents on the phenyl site. Then, we evaluated their abuse potential in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test in mice and self-administration (SA) test in rats. We also investigated the psychostimulant properties of the novel drugs using the locomotor sensitization test in mice. Moreover, we performed qRT-PCR analyses to explore the effects of the novel drugs on the expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor genes in the striatum. NBNA, but not EDA, PMEA, and 2-APN, induced CPP and SA in rodents. None of the test drugs have produced locomotor sensitization. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that NBNA increased the expression of striatal D1 dopamine receptor genes. These data indicate that NBNA yields rewarding effects, suggesting potential for abuse. Continual observation for the rise of related substances is thus strongly encouraged.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine , Animals , Controlled Substances , Humans , Mice , Parents , Rats , Receptors, Dopamine , Reward , Rodentia
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201374

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE₂ and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Methanol , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phosphorylation , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation , Vaccinium
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51946

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV-2 cells and found that EUE inhibited LPS-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory response factors. In addition, EUE inhibited the elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that EUE suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and their downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). EUE also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibited its binding to DNA. We next demonstrated that EUE induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. We determined that the significant up-regulation of HO-1 expression by EUE was a consequence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation; furthermore, EUE increased the DNA binding of Nrf2. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the ability of EUE to inhibit NO and PGE2 production, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, our results indicate that EUE inhibits pro-inflammatory responses by modulating MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and GSK-3β, consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Dinoprostone , DNA , Eucommiaceae , Glycogen Synthase , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation , Zinc
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23491

ABSTRACT

Sleep, which is an essential part of human life, is modulated by neurotransmitter systems, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine signaling. However, the mechanisms that initiate and maintain sleep remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between melatonin (MT) and dopamine D2-like receptor signaling in pentobarbital-induced sleep and the intracellular mechanisms of sleep maintenance in the cerebral cortex. In mice, pentobarbital-induced sleep was augmented by intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg MT. To investigate the relationship between MT and D2-like receptors, we administered quinpirole, a D2-like receptor agonist, to MT- and pentobarbital-treated mice. Quinpirole (1 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the duration of MT-augmented sleep in mice. In addition, locomotor activity analysis showed that neither MT nor quinpirole produced sedative effects when administered alone. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying quinpirole-augmented sleep, we measured protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cortical protein kinases related to MT signaling. Treatment with quinpirole or MT activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and protein kinase C (PKC) in the cerebral cortex, while protein kinase A (PKA) activation was not altered significantly. Taken together, our results show that quinpirole increases the duration of MT-augmented sleep through ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PKC signaling. These findings suggest that modulation of D2-like receptors might enhance the effect of MT on sleep.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Cortex , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Dopamine , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Melatonin , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Motor Activity , Neurotransmitter Agents , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Pentobarbital , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Quinpirole
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192179

ABSTRACT

The emergence and use of synthetic cannabinoids have greatly increased in recent years. These substances are easily dispensed over the internet and on the streets. Some synthetic cannabinoids were shown to have abuse liability and were subsequently regulated by authorities. However, there are compounds that are still not regulated probably due to the lack of abuse liability studies. In the present study, we assessed the abuse liability of three synthetic cannabinoids, namely JWH-030, JWH-175, and JWH-176. The abuse liability of these drugs was evaluated in two of the most widely used animal models for assessing the abuse potential of drugs, the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) test. In addition, the open-field test was utilized to assess the effects of repeated (7 days) treatment and abrupt cessation of these drugs on the psychomotor activity of animals. Results showed that JWH-175 (0.5 mg/kg), but not JWH-030 or JWH-176 at any dose, significantly decreased the locomotor activity of mice. This alteration in locomotor activity was only evident during acute exposure to the drug and was not observed during repeated treatment and abstinence. Similarly, only JWH-175 (0.1 mg/kg) produced significant CPP in rats. On the other hand, none of the drugs tested was self-administered by rats. Taken together, the present results indicate that JWH-175, but not JWH-030 and JWH-176, may have abuse potential. More importantly, our findings indicate the complex psychopharmacological effects of synthetic cannabinoids and the need to closely monitor the production, dispensation, and use of these substances.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Hand , Internet , Mice , Models, Animal , Motor Activity , Rats
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185386

