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1.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 27-41, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010752

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) possess a rich historical background, unique theoretical framework, remarkable therapeutic efficacy, and abundant resources. However, the modernization and internationalization of TCMs have faced significant obstacles due to their diverse ingredients and unknown mechanisms. To gain deeper insights into the phytochemicals and ensure the quality control of TCMs, there is an urgent need to enhance analytical techniques. Currently, two-dimensional (2D) chromatography, which incorporates two independent separation mechanisms, demonstrates superior separation capabilities compared to the traditional one-dimensional (1D) separation system when analyzing TCMs samples. Over the past decade, new techniques have been continuously developed to gain actionable insights from complex samples. This review presents the recent advancements in the application of multidimensional chromatography for the quality evaluation of TCMs, encompassing 2D-gas chromatography (GC), 2D-liquid chromatography (LC), as well as emerging three-dimensional (3D)-GC, 3D-LC, and their associated data-processing approaches. These studies highlight the promising potential of multidimensional chromatographic separation for future phytochemical analysis. Nevertheless, the increased separation capability has resulted in higher-order data sets and greater demands for data-processing tools. Considering that multidimensional chromatography is still a relatively nascent research field, further hardware enhancements and the implementation of chemometric methods are necessary to foster its robust development.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 70-75, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006429

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo quantitatively investigate the changes in the total volume and contour density of hepatic oval cells (HOC) in hepatic lobules of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. MethodsA total of 11 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group with 5 rats and hepatic fibrosis group with 6 rats, and CCl4 and olive oil suspension were injected subcutaneously twice a week, 3 mL/kg each time. After five weeks of hepatic fibrosis modeling, five liver tissue blocks with a size of about 1 mm3 were randomly selected from the liver of each rat to prepare one Epon812 epoxy resin-embedded ultrathin section, and the stereological method and transmission electron microscopy were used for the quantitative analysis of the total volume and contour density of HOC in the hepatic lobules of rats. In addition, four liver tissue blocks with a thickness of 2 mm were randomly selected from the remaining liver of each rat to prepare two paraffin-embedded Masson staining sections, and the degree of liver fibrosis in each rat was qualitatively evaluated according to the Metavir staging criteria for liver fibrosis. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups. ResultsThe quantitative stereological analysis showed that the total volume of HOC in hepatic lobules was 15.40±7.63 mm3 in the control group and 146.80±114.00 mm3 in the liver fibrosis group, and compared with the control group, the total volume of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats in the liver fibrosis group was significantly increased by 8.53 times (t=-2.551, P=0.031); the contour density of HOC in hepatic lobules was 56.20±40.40 in the control group and 566.50±317.00 in the liver fibrosis group, and compared with the control group, the contour density of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats in the liver fibrosis group was significantly increased by 9.08 times (t=-3.539, P=0.006). Qualitative observation showed that liver fibrosis stage of rats reached stage Ⅱ-Ⅲ according to the Metavir scoring criteria, and massive proliferation of HOC was observed around the proliferation site of hepatic stellate cells in the perisinusoidal space of rats. ConclusionCCl4 induces significant proliferation of HOC in hepatic lobules of rats with liver fibrosis.

3.
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 48-54, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989315

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare chitosan/gelatin hydrogel composite hemostatic materials loaded with Panax notoginseng (PN/CMC/GMs) and evaluate their performance. Methods:PN/CMC/GMs hydrogel composite hemostatic material were prepared by the freeze-drying method, and their morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Their rheological properties were observed by a rheometer. Their water absorption rate was tested by dissolution. Their biocompatibility was detected by a cytotoxicity assay. Their rapid hemostatic effect was tested using a SD rat liver hemorrhage model.Results:PN/CMC/GMs composite hemostatic materials were prepared in a lattice-like structure with certain porosity. With the increase in Panax notoginseng powder content, the modulus of PN/CMC/GMs increased accordingly, and the mechanical strength increased. PN/CMC/GMs have better water absorption and expansion functions, which can form compression hemostasis and concentrated blood to achieve rapid hemostasis, and have good biocompatibility. Hemostasis experiments showed that the hemostatic time and hemostatic effect of PN, CMC/GMs hemostatic materials on liver injury in rats were better than those of the blank control group. Conclusions:PN/CMC/GMs have good hemostatic effect and biocompatibility and have the potential for further research and clinical application.

