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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 660-671, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970535

ABSTRACT

Lilii Bulbus is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine with both medicinal and edible values, while the market products usually has the problem of sulfur fumigation. Therefore, the quality and safety of Lilii Bulbus products deserve attention. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) to analyze the differential components of Lilii Bulbus before and after sulfur fumigation. We identified ten markers generated after sulfur fumigation, summarized their mass fragmentation and transformation patterns, and verified the structures of phenylacrylic acid markers of sulfur fumigation. At the same time, the cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts of Lilii Bulbus before and after sulfur fumigation was evaluated. The results showed that in the concentration range of 0-800 mg·L~(-1), the aqueous extract of Lilii Bulbus after sulfur fumigation had no significant effect on the viability of human liver LO2 cells, human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells, and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells. Moreover, the viability of the cells exposed to the aqueous extract of Lilii Bulbus before and after sulfur fumigation showed no significant difference. This study identified phenylacrylic acid and furostanol saponins as markers of sulfur-fumigated Lilii Bulbus for the first time, and made clear that proper sulfur fumigation of Lilii Bulbus would not produce cytotoxicity, providing a theoretical basis for the rapid identification and quality and safety control of sulfur-fumigated Lilii Bulbus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Fumigation , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Epithelial Cells , Sulfur
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 608-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970529

ABSTRACT

This paper introduced the overview of the "eight trends" of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry in 2021, analyzed the problems of CMM production, and put forward development suggestions. Specifically, "eight trends" could be summarized as follows.(1) The growing area of CMM tended to be stable, and some provinces began to release the local catalog of Dao-di herbs.(2) The protection process of new varieties accelerated, and a number of excellent varieties were bred.(3) The theory of ecological cultivation was further enriched, and the demonstration effect of ecological cultivation technology was prominent.(4) Some CMM realized complete mechanization and formed typical model cases.(5) The number of cultivation bases using the traceability platform increased, and provincial internet trading platforms were set up.(6) The construction of CMM industrial clusters accelerated, and the number of provincial-level regional brands increased rapidly.(7) Many new agricultural business entities were founded nationwide, and a variety of methods were used to drive the intensified development of CMM.(8) A number of local TCM laws were promulgated, and the management regulation of food and medicine homology substances catalogs was issued. On this basis, four suggestions for CMM production were proposed.(1) It is suggested to speed up the formulation of the national catalog of Dao-di herbs and carry out the certification of Dao-di herbs production bases.(2) Ecological planting of forest and grassland medicine should be further strengthened in terms of technical research and promotion based on the principle of ecological priority.(3) The basic work of disaster prevention should be paid more attention and technical measures for disaster mitigation should be developed.(4) The planted area of commonly used CMM should be incorporated into the national regular statistical system.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Certification , Commerce , Industry , China
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1144-1152, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928036

ABSTRACT

This study steps through the future perspectives and gives the development suggestions of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry by presenting the characteristics and open problems during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period. The development of CMM industry presents the following trends:(1)the development of Dao-di herbs speeds up with the increasing demand for high-quality CMM;(2)the mismatch between supply and demand is aggravating, which presses for supply-side structural reform;(3)ecological planting will become the core mode of production and bolster rural revitalization;(4)the demand for CMM with both medical and edible values keeps growing, and the antibiotic-free feed policy brings significant opportunities;(5)the "Internet Plus CMM" wave emerges, which promotes the construction of traceability system. Finally, we put forward the following suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM industry:(1)optimizing the layout for the production of Dao-di herbs according to local conditions;(2)strengthening the commercialization of the seeds and the breeding, multiplication, and extension of CMM to accelerate the realization of specialized seed production, mechanized seed processing, localized variety layout, and county-based unified seed supply;(3)ensuring the safety of pesticide use and accelerating the registration of special pesticides;(4)promoting both theoretical and practical research on ecological production of CMM;(5)publicizing the demonstration and popularization of CMM traceability system. Overall, significant progress has been achieved in the CMM industry during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, and this industry is in a critical stage of high-quality development, facing both challenges and opportunities.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Industry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Breeding
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1-6, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927905

