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1.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 508-514, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990551

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the characteristics and changes of bacterial infection and drug resistance in PICU at Children′s Hospital of Fudan University from 2016 to 2020.Methods:All the strains were collected at Children′s Hospital of Fudan University from January 1 st, 2016 to December 31 st, 2020.Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems.Results were analyzed according to CLSI 2020 breakpoints. Results:(1)Bacterial distribution: 2 551 bacteria were monitored from 2016 to 2020 in our center.The top 3 bacteria were all gram-negative bacteria.Among them, Burkholderia cepacian showed a tortuous downward trend(13.45% to 1.18%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed an upward trend(6.05% to 10.61%).The most common infected site was respiratory tract, although the strains in the respiratory tract decreased year by year.Baumanii was the most common bacteria in respiratory infections.Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common bacteria from 2016 to 2017 in blood infections, but Achromobacter xylosoxidans were became the most common bacteria from 2018 to 2020.Enterococcus faecium was the most common bacteria in urinary infections.(2) Drug resistance: Baumanii had a high drug resistance rate to amikacin, gentamicin, cefepime, and cefitadine, with no obvious changes over the years, which had a gradually decreasing drus resistance rate to cefoperazone sulbactam, showing a tortuous upward trend to imipenem and meropenem.Baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had a low drug resistance to levofloxacin over the years, but with high resistance rates in 2020.Escherichia coliand and Klebsiella pneumoniae still had high resistance rates to beta-lactam antibiotics, and their resistance rates to levofloxacin were decreasing.Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed decreasing resistance rates to imipenem and increased resistance rates to meropenem.The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecium to levofloxacin decreased and always showed a high susceptibility rate to polypeptide antibiotics.Neither Staphylococcus epidermidis nor Staphylococcus aureus were currently resistant to tetracycline antibiotics, and the resistance rates of aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin, was also declining.Conclusion:The bacterial infection in PICU shows as the main characteristics of respiratory infection and gram-negative bacteria infection.Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, Enterococci and Staphylococcus species are becoming increasingly more resistant.

2.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 773-778, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955140

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the experience on accurate prevention and control of children′s emergency department during the epidemic of novel coronavirus Omicron variant.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed the strategies and management experience of emergency prevention and control of novel coronavirus infection in emergency department at Children′s Hospital of Fudan University from March to May 2022.Results:As a designated hospital for treating pediatric patients who contracted novel coronavirus in Shanghai, the emergency department in our hospital was confronted with the dual pressure of critical patients treatment and pandemic prevention and control.We carefully studied a series of laws and regulations, as well as the newest edition of Chinese clinical guidance for novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment, and combined with the characteristics of novel coronavirus infection in children, then formulated the independent emergency department, fever clinics and novel coronavirus clinics; Updated the emergency department pre-examination triage process, the precautions pratice of clinical stuffs and disfection strategy, and established the second emergency department.From the beginning of March to the end of May 2022, a total of about 12 000 patients were admitted to the emergency department in our hospital, including 704 patients in the resuscitation room, 652 patients in the observation room, and 164 patients in the emergency ward.There were six patients with novel coronavirus infection in the emergency department.Neither nosocomial infection nor occupational exposure occurred.Conclusion:After 3 months of practice, the results showed that it can fully guarantee the timely treatment of critically ill children and achieved zero cross-infection in the hospital, which has important reference significance for the treatment of children, epidemic prevention, control during the novel coronavirus epidemic.

3.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 768-772, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955139

