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1.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 254-265, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999765

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aims to elucidate clinical features, therapeutic strategies, and prognosis of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) by analyzing a 30-year dataset of a single institution. @*Methods@#We reviewed data from 43 patients diagnosed with PPT at Seoul National UniversityHospital between 1990 and 2020. We performed survival analyses and assessed prognostic factors. @*Results@#The cohort included 10 patients with pineocytoma (PC), 13 with pineal parenchymaltumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID), and 20 with pineoblastoma (PB). Most patients presented with hydrocephalus at diagnosis. Most patients underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy, with some undergoing additional resection after diagnosis confirmation. Radiotherapy was administered with a high prevalence of gamma knife radiosurgery for PC and PPTID, and craniospinal irradiation for PB. Chemotherapy was essential in the treatment of grade 3 PPTID and PB. The 5-year progression-free survival rates for PC, grade 2 PPTID, grade 3 PPTID, and PB were 100%, 83.3%, 0%, and 40%, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 100%, 40%, and 55%, respectively. High-grade tumor histology was associated with lower survival rates. Significant prognostic factors varied among tumor types, with World Health Organization (WHO) grade and leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) for PPTID, and the extent of resection and LMS for PB. Three patients experienced malignant transformations. @*Conclusion@#This study underscores the prognostic significance of WHO grades in PPT. It is nec-essary to provide specific treatment according to tumor grade. Grade 3 PPTID showed a poor prognosis. Potential LMS and malignant transformations necessitate aggressive multimodal treatment and close-interval screening.

2.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 123-132, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999744

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the need for appropriate treatment guidelines for patients with brain tumors was indispensable due to the lack and limitations of medical resources. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has undertaken efforts to develop a guideline that is tailored to the domestic situation and that can be used in similar crisis situations in the future. @*Methods@#The KSNO Guideline Working Group was composed of 22 multidisciplinary experts on neuro-oncology in Korea. In order to reach consensus among the experts, the Delphi method was used to build up the final recommendations. @*Results@#All participating experts completed the series of surveys, and the results of final survey were used to draft the current consensus recommendations. Priority levels of surgery and radiotherapy during crises were proposed using appropriate time window-based criteria for management outcome. The highest priority for surgery is assigned to patients who are life-threatening or have a risk of significant impact on a patient’s prognosis unless immediate intervention is given within 24–48 hours. As for the radiotherapy, patients who are at risk of compromising their overall survival or neurological status within 4–6 weeks are assigned to the highest priority. Curative-intent chemotherapy has the highest priority, followed by neoadjuvant/adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy during a crisis period. Telemedicine should be actively considered as a management tool for brain tumor patients during the mass infection crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Conclusion@#It is crucial that adequate medical care for patients with brain tumors is maintained and provided, even during times of crisis. This guideline will serve as a valuable resource, assisting in the delivery of treatment to brain tumor patients in the event of any future crisis.

3.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 133-139, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999743

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there was a shortage of medical resources and the need for proper treatment guidelines for brain tumor patients became more pressing. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has undertaken efforts to develop a guideline that is tailored to the domestic situation and that can be used in similar crisis situations in the future. As part II of the guideline, this consensus survey is to suggest management options in specific clinical scenarios during the crisis period. @*Methods@#The KSNO Guideline Working Group consisted of 22 multidisciplinary experts on neuro-oncology in Korea. In order to confirm a consensus reached by the experts, opinions on 5 specific clinical scenarios about the management of brain tumor patients during the crisis period were devised and asked. To build-up the consensus process, Delphi method was employed. @*Results@#The summary of the final consensus from each scenario are as follows. For patients with newly diagnosed astrocytoma with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant and oligodendroglioma with IDH-mutant/1p19q codeleted, observation was preferred for patients with low-risk, World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2, and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) ≥60, while adjuvant radiotherapy alone was preferred for patients with high-risk, WHO grade 2, and KPS ≥60. For newly diagnosed patients with glioblastoma, the most preferred adjuvant treatment strategy after surgery was radiotherapy plus temozolomide except for patients aged ≥70 years with KPS of 60 and unmethylated MGMT promoters. In patients with symptomatic brain metastasis, the preferred treatment differed according to the number of brain metastasis and performance status. For patients with newly diagnosed atypical meningioma, adjuvant radiation was deferred in patients with older age, poor performance status, complete resection, or low mitotic count. @*Conclusion@#It is imperative that proper medical care for brain tumor patients be sustained and provided, even during the crisis period. The findings of this consensus survey will be a useful reference in determining appropriate treatment options for brain tumor patients in the specific clinical scenarios covered by the survey during the future crisis.