ABSTRACT

Carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality have become hot issues of political and economic activities in China and abroad. The structure and development of various industries in China will be profoundly affected in the process of accomplishing "Dual Carbon" goals. Eco-agriculture of Chinese medicine(EACM) highlights the balance and sustainable development of the ecosystem while producing high-quality medicinal materials. With chemically synthesized fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators prohibited, EACM emphasizes the recycling of agricultural and sideline products and the reduction of waste output, which results in the minimal negative impact on the ecological environment. Therefore, it is typical agriculture with low-carbon sources and high-carbon sinks. This study reviewed the mechanism and potential of EACM in carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality, analyzed the specific ways of EACM in reducing carbon sources and increasing carbon sinks based on the typical ecological planting pattern, and proposed the point of view to strengthen EACM as well as the "Dual Carbon" theory and research methods, so as to direct low-carbon and efficient deve-lopment. Furthermore, this study advocated to comprehensively promote the transformation of Chinese medicine production from chemical agriculture to eco-agriculture to improve the comprehensive benefits of contribution rate of carbon neutrality, explore and establish carbon sink compensation mechanism to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of EACM, and strengthen the training of EACM and "Dual Carbon" theory and technologies to continuously improve the capacity of EACM in sustainable development. This study is expected to provide a reference for the development of ecological functions in EACM and the development of economic functions through ecological functions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Carbon Dioxide , China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2158-2164, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928155

ABSTRACT

Illumina Xten was employed for shallow sequencing of Panax ginseng(ginseng) samples, MISA for screening of SSR loci, and Primer 3 for primer design. Polymorphic primers were screened from 180 primers. From the successfully amplified polymorphic primers, 15 primers which featured clear peak shape, good polymorphism, and ease of statistics were selected and used to evaluate the genetic diversity and germplasm resources of 36 ginseng accessions with different fruit colors from Jilin province. The results showed that red-fruit ginseng population had high genetic diversity with the average number of alleles(N_a) of 1.031 and haploid genetic diversity(h) of 0.172. The neighbor-joining cluster analysis demonstrated that the germplasms of red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng populations were obviously intermixed, and pick-fruit ginseng germplasms clustered into a single clade. The results of STRUCTURE analysis showed high proportion of single genotype in pick-fruit ginseng germplasm and abundant genotypes in red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng germplasms with obvious germplasm mixing. AMOVA revealed that genetic variation occurred mainly within populations(62.00%, P<0.001), and rarely among populations(39%, P<0.001), but homogenization was obvious among different populations. In summary, pink-fruit ginseng population may contain rare genotypes, which is the basis for breeding of high-quality high-yield, and multi-resistance varieties, genetic improvement of varieties, and sustainable development and utilization of ginseng germplasm resources.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Panax/genetics , Plant Breeding
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5792-5796, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921697

ABSTRACT

Fusarium is the major pathogen of root rot of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. This study aims to explain the possible distribution of Fusarium species and the contamination of its toxin-chemotypes in tuberous root of P. heterophylla. A total of 89 strains of fungi were isolated from the tuberous root of P. heterophylla. Among them, 29 strains were identified as Fusarium by ITS2 sequence, accounting for 32.5%. They were identified as five species of F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum based on β-Tubulin and EF-1α genes. LC-MS/MS detected 18, 1, and 5 strains able to produce ZEN, DON, and T2, which accounted for 62.1%, 3.4%, and 17.2%, respectively. Strain JK3-3 can produce ZEN, DON, and T2, while strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2 can produce ZEN and T2. PCR detected six key synthase genes of Tri1, Tri7, Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 in strain JK3-3, which synthesized three toxins of ZEN, DON, and T2. Four key synthase genes of Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 were detected in strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2, which were responsible for the synthesis of ZEN and T2. The results showed that the key genes of toxin biosynthesis were highly correlated with the toxins produced by Fusarium, and the biosynthesis of toxin was strictly controlled by the genetic information of the strain. This study provides a data basis for the targeted prevention and control of exo-genous mycotoxins in P. heterophylla and a possibility for the development of PCR for rapid detection of toxin contamination.


Subject(s)
Caryophyllaceae , Chromatography, Liquid , Fusarium/genetics , Mycotoxins , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5240-5246, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921668

ABSTRACT

Zearalenone(ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, possessing estrogen-like effects, carcinogenicity, and multiple toxicities. To seek more efficient and practical agents for biological detoxification and broaden their application, this study isolated 194 bacterial strains from the moldy tuberous root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla, which were co-cultured with ZEN. An efficient ZEN-degrading strain H4-3-C1 was screened out by HPLC and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by morphological observation and molecular identification. The effects of culture medium, inoculation dose, culture time, pH, and temperature on the degradation of ZEN by H4-3-C1 strain were investigated. The mechanism of ZEN degradation and the degrading effect in Coicis Semen were discussed. The degradation rate of 5 μg·mL~(-1) ZEN by H4-3-C1 strain was 85.77% in the LB medium(pH 6) at 28 ℃/180 r·min~(-1) for 24 h with the inoculation dose of 1%. The degradation rate of ZEN in the supernatant of strain culture was higher than that in the intracellular fluid and thalli. The strain was inferred to secret extracellular enzymes to degrade ZEN. In addition, the H4-3-C1 strain could also degrade ZEN in Coicis Semen. If the initial content of ZEN in Coicis Semen was reduced from 90 μg·g~(-1) to 40.68 μg·g~(-1), the degradation rate could reach 54.80%. This study is expected to provide a new strain and application technology for the biological detoxification of ZEN in food processing products and Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Fusarium , Mycotoxins , Temperature , Zearalenone
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5166-5172, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921659

