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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913845

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In 2017, the Children’s Hepatic Tumors International Collaboration-Hepatoblastoma Stratification (CHIC-HS) system was introduced. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CHIC-HS System for the prediction of event-free survival (EFS) in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#This two-center retrospective study included consecutive Korean pediatric patients with histopathologically confirmed hepatoblastoma from March 1988 through September 2019. We compared EFS among four risk groups according to the CHIC-HS system. Discriminatory ability of CHIC-HS system was also evaluated using optimism-corrected C-statistics. Factors associated with EFS were explored using multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Results@#We included 129 patients (mean age, 2.6±3.3 years; female:male, 63:66). The 5-year EFS rates in the very low, low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, according to the CHIC-HS system were 90.0%, 82.8%, 73.5%, and 51.3%, respectively. The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes (p=0.004). The optimism-corrected C index of CHIC-HS was 0.644 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.561 to 0.727). Age ≥ 8 (vs. age ≤ 2; hazard ratio [HR], 2.781; 95% CI, 1.187 to 6.512; p=0.018), PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor (PRETEXT) stage IV (vs. PRETEXT I or II; HR, 2.774; 95% CI, 1.228 to 5.974; p=0.009), and presence of metastasis (HR, 2.886; 95% CI, 1.457 to 5.719; p=0.002), which are incorporated as the first three nodes in the CHIC-HS system, were independently associated with EFS. @*Conclusion@#The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. Age group, PRETEXT stage, and presence of metastasis were independently associated with EFS.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1185-1193, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902437

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is the second-most common but extremely rare primary renal malignancy in children after Wilms’ tumor. The aims of this study were to evaluate the imaging features that could distinguish between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor and to assess the features with diagnostic value for identifying CCSK. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed the initial contrast-enhanced abdominal-pelvic CT scans of children with CCSK and Wilms’ tumor between 2010 to 2019. Fifty-eight children (32 males and 26 females; age, 0.3–10 years), 7 with CCSK, and 51 with Wilms’ tumor, were included. The maximum tumor diameter, presence of engorged perinephric vessels, maximum density of the tumor (Tmax) of the enhancing solid portion, paraspinal muscle, contralateral renal vein density, and density ratios (Tmax/muscle and Tmax/vein) were analyzed on the renal parenchymal phase of contrast-enhanced CT. Fisher’s exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to analyze the categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The age, sex, and tumor diameter did not differ between the two groups. Engorged perinephric vessels were more common in patients in the CCSK group (71% [5/7] vs. 16% [8/51], p = 0.005). Tmax (median, 148.0 vs. 111.0 Hounsfield unit, p = 0.004), Tmax/muscle (median, 2.64 vs. 1.67, p = 0.002), and Tmax/vein (median, 0.94 vs. 0.59, p = 0.002) were higher in the CCSK compared to the Wilms’ group. Multiple logistic regression revealed that engorged vessels (odds ratio 13.615; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.770–104.730) and Tmax/muscle (odds ratio 5.881; 95% CI, 1.337–25.871) were significant predictors of CCSK. The cutoff values of Tmax/muscle (86% sensitivity, 77% specificity) and Tmax/vein (71% sensitivity, 86% specificity) for the diagnosis of CCSK were 1.97 and 0.76, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Perinephric vessel engorgement and greater tumor enhancement (Tmax/muscle > 1.97 or Tmax/vein > 0.76) are helpful for differentiating between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor in children aged below 10 years.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1185-1193, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894733