4.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 871-874, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958270

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the immune effect of tetanus toxoid (TT) and to provide reference for improving immunoprophylaxis strategies against tetanus.Methods:From 2019 to 2021, the TT-containing vaccine (TTCV) immunization history of patients treated for trauma in Luoshan Street Community Health Service Center of Jinjiang City were investigated. Serum tetanus antibody (TAB) levels were detected in 353 subjects (group A) 5-10 years after TTCV immunization, and the proportions of subjects with different TAB levels (<0.01 IU/ml, 0.01-0.10 IU/ml, >0.10 IU/ml) in different age groups were compared. Sixty-eight subjects (group B) aged 14-83 years with TTCV immunization history and TAB level of 0.01-0.10 IU/ml and 133 subjects (group C) aged 17-77 years without TTCV immunization history were inoculated with one dose and three doses of TT respectively, and the changes in TAB level were observed 28 d after immunization.Results:In group A, the proportions of subjects with different TAB levels in different age groups were statistically significant (χ 2=47.69, P<0.001). The proportions of subjects in which TAB levels were <0.01 IU/ml and 0.01-0.10 IU/ml increased with age. In group B, 66 out of the 68 subjects had TAB >0.10 IU/ml 28 d after one dose of TT immunization. There were statistically significant differences in the proportions of subjects whose TAB levels were 0.01-0.10 IU/ml and >0.10 IU/ml before and after TT immunization (χ 2=128.23, P<0.001). In group C, before three doses of TT immunization, 129 patients had TAB <0.01 IU/ml and four patients had TAB in the range of 0.01-0.10 IU/ml; 28 d after three doses of TT immunization, only one case had TAB in the range of 0.01-0.10 IU/ml and 132 cases had TAB >0.10 IU/ml. The proportions of group C subjects with different TAB levels before and after TT immunization were statistically significant (χ 2=262.80, P<0.001). Conclusions:Five years after TTCV immunization, the proportions of individuals with TAB <0.01 IU/ml and in the range of 0.01-0.10 IU/ml increased with age. For people without TTCV immunization history and those with decreased TAB protection after TTCV immunization, strengthening TT immunization could significantly improve the TAB protection.

5.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 165-170, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909849

ABSTRACT

Facial injuries due to animal bites are normal. Recent studies have demonstrated that primary wound closure with cosmetic suture techniques and/or plastic and reconstructive repair techniques for facial injuries caused by animal bites will improve the cosmetic effect and patients' satisfaction without increasing the wound infection rate. Hence, early plastic surgery is recommended to repair facial injuries caused by animal bites. The authors review the characteristics and injury assessment of facial injuries caused by animal bites, wound debridement techniques, cosmetic suture techniques, and cosmetic sutures of animal bites in various parts, aiming to provide a reference to the plastic and reconstructive therapy for facial injuries caused by animal bites.

6.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 146-151, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909846

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the risk factors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by wasp stings.Methods:A prospective case-control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 225 patients with wasp stings admitted to Taihe hospital of Shiyan City and Ankang Central Hospital from January 2014 to December 2018, including 131 males and 94 females, with the age of 49 (41, 60) years. The patients were divided into SIRS group ( n=62) and non-SIRS group ( n=163) according to the SIRS diagnostic criteria. The data were collected including gender, age, sting in the head, sting in waist and back, sting in the abdomen, sting in the limbs, number of stings, admission time, hospitalization day, and mortality. The plasma levels of interleukin(IL)-6 and IL-8 in peripheral blood of the patients were analyzed by ELISA method. The whole genome DNA was extracted from white blood cells, and the IL-6: -174G/C, -572G/C, -597G/A, -634C/G and IL-8: -251A/T, -738T/A, -845T/C, + 396T/G were selected for research. The PCR method was used to perform bidirectional sequencing and comparison after amplification, and record the genotyping and frequency. The risk factors of SIRS caused by wasp stings were investigated by univariate analysis and multivariate Logistics regression analysis. Results:(1) The two groups showed significant differences in sting in the limbs, sting in waist and back, sting in the abdomen, number of stings, hospitalization day and mortality ( P<0.01), while there were no significant differences in gender, age, sting in the head and admission time ( P>0.05). (2) ELISA test showed the plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in SIRS group were higher than those in non-SIRS group ( P<0.01). (3) Three genotypes of CC, GC and GG were observed in IL-6-572G/C. There were significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles between SIRS group and non-SIRS group ( P<0.01). Three genotypes of AA, AT and TT were observed in IL-8 -251A/T. There were significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles between SIRS group and non-SIRS group ( P<0.01). (4)Univariate analysis showed sting in waist and back, sting in the abdomen, sting in the limbs, number of stings, IL-6-572G allele, IL-8-251T allele were related to SIRS caused by wasp stings ( P<0.01). (5)Multivariate Logistics regression analysis showed limb stings ( OR=2.15), number of stings ≥10 ( OR=11.10), IL-6-572G allele ( OR=3.91) and IL-8-251T allele ( OR=3.97) were significantly related to SIRS caused by wasp stings ( P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusions:The plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-8 are increased in patients with SIRS after wasp stings. The limbs stings, number of stings ≥10, IL-6 -572G and IL-8 -251T are all independent risk factors for SIRS caused by wasp stings.