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine injections(CMIs) have higher requirements for quality consistency and controllability than other traditional Chinese medicine products. The implementation of Good Agricultural Practice of Medicinal Plants and Animals(GAP) is an important factor that guarantees the quality stability of raw Chinese medicinal materials and affects the quality of CMIs. Through literature review, data research, expert consultation, and statistical analysis, this paper analyzes the current status of GAP management of key CMIs and the impact of GAP management of raw medicinal materials on the quality consistency and controllability of CMIs. Furthermore, it demonstrates the rationality, necessity, and feasibility of the full implementation of GAP on the basis of CMIs safety re-evaluation.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4930-4935, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921629

ABSTRACT

The endophytes of medicinal plants play an important role in promoting the quality formation of the host. Therefore, this paper made a review of endophytes of medicinal plant Atractylodes lancea. According to previous studies, A. lancea boasts endophytes, such as fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes, among which the beneficial microorganisms help the growth and development of A. lancea. There is a close interaction between the volatile oil of A. lancea and endophytes. Different endophytes vary in regulating the composition and content of the volatile oil of A. lancea, which might contribute to the quality formation of A. lancea. However, the information of the endophytic flora of A. lancea obtained by traditional culture and isolation is not enough to reflect the real situation of the endophytes of A. lancea. Little is known about the endophytes of A. lancea from different chemical types and different habitats, which is not conducive to the study of the ecological relationship between A. lancea and endophytes and limits the development and utilization of the endophytes. Therefore, at the end of this paper, the authors put forward suggestions for future research on endophytes in A. lancea, including:(1)mining the core endophyte resources of A. lancea by combining high-throughput sequencing with traditional culture and isolation;(2)exploring the relationship between the diversity of endophytes and chemical types of A. lancea;(3)strengthening the application of endophytes in A. lancea cultivation, in order to facilitate the cultivation efficiency and quality of A. lancea.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Endophytes , Fungi , Oils, Volatile , Plants, Medicinal
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6130-6138, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921771

ABSTRACT

The effective material basis of Chinese medicine is the key and difficult point in the quality control and modernization research of Chinese medicine. With the increasing application of pharmacophore-based virtual screening in computer-aided drug design, it is possible to employ this technology in the modernization of Chinese medicine. Based on the systematic research method of the pharmacophore model, the present study systematically reviewed the pharmacophore-based technologies and strategies in the identification of active components in Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5555-5559, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921737

ABSTRACT

Good agricultural practices(GAP) for Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) is the source of quality control in the production of CHM. To ensure the safety, efficacy, and quality of Chinese herbal and natural medicine, the international community has been exploring the implementation of GAP for CHM. The implementation of GAP for CHM has a far-reaching impact, and the scale planting of CHM has been expanding. However, the medicinal materials produced by the GAP bases for CHM still cannot fully meet the market demand, and the output and quality of CHM remain to be improved. This paper summarizes construction status of GAP bases for CHM.The 129 companies that passed the certification during the implementation of GAP for CHM included 196 GAP bases, forming the scale CHM production zone with Sichuan province, Yunnan province, Jilin province, Henan province, and Shandong province as the core.The total area of GAP bases for CHM in China is about 250 000-500 000 Mu(1 Mu≈667 m2), which is still less than 1% of the total production area of CHM. The international agricultural production quality management strategies are all market-oriented behaviors.Drawing on the international good agricultural and collection practice(GACP) and hazard analysis critical control point(HACCP) as well as the relevant policies of Chinese quality management of CHM, we put forward feasible suggestions for the further implementation of GAP for CHM:(1)The market rules and international experience should be followed and employed to promote GAP management of CHM and third-party implementation of GAP certification;(2)The sound development of GAP for CHM should be boosted with the HACCP management system and the revision of GAP for CHM;(3)The implementation of policies and standards should be stepped up to facilitate the building of a whole-course traceability system for the production of CHM with high quality and reasonable prices.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2133-2141, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879170