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is the second-most common but extremely rare primary renal malignancy in children after Wilms’ tumor. The aims of this study were to evaluate the imaging features that could distinguish between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor and to assess the features with diagnostic value for identifying CCSK. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed the initial contrast-enhanced abdominal-pelvic CT scans of children with CCSK and Wilms’ tumor between 2010 to 2019. Fifty-eight children (32 males and 26 females; age, 0.3–10 years), 7 with CCSK, and 51 with Wilms’ tumor, were included. The maximum tumor diameter, presence of engorged perinephric vessels, maximum density of the tumor (Tmax) of the enhancing solid portion, paraspinal muscle, contralateral renal vein density, and density ratios (Tmax/muscle and Tmax/vein) were analyzed on the renal parenchymal phase of contrast-enhanced CT. Fisher’s exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to analyze the categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The age, sex, and tumor diameter did not differ between the two groups. Engorged perinephric vessels were more common in patients in the CCSK group (71% [5/7] vs. 16% [8/51], p = 0.005). Tmax (median, 148.0 vs. 111.0 Hounsfield unit, p = 0.004), Tmax/muscle (median, 2.64 vs. 1.67, p = 0.002), and Tmax/vein (median, 0.94 vs. 0.59, p = 0.002) were higher in the CCSK compared to the Wilms’ group. Multiple logistic regression revealed that engorged vessels (odds ratio 13.615; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.770–104.730) and Tmax/muscle (odds ratio 5.881; 95% CI, 1.337–25.871) were significant predictors of CCSK. The cutoff values of Tmax/muscle (86% sensitivity, 77% specificity) and Tmax/vein (71% sensitivity, 86% specificity) for the diagnosis of CCSK were 1.97 and 0.76, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Perinephric vessel engorgement and greater tumor enhancement (Tmax/muscle > 1.97 or Tmax/vein > 0.76) are helpful for differentiating between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor in children aged below 10 years.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 774-779, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833408

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are rare hematologic tumors.This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic features of the entire spectrum of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, including clinicopathological variables and patient outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#We comprehensively reviewed 274 patients who were diagnosed with histiocytic and dendritic neoplasms at Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea between 1995 and 2018. @*Results@#The most common neoplasm was Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), followed by dermal xanthogranuloma. Among non-LCH sarcomas, histiocytic sarcoma (HS) showed a relatively high prevalence, followed by follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS). Disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma (DJG), Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), indeterminate dendritic cell tumor (IDCT), and interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) rarely occurred. Generally, these tumors presented in childhood, although the non-LCH sarcoma (HS/FDCS/IDCS/IDCT) group of tumors and ECD occurred in late adulthood. Multiorgan involvement and advanced Ann-Arbor stage, as well as recurrence and death of disease, were not uncommon. The non-LCH sarcoma group had the worst overall survival, compared to the DJG, ECD, and LCH groups. @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms exhibit heterogeneous epidemiologic characteristics and that some patients may have unfavorable outcomes, especially those with non-LCH sarcoma.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832094

ABSTRACT

Background@#Approximately 8% of male patients presenting with primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) have Klinefelter syndrome (KS), while patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal GCTs also exhibit a range of chromosomal abnormalities. The exact mechanism underlying the development of GCTs in Klinefelter syndrome is unknown, but KS frequently goes underdiagnosed as a result of its varied symptoms and a low general awareness of this condition. Thus, the Children’s Oncology Group recommends screening of Klinefelter syndrome in pediatric and adolescent male subjects who present with GCTs. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of extragonadal germ cell tumor patients treated at Severance hospital, department of pediatrics or division of pediatric hematology-oncology over the last ten years. @*Results@#A total of 95 patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors were included in this study. Karyotyping was done in eight patients out of 95 patients, three patients with KS and one patient with Down syndrome. Twelve of extragonadal GCT patients presented at mediastinum, with most common histology of mature teratoma, and three patients presented with chromosomal abnormalities, two with KS and one with Down syndrome. A total of nine patients were diagnosed with retroperitoneal GCTs and only one had KS. @*Conclusion@#We described the characteristics of 95 cases of extragonadal GCTs. Although the mechanism of extragonadal GCTs in KS is not clear, karyotyping in pediatric and adolescent extragonadal GCT patients could be helpful in figuring out chromosomal abnormalities including KS and their roles in GCT pathophysiology, which can contribute to improve one’s health.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831054