7.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 57-62, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909833

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the efficacy of tracheotomy and nasal intubation in airways management in treatment of patients with respiratory failure caused by severe tetanus.Methods:A respective case series study was conducted to analyze the data of 92 patients with respiratory failure caused by severe tetanus admitted to Jiangxi Chest Hospital from January 2012 to December 2019. There were 60 males and 32 females, aged 23-81 years [(47.5±14.1)years]. Overall 43 patients underwent tracheotomy (tracheotomy group), and 49 patients underwent nasal intubation (nasal intubation group). The blood gas related indexes (PaO 2, PaCO 2), catheter retention time, incidence of complications such as airway bleeding, nasosinusitis, catheter blockage and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Results:After mechanical ventilation, the PaO 2 and PaCO 2 in both groups were significantly improved ( P<0.01), with no significant difference between groups ( P>0.05). Both groups were similar regarding the catheter indwelling time, catheter blockage, airway bleeding and nasosinusitis ( P>0.05). The incidences of VAP and catheter blockage after extubation in tracheotomy group [12%(5/43), 12%(5/43)] were significantly different from those in nasal intubation group [0%(0/49), 31%(15/49)] ( P<0.05). There were 3 deaths in each group, with the mortality rate of 7% (3/43) in tracheotomy group and of 6% (3/49) in nasal intubation group ( P>0.05). Both groups of live tetanus patients were cured. After 3-month follow-up, the tetanus was cured in the two groups. Conclusions:The tracheotomy and transnasal tracheal intubation are optional for severe tetanus patients with respiratory failure. The former has airway and tissue trauma, but it is convenient for mechanical ventilation management, especially indicated for patients with severe convulsions, angular arch reflexes, poor sedation, and continuous application of muscle relaxants. Nasal intubation is relatively non-invasive, simple and fast method, but the prevention and monitoring of VAP requires higher requirements.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 18-23, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867665

ABSTRACT

Tetanus consists of neonatal tetanus and non-neonatal tetanus.Non-neonatal tetanus remains a serious public health problem,although neonatal tetanus has been eliminated in China since 2012.Non-neonatal tetanus is a potential fatal disease.In the absence of medical intervention,the mortality rate of severe cases is almost 100%.Even with vigorous treatment,the mortality rate remains 30%-50% globally.These specifications aim to regulate non-neonatal tetanus diagnosis and treatment in China,in order to improve medical quality and safety.These specifications introduce the etiology,epidemiology,pathogenesis,clinical manifestations and laboratory tests,diagnosis,differential diagnosis,grading and treatment of non-neonatal tetanus.

9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 224-227, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799605

ABSTRACT

The situation of prevention of non-neonatal tetanus in China is severe. Strengthening the active immunization with tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTCV) is the key to prevent the non-neonatal tetanus. Through the detection of tetanus antibody (TAB), the immune status of individual can be determined, so as to implement the active immunization of TTCV correctly. The research on TAB detection technology is stagnant in aboard, but still in a development process in China since there is a realistic demand for TAB detection. This review collects relatively limited data of TAB detection technology in China, and summarizes the techniques such as mice toxin neutralization test (MTNT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), double agar gel immune diffusion test (Rubin method), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colloidal gold (CG), in order to provide a comprehensive basis for domestic TAB detection. The TAB detection technology in China has not yet achieved international recognition due to the lack of comparative study of domestic and international institutions and reference reagents. The special domestic situation of tetanus prevention makes the research of TAB detection technology have a certain practical significance, and rapid detection reagents such as ELISA and CG method have a certain application value in China.