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the experience of the precise prevention and control strategy of novel coronavirus infection in the pediatric intensive care unit(PICU)during the epidemic of the Omicron variant.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on the strategies and management experience of precise prevention and control of novel coronavirus infection in PICU at Pediatric Hospital of Fudan University from March 1 to May 10, 2022.Results:According to the national and Shanghai novel coronavirus infection prevention and control standards, the PICU in our hospital, in accordance with the specialty characteristics of PICU, cooperated with the hospital′s department of infection and medical department to jointly construct a precise ward management strategy for the outbreak of the omicron mutants infection.Precise prevention and control management strategies were formulated from four aspects: the admission process of critically ill children, the division of PICU ward areas and nosocomial infection protection, the reception management system for children′s family members, and the " bubble management" system for PICU staff, and run them for 3 months.During the epidemic, there was no nosocomial infection of novel coronavirus infection in children or medical staff.During the period, a total of 140 critically ill children were admitted, including 87 cases transferred from the general ward in the hospital, 48 cases from the emergency department(non-febrile, 3 cases transferred by the transfer team), four cases from fever clinic, and one case from control ward.Four of the critically ill children had no emergency nucleic acid test report when they were admitted to the PICU.Among the 140 critically ill children, 54 patients received mechanical ventilation, 18 patients received blood purification, and two patients were monitored after liver transplantation.Seventy-eight (55.7%) children had underlying diseases.Conclusion:During the current round of novel coronavirus epidemic in Shanghai, PICU in our hospital formulated the admission and ward management procedures for critically ill children, which ensured the prevention and control of nosocomial infection of novel coronavirus, and at the same time ensured the treatment of critically ill children to the greatest extent.

4.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1619-1621, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954800

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, which is often referred to as Streptococcus pyogenes in traditional clinical practice.It is the most important pathogenic bacterium in the Streptococcus genus.GAS infection and its sequelae have a huge impact on the health of children and the youth.Therefore, it has always been a serious problem that adversely affects public health and the national economy.The purpose of this article is to advocate early, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of GAS infection in order to reduce the severity of the disease, guide the rational use of antibiotics, and achieve the best cost-effectiveness effect.

5.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1604-1618, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954799

ABSTRACT

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a very important pathogen, especially for children.On a global scale, GAS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.But the burden of disease caused by GAS is still unknown in China and also has not obtained enough attention.For this purpose, the expert consensus is comprehensively described in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of GAS diseases in children, covering related aspects of pneumology, infectiology, immunology, microbiology, cardiology, nephrology, critical care medicine and preventive medicine.Accordingly, the consensus document was intended to improve management strategies of GAS disease in Chinese children.

6.
Chinese Journal of Infectious Diseases ; (12): 71-78, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932193

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common pathogens in children with urinary tract infections in a single center in Shanghai, and to provide basis for the selection of empirical antibiotics in the clinical practice.Methods:The clinical data, urine culture and drug sensitivity tests results of children with urinary tract infections between 0 to 14 years admitted to the Children′s Hospital of Fudan University from January 2016 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the time of onset and the complicated factors, the patients were divided into different groups. The distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common pathogens were compared among the groups. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results:Among the 1 832 children, 1 042 cases had positive urine culture, with the culture positive rate of 56.9%. The top five pathogens detected were Escherichia coli (375 strains, 36.0%), Enterococcus faecium (164 strains, 15.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (133 strains, 12.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (95 strains, 9.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44 strains, 4.2%). The annual detection rates of gram-negative bacteria (65.3% to 72.9%) were always higher than those of gram-positive bacteria (22.6% to 30.1%). The distributions of pathogens among the years were not significantly different ( χ2 =27.79, P=0.146). In patients with complicated urinary tract infections, the detection rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%(40/688) vs 1.1%(4/354)) and fungi (6.5%(45/688) vs 1.7%(6/354)) were significantly higher than those in patients with simple urinary tract infections ( χ2=12.68 and 11.79, respectively, both P<0.050). Both of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae had the highest resistance rates to ampicillin, which were 87.2%(301/345) and 87.1%(115/132), respectively. The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to amikacin, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, cefmetazole, piperacillin/tazobactam, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem were 1.4%(5/345), 6.1%(21/345), 6.1%(21/345), 8.3%(11/132), 11.6%(40/345), 6.4%(22/345), 4.6%(16/345) and 4.6%(16/345), respectively. The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to these drugs were 6.1%(8/132), 37.9%(50/132), 15.2%(20/132), 23.2%(13/56), 26.5%(35/132), 23.5%(31/132), 17.4%(23/132) and 16.7%(22/132), respectively, which were all higher than those of Escherichia coli, and the differences were all statistically significant ( χ2=6.02, 76.17, 9.99, 7.94, 16.04, 28.29, 20.79 and 18.84, respectively, all P<0.050). The resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime were 6.8%(3/44), 4.5%(2/44) and 2.3%(1/44), respectively, while those to carbapenems, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were all 0(0/44). The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecium to ampicillin was 96.8%(153/158), while that of Enterococcus faecalis was 9.1%(8/88). There was no Enterococcus strain resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. When dynamically comparing the trends of the antimicrobial resistance from 2016 to 2019, the resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to β-lactams (including carbapenems) antimicrobial agents had shown a downward trend. Conclusions:Gram-negative bacteria are still the main pathogens of urinary tract infections in children, with a downward trend of drug resistance rates to β-lactams (including carbapenems) antimicrobial agents.