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosomes 1p and 16q is a poor prognostic factor infavorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). This study investigated the prevalence of LOH at1p and 16q and evaluated its prognostic value in Korean children with FHWT. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed 101 FHWT patients who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 in KoreanSociety of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Group hospitals. Using paraffin-embedded kidneytissue samples sent from each center, we reviewed LOH at 1p and 16q in each patient andassessed the prognostic value of LOH status for clinical parameters affecting event-freesurvival (EFS). @*Results@#Of the 101 patients, 12 (11.9%) experienced recurrence; the 3-year EFS was 87.6%. LOHat 1p or 16q was detected in 19 patients (18.8%), with five having LOH at both 1q and 16q.The frequency of LOH at 1p was higher among younger patients (p=0.049), but there wasno difference in LOH prevalence according to tumor stage. In the multivariate analysis, LOHat 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting EFS (3-year EFS, 73.7% vs.91.1%; hazard ratio, 3.95; p=0.037), whereas LOH at 1p was not (p=0.786). @*Conclusion@#LOH at 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting outcome in Korean pediatricFHWT patients. Due to the small sample size of this study, large-scale multicenter trialsare warranted to investigate the prognostic value of LOH at 1p and 16q in Korean childrenwith FHWT.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763257

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the attributes of social adjustment among adolescent cancer survivors using concept analysis and to propose a definition of the concept. METHODS: In accordance with the hybrid model of concept analysis, this study employed a three-phase circular process comprising theoretical, fieldwork, and final analysis phases. A thorough literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and Korean databases, followed by qualitative fieldwork with seven participants. The results derived from the theoretical and fieldwork phases were integrated into the final analysis phase. RESULTS: Four attributes of social adjustment were found in adolescent cancer survivors: having harmonious relationships with friends, having harmonious relationships with boy/girlfriends, fulfilling their present roles, and planning for and expecting future roles. The following definition of social adjustment of adolescent cancer survivors is proposed: “the conquering of difficulties arising from the continuum of childhood cancer and the achievement of the developmental tasks of typical adolescents.” CONCLUSION: Social adjustment of childhood cancer survivors is crucial for integrating them into society. The findings of this study provide a basis for developing an instrument to measure the social adjustment of adolescent cancer survivors and for developing of interventions that target this group.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Friends , Humans , Social Adjustment , Survivors
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1253-1256, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718489

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report a case of anti-Gerbich (Ge) alloantibody to a high-prevalence Ge antigen in a donor with Fy(a−b−) phenotype. The alloantibody was detected in an Emirati boy who was admitted to a Korean tertiary hospital for marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell donation. He did not have a history of transfusion. His blood type was A, RhD+, and findings from the antibody screening and identification test showed 2+ reactivity in all panel cells except autologous cells. We concluded that it would be very difficult to find compatible blood components for the donor and requested further tests from external laboratories. Anti-Ge2 was identified by additional tests in a foreign reference laboratory, and the Duffy genotype of the donor was FY*02/FY*02N.01 based on the Korean Rare Blood Program. Although the donor was not a Korean, as the number of foreign patients visiting Korea increases annually, there is growing interest in patients with rare blood types in the Korean population. However, there has been very little research on rare or high prevalence blood type antigen and antibody in the Korean population. Therefore, additional research in Korea is needed on rare blood group antibodies and antigens, including Ge cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Bone Marrow , Genotype , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Phenotype , Prevalence , Tertiary Care Centers , Tissue Donors
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive clinical and radiologic follow-up is needed to preserve joint functions and quality of life in hemophilia using clinimetric tools such as Hemophilia joint health score (HJHS) or Pettersson score (PS). We investigated the joint health status evaluated using the tools in Korean hemophilia patients. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively medical records to collect clinical parameters, HJHS and PS, who were followed up in Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The correlation between HJHS and PS, and the effect of the prophylaxis for hemophilia on the outcomes measured with the scores were evaluated. The prophylaxis proportion (PP) was calculated as the proportion of prophylaxis duration to each patient's life time. RESULTS: Total of 28 patients with severe hemophilia were enrolled. Twelve patients (42.8%) were less than 20 years old. Total of 23 patients had experienced prophylaxis during their lives, and median PP was 39.7%. There was significant correlation between HJHS and PS (P 20 years old. CONCLUSION: HJHS and PS were positively correlated. Each score increased as the patient's age increased. The prophylaxis had protective effect on joint health. The prospective evaluation of HJHS and PS will be needed to prove the effect of proper management on the joint health status.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Health Status , Hemophilia A , Humans , Joints , Korea , Medical Records , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Seoul
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715965