ABSTRACT

Tramadol is an opioid analgesic agent that has been the subject of a series of case reports suggesting potential for misuse or abuse. However, it is not a controlled substance and is not generally considered addictive in Korea. In this study, we examined the dependence potential and abuse liability of tramadol as well as its effect on the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in rodents. In animal behavioral tests, tramadol did not show any positive effects on the experimental animals in climbing, jumping, and head twitch tests. However, in the conditioned place preference and self-administration tests, the experimental animals showed significant positive responses. Taken together, tramadol affected the neurological systems related to abuse liability and has the potential to lead psychological dependence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Head , Korea , Pharmacology , Rodentia , Substance-Related Disorders , Tramadol
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31582

ABSTRACT

Synthetic cannabinoids (CBs) such as the JWH series have caused social problems concerning their abuse liability. Because the JWH series produces euphoric and hallucinogenic effects, they have been distributed illegally under street names such as "Spice" and "Smoke". Many countries including Korea have started to schedule some of the JWH series compounds as controlled substances, but there are a number of JWH series chemicals that remain uncontrolled by law. In this study, three synthetic CBs with different binding affinities to the CB1 receptor (JWH-073, 081, and 210) and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) were evaluated for their potential for psychological dependence. The conditioned place preference test (unbiased method) and self-administration test (fixed ratio of 1) using rodents were conducted. Ki values of the three synthetic cannabinoids were calculated as supplementary data using a receptor binding assay and overexpressed CB1 protein membranes to compare dependence potential with CB1 receptor binding affinity. All mice administered JWH-073, 081, or 210 showed significantly increased time spent at unpreferred space in a dose-dependence manner in the conditioned place preference test. In contrast, all tested substances except Delta9-THC showed aversion phenomenon at high doses in the conditioned place preference test. The order of affinity to the CB1 receptor in the receptor binding assay was JWH-210 > JWH-081 >> JWH-073, which was in agreement with the results from the conditioned place preference test. However, no change in self-administration was observed. These findings suggest the possibility to predict dependence potential of synthetic CBs through a receptor binding assay at the screening level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Appointments and Schedules , Cannabinoids , Controlled Substances , Jurisprudence , Korea , Mass Screening , Membranes , Mice , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 , Rodentia , Social Problems
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169109

ABSTRACT

Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 and outbred ICR mice were similarly responsive to CMS treatment in sucrose intake test (SIT) and open field test (OFT). However, the two strains showed quite different responses in forced swimming test (FST) and novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test after 3 weeks of CMS treatment. Only C57BL/6 mice displayed the depression- and anxiety-like behavioral effects in response to CMS treatment in FST and NSF test. Our results suggest that there are differences in responsiveness to CMS according to the different types of strain of mice and behavioral tests. Therefore, these results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate behavioral methods to test depression- and anxiety-like behaviors using CMS in ICR and C57BL/6 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Depression , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Physical Exertion , Sucrose
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202593

ABSTRACT

Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark (EUE) is commonly used for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago, and ischialgia as well as to promote longevity. In this study, we tested the effects of EUE aqueous extract in graded doses to protect and enhance cognition in scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. EUE significantly improved the impairment of short-term or working memory induced by scopolamine in the Y-maze and significantly reversed learning and memory deficits in mice as measured by the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. One day after the last trial session of the Morris water maze test (probe trial session), EUE dramatically increased the latency time in the target quadrant in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EUE significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner. EUE also markedly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of cAMP element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that EUE may be useful for the treatment of cognitive deficits, and that the beneficial effects of EUE are mediated, in part, by cholinergic signaling enhancement and/or protection.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Carrier Proteins , Cognition , Eucommiaceae , Hippocampus , Hypertension , Learning , Longevity , Low Back Pain , Maze Learning , Memory Disorders , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mice , Phosphorylation , Scopolamine
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