ABSTRACT

Atractylodis Rhizoma(AR) is a traditional Chinese medicinal material for food and medicine, with the functions of eli-minating dampness, strengthening the spleen, expelling wind evil and dispersing cold. AR contains a variety of compounds, including sesquiterpenoids, alkynes, triterpenoids, aromatic glycosides, polysaccharides and so on. At present, the researches on AR mainly focus on volatile components, with relatively fewer researches on non-volatile components. Polysaccharide from Atractylodis Rhizoma(ARP) is an important material basis among non-volatile components for the efficacy. Due to its many biological activities such as immunomodulatory activity, anti-tumors, anti-virus and anti-oxidation, ARP has certain research value and potential. The diversity of the polysaccharide structure is the basis for biological functions, but it also increases the difficulty of carbohydrate research. The research on the extraction, separation, purification, structure and activity of ARP is in the preliminary exploration stage, still with many shortcomings. Herein, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of ARP were summarized in this article to provide scientific reference for the in-depth systematic research of ARP and the development of AR resources.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Polysaccharides , Rhizome , Triterpenes
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1927-1934, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879111

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed through field experiments to study the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, provide ideas for reducing fertilization while increasing the efficiency as well as improving the quality of produces. The experiment included 6 treatments viz., no fertilization(CK), full application of chemical fertilizer(F), 25% orga-nic fertilizer with 75% chemical fertilizer(M25), 50% organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilizer(M50), 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer(M75), and fully apply organic fertilizer(M100). The results showed that:(1)from the perspective of yield and economic benefits, M75 was the best and M100 second;(2)for effective components, the combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers increased the content of main water-soluble components and the total content of effective components, among which M25 and M50 were better.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Soil
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1920-1926, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879110

ABSTRACT

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1910-1919, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879109

ABSTRACT

The research on endophytes of medicinal plants mainly relies on the traditional culture and isolation methods. Because of their functions such as promoting host growth, improving stress resistance, promoting the accumulation of medicinal active ingredients or directly producing medicinal active ingredients, the endophytes of medicinal plants have gradually attracted wide attention. However, it was found that the strains isolated by traditional methods were not the true dominant endophytes of medicinal plants by comparing the results of traditional culture isolation with high-throughput sequencing. The blind and random nature of traditional methods leads to the lack of standards in terms of medium selection, culture time and interaction between species. On the contrary, high-throughput sequencing technology is an emerging molecular biology technology developed in recent decades. Due to its high resolution level and indepen-dent culture, it can be used for thorough analysis of the community structure and diversity of environmental microorganisms. Therefore, we proposed the strategy of using high-throughput sequencing technology to guide the traditional culture and isolation of endophytes from medicinal plants. Firstly, the endophytic structure and diversity of medicinal plants were completely clear by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the dominant endophytes of the host were unequivocal. Then according to the characteristics of each dominant endophytes design or query suitable medium for its growth to culture and isolation. Finally, the function of the isolates was studied. This method can prevent researchers from missing out on the important functional strains of the host, expand the research scope of endophytes of medicinal plants, and facilitate the in-depth excavation and utilization of endophytes of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Endophytes/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Plants, Medicinal , Research Design
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1901-1909, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879108

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in the regulation of plant stress resistance. Impacts of nitrogen fertilizers on abiotic stress resistance and biotic stress resistance of Chinese materia medica(CMM) were summarized in this study. Adequate nitrogen application improves the abiotic stress resistance and weed resistance of CMM, however adverse effect appears when excess nitrogen is used. Generally, pest resistance decreases along with nitrogen deposition, while effects of nitrogen application on disease resistance vary with different diseases. Mechanisms underlying the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on plant stress resistance were also elucidated in this study from three aspects including physical defense mechanisms, biochemistry mechanisms and molecular defense mechanisms. Nitrogen availability modulates physical barrier of CMM like plant growth, formation of lignin and wax cuticle, and density of stomata. Growth of CMM promoted by nitrogen fertilizer may cause some decrease in pest resistance of CMM due to an increase in hiding places for pest along with plant growth. High ambient humidity caused by excessive plant growth facilitates the growth and development of CMM pathogen. Nitrogen application can also interfere with the accumulation of lignin in CMM which makes CMM more vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack. Stomatal closing delays due to nitrogen application is also a causal factor of increasing pathogen infection after nitrogen deposition. Biochemical defenses of plants are mainly achieved through nutrient elements, secondary metabolites, defense-related enzymes and proteins. Nutritional level of CMM and various antioxidant enzymes and resistance-related protein activities are elevated along with nitrogen deposition. These antioxidant enzymes can reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species content produced by plant in response to adversity and therefore enhance stress resistance of CMM. Researches showed that nitrogen application could also cause an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. Nitrogen-mediated molecular defense mechanisms includes multiple plant hormones and nitric oxide signals. Plant hormones related to plant defense like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid can be modulated by nitrogen application. Negative effect of nitrogen deposition was found on salicylic acid accumulation and the expression of related plant disease resistance genes. However, jasmonic acid level can be elevated by nitrogen. Nitric oxide signals constitute an important part of nitrogen mediated defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide signaling is related to many aspects of plant immunity. The roles of nitrogen fertilizers in CMM stress resistance are complex and may vary with different CMM varieties and environments. Further studies are urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how to improve stress resistance of CMM by using fertilizers.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , China , Materia Medica , Nitrogen , Plant Growth Regulators
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1893-1900, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879107