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although studies regarding dental developmental disturbances after childhood cancer treatment have increased, they have many limitations. Studies analyzing the significance of independent clinical risk factors with regard to the dental health status are also rare. We aimed to investigate the risk factors for dental developmental disturbances, particularly severe disturbances, in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral examinations and retrospective reviews of medical and panoramic radiographs were performed for 196 CCS (mean age, 15.6 years). Cancer type, age at diagnosis, treatment modality, type and accumulated dose of administered drugs, and dose and site of radiation were recorded. Dental developmental disturbances were diagnosed using panoramic radiographs and graded for severity according to the Modified Dental Defect Index (MDDI). Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyseswere performed to determine the association between dental abnormalities and clinical factors. RESULTS: In total, 109 CCS (55.6%) exhibited at least one dental anomaly, and the median value of MDDI was 2.5. Microdontia (30.6%) was the most prevalent anomaly, followed by tooth agenesis (20.4%), V-shaped roots (14.8%), and taurodontism (10.2%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a young age at diagnosis (≤ 3 years), a history of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the use of multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents (≥ 4 classes), and the use of heavy metal agents were significant risk factors for severe dental disturbances. CONCLUSION: CCS with any of the above risk factors for severe developmental disturbances should be comprehensively followed up to minimize adverse consequences to their dental development and preserve their future dental health.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Oral , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Odontogenesis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survivors , Tooth , Tooth Abnormalities
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) on the nutritional status, clinical improvement, and PN-related complications in pediatric patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: A retrospective audit of 110 pediatric patients (age≤18), who underwent HSCT from March 2015 to February 2017 was undertaken. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the ratio of daily calorie supplementation to the daily calorie requirement (ROCS). The clinical factors related to the nutritional status, such as difference in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), percent ideal body weight (PIBW), total protein (T.protein), and albumin; the early clinical outcome, such as PN-duration, length of hospitaliaztion (LOH), engraftment day (ED), graft-versus-host disease, sepsis, pneumonia and mucositis; and PN-related complications, including elevation of total bilirubin (T.bil), direct bilirubin (D.bil), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose and cholesterol levels, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease were analyzed using the electronic medical records. Additional analysis subject to auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT patients was also performed. RESULTS: The very-low-ROCS, low-ROCS, and satisfied-ROCS group were 30 (27.3%), 47 (42.7%), and 33 (30.0%) patients, respectively. The PN-duration (P=0.005, z=−2.271), LOH (P=0.023, z=−2.840), ED (P < 0.001, z=−3.695), T.bil elevation (P < 0.001, z=−3.660), and D.bil elevation (P=0.002, z=−3.064) tended to decrease with increasing ROCS. The difference in the PN-duration (P=0.017), ED (P=0.001), T.bil elevation (P=0.001), and D.bil elevation (P=0.011) in the 3 groups was statistically significant. In the auto-HSCT patients, the change in BW (P=0.031, z=+2.154), PIBW (P=0.029, z=+2.187), and BMI (P=0.021, z=+2.306) tended to increase. In the allo-HSCT patients, the change in T.protein (P=0.022, z=+2.286) increased but the ED (P=0.021, z=−2.304) decreased. CONCLUSION: Aggressive PN supplementation has an effect on maintaining the nutritional status and achieving better early outcomes in pediatric HSCT patients, whereas it has no effect on increasing the PN-related complications.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Electronic Health Records , Glucose , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease , Humans , Ideal Body Weight , Mucositis , Nutritional Status , Parenteral Nutrition , Pediatrics , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714754