10.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 203-208, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799601

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Meta-analysis was conducted on the tetanus antibody protection rate of healthy population born after 1978 in China (data from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan was excluded, the same below).@*Methods@#Search the data on China′s tetanus antibody level which were published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, VIP, SinoMed database, PubMed and the Cochrane Library. The Chinese search keywords were "Tetanus Antitoxin", "Tetanus Antibody", "Healthy Population" and "Mainland China". English search terms include "tetanus antitoxin", "tetanus vaccine", "tetanus vaccine", "general population" and "mainland of China". The time limit for inclusion in literature research was 2010-2019. Stata software was used to conduct meta-analysis on the protection rate of tetanus antibody.@*Results@#A total of 24 articles were included. There was no obvious publication bias in the included articles. The total number of respondents was 23 530, the antibody protection rate was 49.5%-99.0%. A total of 20 817 people got effective antibody protection, which meant the antibody level reached and exceeded 0.1 IU/ml, and the combined protection rate was 78.6% (95%CI: 75.0%-88.2%). The combined protection rates of antibody in 0-7 years old and 8-15 years old groups were 88.9% (95%CI: 86.9%-91.0%) and 79.3% (95%CI: 72.9%-86.2%) respectively. The combined protection rates of antibodies in 16-20 years old, 21-30 years old and 31-40 years old groups were 58.9% (95%CI: 46.5%-71.2%), 47.7% (95%CI: 16.8%-78.7%) and 63.8% (95%CI:32.6%-95.1%) respectively. The combined protection rate of tetanus antibody for 0-15 years old people was 85.6% (95%CI: 83.1%-88.1%), and the combined protection rate of antibody for 16-40 years old people was 52.9% (95%CI: 39.3%-66.6%).@*Conclusion@#With the increase of age, the protection rate of tetanus antibody among the healthy population aged 16-40 years in our country decreases. An individualized vaccination plan should be formulated according to the previous tetanus vaccination history and the tetanus antibody level when necessary.

11.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 18-23, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798616

ABSTRACT

Tetanus consists of neonatal tetanus and non-neonatal tetanus. Non-neonatal tetanus remains a serious public health problem, although neonatal tetanus has been eliminated in China since 2012. Non-neonatal tetanus is a potential fatal disease. In the absence of medical intervention, the mortality rate of severe cases is almost 100%. Even with vigorous treatment, the mortality rate remains 30%-50% globally. These specifications aim to regulate non-neonatal tetanus diagnosis and treatment in China, in order to improve medical quality and safety. These specifications introduce the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, grading and treatment of non-neonatal tetanus.

12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 668-679, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805663

ABSTRACT

Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by lyssavirus and characterized by central nervous system symptoms. The fatality rate of rabies is almost 100%. About 59 000 cases die of rabies worldwide every year, mainly in Asia and Africa. China is an epidemic country of rabies. Grade II and III exposures are the main types of rabies exposures in China. Standardized post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can prevent rabies almost 100%. Human Rabies Vaccine Technical Working Group, National Immunization Advisory Committee and invited experts reached an expert consensus on PEP by referring to the World Health Organization′s position paper on rabies vaccine in 2018 and related research progress in recent.

13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1212-1217, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800529

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic tetanus is the main type of non-neonatal tetanus. To reduce the incidence and mortality rate of tetanus and guide the primary medical institutions to prevent and control tetanus after trauma, National Immunization Planning Technical Working Group of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has compiled this document in the reference with Position Paper by World Health Organization, the latest research progress from home and abroad. The guidelines focus on the basic procedures for the prevention and disposition of post-traumatic tetanus, the application of tetanus vaccines and immune preparation, and the pre-exposure immunization in high-risk populations of trauma.

14.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1206-1211, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800528

ABSTRACT

Tetanus consists of neonatal tetanus and non-neonatal tetanus. Although neonatal tetanus in China has been eliminated since 2012, non-neonatal tetanus remains a serious public health problem. Non-neonatal tetanus is a potential fatal disease, and the mortality rate of severe cases is almost 100% in the absence of medical intervention. Even with vigorous treatment, the mortality rate is still 30~50% globally. In order to standardize the diagnosis and treatment of non-neonatal tetanus in China, this specification is hereby formulated. This standard includes etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, classification, grading and treatment of non-neonatal tetanus.