7.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e68-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758953

ABSTRACT

Viral-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) have vital roles in the regulation of virus replications and host immune responses. The results of previous studies have indicated that miRNA clusters are involved in the replication and virulence of the pseudorabies virus (PRV), which may potentially lead to immune escape or facilitation of PRV replication. This study's previous research revealed that prv-miR-LLT11a was differentially expressed during PRV infection. The present study's results have demonstrated that prv-miR-LLT11a could significantly inhibit PRV replication. It was further determined that SLA-1 was the target gene of prv-miR-LLT11a, and simultaneously, that overexpression of prv-miR-LLT11a could downregulate the mRNA and protein levels of SLA-1 in a dose-independent manner. Furthermore, the present study also observed that prv-miR-LLT11a can downregulate TAP1 expression. Our findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in the effects of prv-miR-LLT11a on SLA-1 and TAP1 as well as its involvement in immune system evasion of PRV.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Immune System , MicroRNAs , Pseudorabies , RNA, Messenger , United Nations , Virulence , Virus Replication
8.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 583-590, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756240

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae ( CRE) isolated from children in China. Methods CRE strains were collected in 10 ter-tiary children's hospitals of China from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the clinical strains was detected with disk diffusion method ( KB method) and automated method. The re-sults were analyzed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ( CLSI) Standards published in 2017. WHONET 5. 6 software was used to retrospectively analyze the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of these strains. Results A total of 3065 CRE clinical strains were isolated from children with an overall prevalence of 7. 7% and among them, 13. 5% were isolated in neonatal group and 5. 8% in non-neo-natal group. The detection rate of CRE in 2017 was higher than that in 2016 (9. 7% vs 5. 7%). Among the 3065 CRE strains, there were 1912 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (62. 0%), 667 strains of Escherichia coli (22. 0%), 206 strains of Enterobacter cloacae (7. 0%), 56 strains of Klebsiella aerogenes (1. 8%) and 47 strains of Serratia marcescens (1. 5%). Most of the strains were isolate in neonatology departments including neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and intensive care units (ICU), accounting for 44. 8% and 19. 7%, respectively. Respiratory tract (61. 8%), urine (19. 4%) and blood (5. 7%) specimens were the main sources of CRE isolates. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the CRE strains were highly resistant to carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem, as well as penicillins and most cephalosporins (79. 6%-100%), especially those isolated in the neonatal group (P<0. 05). Children had relatively low resistance rates to aminoglycosides such as amikacin (19. 7%) and fos-fomycin (11. 9%), fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin (37. 7%) and ciprofloxacin (43. 3%), and tige-cycline (3. 8%). Currently, no polymyxin B-resistant strains were isolated. Conclusions The prevalence of common CRE strains in children in 2017 was higher than that in 2016, especially in newborns. Drug re-sistance in CRE strains isolated from neonates to common antibiotics was more severe, suggesting that great attention should be paid to it and timely measures should also be taken.

9.
Chinese Journal of Postgraduates of Medicine ; (36): 422-426, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753284