ABSTRACT

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by clonal proliferation and accumulation of abnormal dendritic (Langerhans) cells in various organs. Pulmonary involvement, although rare in children, has been reported in 20%–50% of childhood cases of multisystem LCH. Isolated pulmonary LCH in children, especially in infants, is still rarer, but should be suspected in those with cystic lung disease. We report a case of a 10-month-old boy who presented with chronic dyspnea and whose chest computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated cystic lesions. Lung biopsy established the diagnosis of LCH; microscopy revealed a background of lymphocytes and eosinophils with kidney-shaped abnormal cells. These abnormal cells were positive for S-100, CD207 (Langerin), and CD1a on immunohistochemical staining. Chemotherapy was administered using a cytotoxic agent (vinblastine) and a steroid. After 12 weeks of induction chemotherapy, although no significant change in cyst size was noted on chest CT, clinical symptoms improved. Consolidation chemotherapy was then administered for 1 year. Thereafter, chest CT findings demonstrated a significant decrease in cyst size and a significant increase in the volume of normal lung parenchyma. Therefore, aggressive treatment of isolated pulmonary LCH in infants with severe tissue destruction and symptoms seems warranted.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Child , Consolidation Chemotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Eosinophils , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Infant , Lung , Lung Diseases , Lymphocytes , Male , Microscopy , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728826

ABSTRACT

Globoid cell leukodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the brain white-matter caused by galactosylceramidase deficiency; the disorder is classified into four types based on the age of onset. Approximately 80–85% of patients have an early infantile form, while 10–15% has a late infantile form. Globoid cell leukodystrophy leads to a progressive neurological deterioration, and affected patients rarely survive more than 2–3 years. Although many different treatments have been investigated over several decades, further research is still needed. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the standard treatment for globoid cell leukodystrophy. Here, we report a case of symptomatic late-infantile globoid cell leukodystrophy treated with stem cell transplantation. After transplantation, disease progression ceased and cognitive and motor function improved. And a 6 months follow-up study using brain magnetic resonance imaging showed white matter involvement was increased. After that, annual follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a stable status of disease.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Brain , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Galactosylceramidase , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Stem Cell Transplantation , White Matter
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714195

ABSTRACT

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis disorder characterized by replacement of normal tissue by lipid-laden histiocytes affecting various organs. A few pediatric cases have been reported worldwide. Here we present a child with leukemia who was diagnosed as ECD. A 2-year and 11-month old boy diagnosed with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at the age of 17 months, received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the age of 2 years old. Six months after the transplantation, the patient was admitted to the hospital with palpable left calf nodules. Bone marrow study suggested ECD without leukemia with complete chimerism status. Excisional biopsy of the left calf nodule showed ‘aggregation of non-Langerhan's cell type epitheloid histiocytes’; clinically suggestive of ECD. The patient was started on vinblastine and corticosteroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Child , Chimerism , Erdheim-Chester Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Histiocytes , Histiocytosis , Humans , Leukemia , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Vinblastine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714194

ABSTRACT

Cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity is an uncommon complication especially in patients who have never undergone mediastinal irradiation or cardiotoxic chemotherapy and do not have underlying cardiac diseases. Here, we describe the case of a 19-year-old female with chronic myeloid leukemia. She was previously treated with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors and developed cardiomyopathy after receiving infusion of 60 mg/kg intravenous cyclophosphamide for two days with a conditioning regimen for allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Severe thickening of the left ventricle and reduced ejection fraction without triggering agents were characteristic for cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy. Her NT-pro BNP and troponin T concentrations surged to >70,000 pg/mL (0=130 pg/mL) and 2,031 pg/mL (0-14 pg/mL), respectively, during the course of the therapy and multiple organ failure seemed imminent evidenced by unresponsive decline in blood pressure. However, with close monitoring and persistent conservative management which consisted of intravenous hydration, continuous hemodialysis, and mechanical ventilation, her condition recovered.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiomyopathies , Cardiotoxicity , Cyclophosphamide , Drug Therapy , Female , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Heart , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Multiple Organ Failure , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Renal Dialysis , Respiration, Artificial , Troponin T , Young Adult
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