15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1203-1205, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800527

ABSTRACT

Neonatal tetanus has been basically eliminated in China, but the incidence of non-neonatal tetanus is still high. Tetanus after trauma is the main type of non-neonatal tetanus. The correct application of tetanus toxoid containing vaccine (TTCV) has been neglected in the prevention of tetanus after trauma in China. On May 9, 2019, National Advisory Committee of Experts on Immunization Planning (NIAC) reviewed and approved the first guidelines for the use of TTCV and passive immune preparation after trauma, which clarified the basic process of treatment of tetanus after trauma, as well as the pointer to the use of TTCV and passive immune preparation after trauma. The main measure to prevent tetanus after trauma is to use TTCV for active immunization, and to use passive immune preparation for those without TTCV immune history. Through the construction of the top-down control and prevention system of tetanus, the change of the concept of tetanus immunoprophylaxis of medical staff is promoted. Active immunization is the main measure, but passive immunization is an added measure for the prevention of tetanus after trauma, which is of great significance to reverse the mistake of prevention of tetanus in China.

16.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 212-215, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745043

ABSTRACT

The National Health Commission recently has released a notice about further promoting the trauma rescue and treatment in China, which includes four main contents as follows: ( 1 ) to strengthen the establishment of regional trauma rescue and treatment system based on trauma center;(2) to lift the specialized medical service ability related to trauma rescue and treatment; ( 3 ) to further develop the radiant and stimulating role of National Trauma Medical Centre and National Regional Trauma Medical Center;(4) to enhance the trauma-related professional training and public health education. In this article, we interpret the third aspect regarding medical quality control and maintenance of trauma treatment, providing reference for better understanding the specific requirements of the document.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology ; (6): 440-444, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806339

ABSTRACT

Rabies vaccine has gradually evolved from the birth of nerve tissue vaccine to cell vaccine, and vaccination time has been simplified from the initial implementation of 14-21 needles to current 4-5 needles. Four types of vaccination procedures are recommended by WHO for rabies pre and post-exposure prophylaxis: two types of intradermal (ID) multipoint injection and two types of intramuscular (IM) injection. The most commonly used vaccination procedures are the 5-dose regimen (" 1-1-1-1-1" regimen i. e. Essen regimen) and 4-dose regimen (" 2-1-1" regimen i. e. Zagreb regimen). Vaccination according to the above vaccination procedures recommended by WHO could effectively prevent human rabies. The vaccination procedures of rabies vaccine approved in China are Essen regimen and Zagreb regimen.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology ; (6): 323-327, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806196

ABSTRACT

Rabies is an infectious disease caused by rabies virus and rabies vaccination is the most effective way to prevent rabies. With the continuous development of biotechnology and manufacturing process, the quality of rabies vaccine has been significantly improved; especially domestic human diploid cell rabies vaccine comes into the market, which means rabies vaccine steped into the human cell era in China. The appearance of domestic golden standard human diploid cell rabies vaccine made the dream of Chinese people to be vaccinated with high quality rabies vaccine became a reality. This article summarizes the domestic and overseas research achievements of rabies vaccine.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental and Clinical Virology ; (6): 225-227, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806173

ABSTRACT

Post-exposure prophylaxis plays an important role in the continued decline of rabies epidemic in China. In the new era, significant progress has been made in the professional construction of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis; the theoretical and practical basis of subject setting has become mature gradually; related medical and biotechnology industries are developing rapidly; innovative research is synchronized with the international level and gradually approaching the leading level; the international and domestic influence is expanding day by day; the series of humanized service measures under standardized management meets the health needs of the people. The rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in China is stepping into the new situation.

20.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 472-475, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-711432

ABSTRACT

Immunoprophylaxis against tetanus is divided into passive and active immunization. Pas-sive immunizing agents include tetanus antitoxin and human tetanus immunoglobulin. Tetanus antitoxin played an important role in early tetanus immunoprophylaxis. However,some safety problems do exist as it contains allogeneic serum and because of that,it has been gradually replaced by human tetanus immunoglobulin. Mis-application of passive immune agents has resulted in a waste of medical resources and revealed potential med-ical risks. Standardized and rational application of active immunizing agents ( tetanus toxoid) with reduced usage of passive immunizing agents is the most effective measure to prevent Clostridium tetani infection.

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