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the correlation between homocysteine (Hcy), uric acid, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in elderly H-type hypertensive patients. Methods Two hundred and forty-one patients or outpatients with essential hypertension between September 2016 and June 2018 from the Department of Cardiology and Geriatrics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University were selected, and they were 60 to 79 years old. In the patients, 191 cases had H-type hypertension (H-type hypertension group), and 50 cases had non-H-type hypertension patients (non-H-type hypertension group). In the H-type hypertension patients, LVH was in 78 cases, and non-LVH in 113 cases. The general clinical data were gathered, and the Hcy and uric acid were detected. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in all patients, and the AASI was calculated. Results There were no statistical differences in the hypertension duration, uric acid, AASI and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) between H-type hypertension group and non-H-type hypertension group (P>0.05). In elderly H-type hypertension patients, the hypertension duration in LVH patients was significantly longer than that in non-LVH patients: (10.26 ± 3.95) years vs. (9.13 ± 3.05) years, the uric acid, AASI and Hcy were significantly higher than those in non-LVH patients: (433.7 ± 65.7) μmol/L vs. (400.6 ± 67.5) μmol/L, 0.54 ± 0.11 vs. 0.49 ± 0.12 and (16.84 ± 4.70) μmol/L vs. (14.12 ± 2.26) μmol/L, and there were statistical differences (P<0.05 or <0.01). Pearson correlation analysis result showed that the Hcy, uric acid and AASI had positive correlation with LVMI in elderly H-type hypertension patients (r = 0.56, 0.53 and 0.45; P<0.01). Binary Logistic regression analysis result showed that Hcy was the independent risk factor of LVH in elderly H-type hypertension patients ( OR = 1.225, 95% CI 1.106 to 1.357, P = 0.000), but uric acid and AASI were not associated with LVH in elderly H-type hypertension patients (P>0.05). Conclusions Hcy, uric acid and AASI are associated with LVH in elderly H-type hypertension patients, and Hcy is an independent risk factor of LVH, but uric acid and AASI are not independent risk factors of LVH. Hcy can be used as a predictor of LVH. Hcy screening and intervention should thus be strengthened.

10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 907-914, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810292

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the prevalence and resistance changes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains isolated from children patients of Chinese Bacterial Resistance Surveillance Network (CHINET) from 2005 to 2017.@*Methods@#Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion method (KB method) and automated systems. Results were analyzed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2017 edition standards.@*Results@#Among the 4 481 CRE clinical strains, the overall prevalence of CRE in children was 6.4%, including 8.8% in neonatal period, 7.3% in infancy, 3.8% in early childhood, 4.0% in preschool, 4.7% at school age and 7.4% of puberty. The CRE prevalence of citrobacter spp. remained stable in 2005-2017, whereas other bacteria showed an upward trend, which was higher than that of the adult group (P<0.01). Among the 4 481 CRE strains, there were 2 905 strains of Klebsiella spp. (64.8%), 813 strains of Escherichia coli (18.1%), 549 strains of Enterobacter spp.(12.3%), and 65 strains of Citrobacter spp.(1.5%). Among the 4 481 CRE strains, 20.7%, 13.3%, and 11.8% were from the intensive care unit (ICU), neonatal department and internal medicine wards, respectively. Specimens were distributed as respiratory (42.8%), urine (26.3%), and blood (14.9%). The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing exhibited that the CRE strains were highly resistant to most commonly used antimicrobial agents in clinical practice, such as imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem, as well as penicillins and cephalosporins, etc.@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of CRE strains in children is increasing year by year, and their antimicrobial resistance to common antibacterial agents in clinical practice is extremely serious, to which serious attention needs to be paid. According to the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testings, the antibacterial agents should be rationally selected to effectively control the spread of CRE.

11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 587-591, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810083

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To improve the understanding of clinical characteristics of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) in children.@*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of STSS caused by S. pyogenes (culture-confirmed) in 7 tertiary hospitals during 2010—2017 in China. Clinical and laboratory data were collected by reviewing the medical records.@*Results@#Fifteen cases of STSS, including 9 males, were confirmed and the ages of the patients ranged from 6 months to 15 years, with median age of 3 years. All cases had the positive blood culture for S. pyogenes and only 3 cases had short course of β-lactam treatment before blood culture. Medical evaluation was initiated within (5.1±4.6) days after symptom onset. All patients had fever, and 13 patients had multiple organ dysfunction and 10 patients had disseminated intravascular coagulationl (DIC). Twelve cases had severe pneumonia with or without skin and (or) soft tissue infections. Underlying conditions included giant hemangioma of the skin in 2 patients and varicella in 1 patient. All isolated strains in 14 cases were sensitive to penicillin G, ceftriaxone/cefotaxime, vancomycin, but 12 and 13 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, respectively. Eight patients died, and 5 of them died within 24 hours after admission. One patient was lost to follow-up after intended discharge against medical advice.@*Conclusion@#STSS caused by S. pyogenes in children is a severe syndrome with rapid clinical progression and high mortality rate, and thus the pediatricians should be aware of STSS and immediately initiate aggressive treatment for the suspected cases.