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen is one of the most frequently used fertilizers in growth of Chinese medicinal plants(CMP). As in many other ecosystems, CMP ecosystem is also composed of plant-herbivore-natural enemy(tritrophic) interactions. Nitrogen fertilizer influences the growth and reproduction of CMP, and it is also able to heavily shape the ecosystem functions of CMP ecosystem through bottom-up forces. Understanding the specific effects of nitrogen fertilizer towards each trophic level will be beneficial to improve the resistance of CMP to herbivore and enhance the control efficiency of nature enemies to herbivore, and eventually, maximize the yield and quality of CMP. Most papers published on nitrogen use in plants focused mainly on the impact of nitrogen fertilization on CMP yield and quality. Influences of nitrogen application on CMP ecosystem get little attention at present. Therefore, this review summed up the potential effects of nitrogen fertilization on CMP ecosystem from perspectives of soil and tritrophic interactions. First of all, nitrogen fertilizer might decrease soil microbial biomass and altered the community structures of soil bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were found on biodiversity of soil bacteria and protozoa. Different fungi species respond differently to nitrogen fertili-zers. Nitrogen deposition can also decrease the soil pH. Decreases in soil microbial diversity and soil acidification can cause negative effects on CMP growth. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer could regulate the pest resistance of CMP including constitutive and inducible resistance. Both positive and negative effects of nitrogen application were found on pest resistance of CMP. Moreover, the development and predation of natural enemies were influenced by nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen influences natural enemies in many ways including plant volatiles, plant nutrient and structure and the supplementary food quality. Nectar and honeydew of plants and preys serve as important food source for natural enemies especially in early season when preys are still not available. Finally, the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies were also shaped by nitrogen fertilizer in many aspects like increasing the nutritional content of prey and changing control efficiency of natural enemies. Some herbivores have evolved a strategy to sequester secondary metabolites which they absorbed from plant during their feeding. Studies showed that sequestration efficiency of secondary metabolites in prey could also be regulated by nitrogen. Parasitic, emergence, reproduction rate and longevity of parasites were found positively correlated with nitrogen deposition. Hopefully this study will shed light on practicable and economical application of nitrogen in cultivation of CMP.


Subject(s)
China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Nitrogen , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1883-1892, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1869-1875, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879104

ABSTRACT

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sustainable Development
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1864-1868, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879103

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium huoshanense is a precious medicinal plant belonging to Dendrobium of Orchidaceae. It is a special medicinal material and extremely scarce in Huoshan county, Anhui province. At present, D. huoshanense has been greatly protected, which also makes it possible to industrialize relying on tissue culture and artificial cultivation technology. Three main planting methods were utilized for cultivating D. huoshanense including facility cultivation, under forest cultivation and simulative habitat cultivation. Firstly, the three cultivation modes and technical characteristics of D. huoshanense were compared and analyzed, and it was found that the ecological environment of D. huoshanense cultivated in the simulated environment was closer to that of wild D. huoshanense. Secondly, based on comparing the characters and quality of three cultivation modes, the results showed that the shape of D. huoshanense cultivated in simulated environment was more similar to that of "grasshopper thigh" recorded in Bencao Jing Jizhu, and its quality was better than that of facilities and under forest cultivation. The comprehensive benefit comparison of three modes showed that the simulated cultivation had high income, the lowest input-output ratio and significant economic benefit. The quality of cultivated D. huoshanense was further evaluated from four aspects of "excellent environment" "excellent shape" "high quality" "excellent effect", which summarized the comprehensive advantages of simulative habitat cultivation of D. huoshanense as follows: the original habitat and site environment of simulated wild D. huoshanense, the closer shape to the wild, the more content of main medicinal components, and higher economic benefit and better efficacy. The quality of D. huoshanense was improved by the use of simulative habitat cultivation, which has practical significance to guide its large-scale cultivation.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Forests , Plants, Medicinal
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