12.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 582-586, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810082

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the clinical characteristics of pneumococcal infections and drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children's hospitals, which would provide reference for preventing and treating pneumococcal diseases.@*Methods@#This was a prevalence survey. In this study, the age, specimen type, monthly distribution characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from 9 children's hospitals in China were investigated between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016. The WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze the antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The comparison of rates was performed by Chi-square test.@*Results@#A total of 6 200 isolates of streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained, namely, 95.1% (5 876/6 177) from the respiratory tract specimens, 2.2% (136/6 177) from blood specimens and 0.4% (24/6 177) from cerebrospinal fluid specimens. The isolates were mainly from children older than 1 and younger than 5 years (54.7%, 3 381/6 185) . Most of strains (33.2%, 1 184/3 563) were isolated in November, December and January. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were completely sensitive to vancomycin (100.0%, 6 189/6 189) , linezolid (100.0%, 6 030/6 030) , moxifloxacin (100.0%, 3 064/3 064) , highly sensitive to levofloxacin (99.8%, 5 528/5 540), ertapenem (98.8%, 3 024/3 061) and lowly sensitive to erythromycin (1.7%, 102/6 016), clindamycin (3.7%, 116/3 136), and tetracycline (5%, 244/4 877), respectively. According to the parenteral susceptibility breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates, the sensitivity of Streptocococus pneumoniae to penicillin from children's hospital of Chongqing Medical University (49.3%, 892/1 809) was significantly lower than those of other hospitals (χ2=1 268.161, P<0.05) .@*Conclusions@#Streptococcus pneumoniae is mainly isolated from respiratory tract, from children older than 1 and younger than 5 years and during November to January in tertiary children's hospital of China. The Streptococcus pneumoniae from children is highly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin. There are also significant differences in the sensitivity of penicillin for Streptococcus pneumoniae from different hospitals.

13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 29-33, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809762

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the antimicrobial resistance profile in Chinese children.@*Methods@#This was a prevalence survey. From January 1 through December 31, 2016, the isolates were collected from 10 tertiary children hospitals in China. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by routine laboratory methods. The penicillin susceptibility of streptococcus pneumonia and Meropenem susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria were detected by E-test and disk diffusion method respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility results were interpreted according to the criteria of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Guideline 2016. The data of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates from either the different patients (neonatal group and non-neonatal group) or various sources were analyzed by WHONET 5.6 software.@*Results@#A total of 56 241 isolates were collected, of which 41.5% (23 328 isolates) were gram-positive organisms and 58.5% (32 886 isolates) gram-negative organisms. The five leading pathogens were Escherichia coli (7 995/56 214, 14.2%), Straphylococcus aureus (6 468/56 214, 11.5%), Streptococcus pneumonia (6 225/56 214, 11.1%), Haemophilus influenza (5 435/56 214, 9.7%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (4 523/56 214, 8.0%). The Meropenem resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumonia isolates were 27.4% (326/1 189) , 8.1% (29/358) , 2.0% (27/1 362) , 19.5% (34/174) , 49.7% (230/463) in neonatal group and 15.4% (512/3 327) , 4.8% (40/841) , 2.3% (151/6 564) , 13.7% (252/1 840) , and 53.4% (860/1 611) in non-neonatal group. The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates of neonatal group and non-neonatal group were 46.2% (649/1 404) and 33.3% (1 668/5 010) . The penicillin non-susceptible rates of Streptococcus pneumonia in the two groups were 17.6% (6/34) and 18.2% (1 121/6 158) respectively. The β-lactamase positive rates of Haemophilus pneumonia isolates in the neonatal group and non-neonatal groups were 33.8% (47/139) and 44.4% (2 345/5 282) respectively.@*Conclusion@#This investigation highlights the worrisome trend of antimicrobial resistance in children, especially among neonatal patients in China.

14.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 241-251, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753828

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile of the clinical isolates collected from selected hospitals across China. Methods Twenty-nine general hospitals and five children's hospitals were involved in this program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were interpreted according to CLSI 2017 breakpoints. Results A total of 190 610 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2017, of which gram negative organisms accounted for 70.8% (134 951/190 610) and gram positive cocci 29.2% (55 649/190 610). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains was 35.3% in S. aureus (MRSA) and 80.3% in coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) on average. MR strains showed much higher resistance rates to most of the other antimicrobial agents than MS strains. However, 91.6% of MRSA strains were still susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 86.2% of MRCNS strains were susceptible to rifampin. No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin. E. faecalis strains showed much lower resistance rates to most of the drugs tested (except chloramphenicol) than E. faecium. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was identified in both E. faecalis and E. faecium. The identified VRE strains were mainly vanA, vanB or vanM type based on phenotype or genotype. The proportion of PSSP or PRSP strains in the non-meningitis S.pneumoniae strains isolated from children decreased but the proportion of PISP strains increased when compared to the data of 2016. Enterobacteriaceae strains were still highly susceptible to carbapenems. Overall, less than 10% of these strains (excluding Klebsiella spp.) were resistant to carbapenems. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae increased from 3.0% in 2005 to 20.9% in 2017, and meropenem-resistant K. pneumoniae increased from 2.9% in 2005 to 24.0% in 2017, more than 8-fold increase. About 66.7% and 69.3% of Acinetobacter (A. baumannii accounts for 91.5%) strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Compared with the data of year 2016, P. aeruginosa strains showed decreasing resistance rate to carbapenems. Conclusions Bacterial resistance is still on the rise. It is necessary to strengthen hospital infection control and stewardship of antimicrobial agents. The communication between laboratorians and clinicians should be further improved in addition to surveillance of bacterial resistance.

15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1325-1334, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242253

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inhibits the host typeⅠinterferon and cellular antiviral response, but its inhibition mechanism is unclear, and the roles of PEDV nonstructural proteins in regulating typeⅠinterferon responses have been seldom studied. To study the effect of nsp1 on typeⅠinterferon response, nsp1 gene was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector pCAGGS. The expression of nsp1 in transfected cells was determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The effects of nsp1 on the induction of typeⅠinterferon were evaluated by dual luciferase reporter gene assay, ELISA and VSV bioassay. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that nsp1 was highly expressed in transfected cells and PEDV-infected cells. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay results indicated that nsp1 strongly inhibited the IFN-β promoter activity, and the inhibitory effect was nsp1 dose-dependent. ELISA results showed that nsp1 significantly inhibited the expression of IFN-β in protein level. And VSV replication-inhibition bioassay revealed that nsp1 significantly inhibited typeⅠIFN antiviral activities induced by poly(I:C). Our results implied that nsp1 was a highly conserved protein of PEDV and exhibited antagonistic function on interferon promoter activity. The results have laid a foundation for further understanding the immune evasion mechanism of PEDV and for developing new effective vaccine against PEDV.

16.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 566-569,575, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-607156

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the composition of pathogens from cerebrospinal fluid culture in pediatric intensive care unit,and to explore the distribution of the pathogens,antibiotic resistance profile,infection source and prognosis.Methods The results of cerebrospinal fluid culture in pediatric intensive care unit from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.Bacteria identification and antimicrobial susceptibility were assayed by Vitek Compat Ⅱ system from Bio Mrieux Company.Some bacterial strains were tested by disk diffusion method or E-test.Results A total of 982 cerebrospinal fluid were tested during research period,and 78 were positive with positive rate of 7.9%.A total of 81 strains of pathogens were isolated,there were 46 strains of gram negative bacteria (56.8%) and 35 strains of gram positive bacteria (43.2%).The top three bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii(28.4%),coagulase negative Staphylococcus(19.8%),and Escherichia coli(13.6%).The resistance to antibiotics was quite different,manifesting muti-resistance or extensively drug resistance.Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant specy of gram negative bacteria,which was highly resistant to meropenem and cephalosporins and highly sensitive to tigecycline.Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the predominant specy of gram positive bacteria,which was highly resistant to cefazolin and ampicillin and highly sensitive to linezolid and vancomycin.Conclusion Gram negative bacteria are the main species of cerebrospinal fluid culture in pediatric intensive care unit.Acinetobacter baumannii is the major pathogen,which was highly resistant to meropenem and cephalosporins.

17.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 609-622, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702556

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the resistance profile of clinical bacterial isolates to antibiotics in Shanghai during 2016.Methods Antimicobial susceptibility testing was carried out for the clinical isolates collected from 47 hospitals according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems.The participating hospitals included 28 tertiary hospitals and 19 secondary hospitals across Shanghai.Results were analyzed according to CLSI 2016 breakpoints.Results A total of 122 548 clinical isolates were collected,including 35 522 (29.0%) strains of gram positive cocci and 87 026 (71.0%) strains of gram negative bacilli.Overall,28.9% of the isolates were from secondary hospitals and 71.1% from tertiary hospitals.Gram positive and gram negative isolates accounted for 25.8% and 74.2% in secondary hospitals,30.3% and 69.7% in tertiary hospitals,respectively.The overall prevalence of MRSA in Staphylococcus aureus was 48.7% and 77.2% of MRCNS in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.The average prevalence of MRSA and MRCNS was 55.9% and 73.3% in secondary hospitals,45.9% and 78.6% in tertiary hospitals.No strains were found resistant to vancomycin in Staphylococcus.About 77.4% of the 1 111 strains of non-meningitis S.pneumoniae isolated from children were penicillin-susceptible (PSSP),13.2% were penicillin-intermediate (PISP) and 9.4% were penicillinresistant (PRSP).The prevalence of PSSP,PISE and PRSP was 97.8%,2.2%,and 0 in secondary hospitals,76.5%,13.7%,and 9.8% in tertiary hospitals.Of the 285 strains isolated from adults,94.0%,4.2% and 1.8% were PSSP,P1SP and PRSP,respectively.The prevalence of PSSP,PISP and PRSP among the isolates from adults was 93.7%,5.3%,and 1.0% in secondary hospitals,94.2%,3.7%,and 2.1% in tertiary hospitals.Overall,37 strains of vacomycin-resistant E.feacium (14 from secondary hospitals and 23 from tertiary hospitals) and 25 strains of vacomycin-resistant E.feacalis (all from tertiary hospitals) were identified.PCR and sequencing analysis indicated that most of these resistant strains were vanA type.The overall prevalence of ESBLs-producing srains was 52.2% in E.coli,30.9% in Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29.8% in Proteus mirabilis.Specifically,the corresponding prevalence of such strains was 55.1%,33.6% and 34.0% in secondary hospitals,51.0%,29.7% and 28.0% in tertiary hospitals,respectively.Enterobacteriaceae strains were still highly susceptible to carbapenem antibiotics.Overall,8.9% and 9.1% of the Enterobacteriaceae strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem,respectively.The figure was 6.6% and 7.1% in secondary hospitals,9.9% and 10.0% in tertiary hospitals.Extensively drug-resistant strains were identified in A.baumannii,K.pneumoniae,P.aeruginosa,and E.coli,specifically,223,63,10,and 4 strains in secondary hospitals;224,201,22,and 9 strains in tertiary hospitals.Conclusions Antibicotic resistance is still very serious in the common clinical strains,which poses a critical threat to healthcare facilities.This issue should be taken seriously and effective infection control measures must be put in place.

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Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (12): 622-626, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619374

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the correlation between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genetic polymorphisms and sepsis in Chinese children.Methods The inpatients suffered with sepsis were enrolled as septic group and the healthy children from child health division were enrolled as control group.The study of APOE genotypes were carried out by polymerase chain reactions followed a high-resolution melting curve analysis.SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for data analysis.Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the age between the groups.Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested using the Pearson x2-test.The x2-test was used to compare gender and the genotype distribution between the groups.The odd ratio (OR) was calculated together with its 95% confidence interval (CI).Potential confounding effects of variables were corrected using a multivariate unconditional logistic regression model.All statistical tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 indicates statistically significance.Results Among a total of 285 children collected from March 2011 to June 2012,there were 88 patients with sepsis and 197 healthy children.In the septic group,15 septic patients were complicated with central nervous system infection.Four apolipoprotein E genotypes were identified to be ε3/ε3,ε2/ε3,ε3/ε4,and ε2/ε4.The percentage of each genotype found in patients of the septic group and the control group was 64.4% vs.73.1% (ε3/ε3);16.8% vs.10.7% (ε2/ε3);18.8% vs.14.7% (ε3/ε4);0% vs.1.5% (ε2/ε4),respectively.The number of patients with the genotype ε3/ε3 among septic patients was significantly lower than that among the control individuals (P =0.047,1-β =0.334,OR =0.585,adjusted OR =0.559).The number of patients with the genotype ε3/ε3 among the septic patients with central nervous system infection was 33.3%,which was also significantly lower than that among the septic patients without CNS infection (67.1%).(P =0.014,1-β5 =0.685,OR =0.245,adjusted OR =0.275).Conclusions Apolipoprotein E genetic polymorphisms were associated with the occurrence of sepsis and central nervous system complications in children.The susceptibility of children with genotype ε3/ε3 to sepsis and central nerve system infection complications is significantly lower than that of children with other genotypes.

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Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 267-274, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493494

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the changing pattern of antibiotic resistance inKlebsiella strains isolated from the patients in 19 hospitals across China based on the data from CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program during the period from 2005 through 2014.Methods Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and automated susceptibility testing methods were used to test the susceptibility ofKlebsiella isolates to the commonly used antibiotics. The results were interpreted according to the criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (CLSI-2014).Results A total of 61 406Klebsiella strains were identified between 2005 and 2014, includingK. pneumoniae (56 281 strains), K. oxytoca(4 779),Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.Ozaenae (300) and otherKlebsiella species (46). Most (89.0%, 54 664/61 406) of theKlebsiella strains were isolated from inpatients, and 60.0% (36 835/61 406) were from respiratory tract speciems. About 16.7% (10 248/61 406) of the strains were isolated from pediatric patients aged 0-17 years and 83.3% (51 158/61 406) from adult patients. The prevalence ofKlebsiella spp. increased with time from 10.1% in 2005 to 14.3% in 2014. Based on the surveillance data during the 10-year period, we found a marked increase of resistance to imipenem (2.9% to 10.5%) and meropenem (2.8% to 13.4%) inKlebsiella spp. The prevalence of ESBLs-producing isolates inK. pneumoniae andK. oxytoca decreased from 39.0% in 2005 to 30.1% in 2014. The resistance to amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprolfoxacin, pipracillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam was on decline. The resistance rate to cefotaxime remained high about 49.5%. Carbapenem resistantance was identiifed in 5 796 (9.4%) of the isolates, including 5 492 strains ofK. pneumoniae and 280 strains ofK. oxytoca. Overall, 4 740 (7.8%) strains were identiifed as extensively-drug resistant (XDR), including 4 520 strains ofK. pneumoniae and 202 strains ofK. oxytoca. The carbapenem-resistant strains showed high (>60%) resistance rate to majority of the antimicrobial agents tested, but relatively low resistance to tigecycline (16.8%), amikacin (54.4%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (55.5%).Conclusions During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, carbapenem resistance amongKlebsiella isolates has increased dramatically in the hospitals across China. The level of resistance to other antibiotics remains stable.

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Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 275-283, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493493

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance proifle of clinicalEnterobacter isolates using the data from CHINET during the period from 2005 through 2014.Methods A total of 20 558 clinical strains ofEnterobacter spp. were collected from 2005 to 2014 in CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with Kirby-Bauer or minimum inhibitory concentration method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.ResultsEnterobacter cloacae andEnterobacter aerogenes accounted for 71.1% (14 617/20558) and 20.1% (4 129/20 558) of all theEnterobacterisolates, respectively. The proportion ofEnterobacter spp. increased with time from 3.5% in 2005 to 4.3% in 2014. The main source of the isolates was respiratory tract, accounting for 55.2% (11 358/20 558). More than 90% of theEnterobacterisolates were resistant to cefazolin and cefoxitin, but less than 30% of the strains were resistant to cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone-sulbactam, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprolfoxacin, meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem. TheEnterobacterisolates showed a trend of declining resistance to most antibiotics except ertapenem and meropenem. The resistance proifle ofEnterobacterisolates varied with departments where they were isolated. The strains from ICU and Department of Surgery were relatively more resistant to antibiotics. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains was decreasing, but the prevalence of carbapenem-resistantEnterobacter (CRE, resistant to any of imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem) was increasing. The MDR and CRE strains were primarily isolated from ICU and Department of Surgery. At least 30% of the MDREnterobacter strains were resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested except meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem and at least 35% of the CRE strains were resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested except amikacin and ciprolfoxacin.Conclusions TheEnterobacter isolates in CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program showed decreasing resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents tested since 2011, but the prevalence of CRE strains increased progressively. Effective measures should be carried out to prevent the spread of CRE strains in hospitals.

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