4.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 308-315, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976888

ABSTRACT

Recent updates in genomic-integrated glioma classification have caused confusion in current clinical practice, as management protocols and health insurance systems are based on evidence from previous diagnostic classifications. The Korean Brain Tumor Society conducted an electronic questionnaire for society members, asking for their ideas on risk group categorization and preferred treatment for each individual diagnosis listed in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of gliomas. Additionally, the current off-label drug use (OLDU) protocols for glioma management approved by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) in Korea were investigated. A total of 24 responses were collected from 20 major institutes in Korea. A consensus was reached on the dichotomic definition of risk groups for glioma prognosis, using age, performance status, and extent of resection. In selecting management protocols, there was general consistency in decisions according to the WHO grade and the risk group, regardless of the individual diagnosis. As of December 2022, there were 22 OLDU protocols available for the management of gliomas in Korea. The consensus and available options described in this report will be temporarily helpful until there is an accumulation of evidence for effective management under the new classification system for gliomas.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 65-74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913846

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 133 patients with histologically confirmed HPC were included from eight institutions. Gross total resection (GTR) and subtotal resection (STR) were performed in 86 and 47 patients, respectively. PORT was performed in 85 patients (64%). The prognostic effects of sex, age, performance, World Health Organization (WHO) grade, location, size, Ki-67, surgical extent, and PORT on local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated by univariate and multivariate analyses. @*Results@#The 10-year PFS, and OS rates were 45%, and 71%, respectively. The multivariate analysis suggested that PORT significantly improved LC (p < 0.001) and PFS (p < 0.001). The PFS benefit of PORT was maintained in the subgroup of GTR (p=0.001), WHO grade II (p=0.001), or STR (p < 0.001). In the favorable subgroup of GTR and WHO grade II, PORT was also significantly related to better PFS (p=0.028). WHO grade III was significantly associated with poor DMFS (p=0.029). In the PORT subgroup, the 0-0.5 cm margin of the target volume showed an inferior LC to a large margin with 1.0-2.0 cm (p=0.021). Time-dependent Cox proportion analysis showed that distant failures were significantly associated with poor OS (p=0.003). @*Conclusion@#This multicenter study supports the role of PORT in disease control of intracranial SFT/HPC, irrespective of the surgical extent and grade. For LC, PORT should enclose the tumor bed with sufficient margin.

6.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 489-498, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938081

ABSTRACT

Spatial insight into intracranial pathology and structure is important for neurosurgeons to perform safe and successful surgeries. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology in the medical field has made it possible to produce intuitive models that can help with spatial perception. Recent advances in 3D-printed disease models have removed barriers to entering the clinical field and medical market, such as precision and texture reality, speed of production, and cost. The 3D-printed disease model is now ready to be actively applied to daily clinical practice in neurosurgical planning, simulation, and training. In this review, the development of 3D-printed neurosurgical disease models and their application are summarized and discussed.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 396-405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925685

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The KNOG-1101 study showed improved 2-year PFS with temozolomide during and after radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone for patients with anaplastic gliomas. This trial investigates the effect of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). @*Materials and Methods@#In this randomized, open-label, phase II trial, 90 patients with World Health Organization grade III glioma were enrolled across multiple centers in South Korea between March 2012 to February 2015 and followed up through 2017. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and 20-item EORTC QLQ-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) were used to compare HRQoL between patients assigned to concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (arm A) and radiotherapy (RT) alone (arm B). @*Results@#Of the 90 patients in the study, 84 patients (93.3%) completed the baseline HRQoL questionnaire. Emotional functioning, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, constipation, appetite loss, diarrhea, seizures, itchy skin, drowsiness, hair loss, and bladder control were not affected by the addition of temozolomide. All other items did not differ significantly between arm A and arm B throughout treatment. Global health status particularly stayed consistent at the end of adjuvant temozolomide (p=0.47) and at the end of RT (p=0.33). @*Conclusion@#The addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide did not show negative influence on HRQoL with improvement of progression-free survival for patients with anaplastic gliomas. The absence of systematic and clinically relevant changes in HRQoL suggests that an overall long-term net clinical benefit exists for concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

8.
Brain & Neurorehabilitation ; : e23-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966450

ABSTRACT

Gliomas are primary central nervous system tumors that arise from glial progenitor cells.Gliomas have been classically classified morphologically based on their histopathological characteristics. However, with recent advances in cancer genomics, molecular profiles have now been integrated into the classification and diagnosis of gliomas. In this review article, we discuss the clinical features, imaging findings, and molecular profiles of adult-type diffuse gliomas based on the new 2021 World Health Organization Classifications of Tumors of the central nervous system.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 983-990, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1514-1524, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894795

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a radiomics risk score based on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI for prognosis prediction in patients with glioblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred and fifty patients (92 male [61.3%]; mean age ± standard deviation, 60.5 ± 13.5 years) with glioblastoma who underwent preoperative MRI were enrolled in the study. Six hundred and forty-two radiomic features were extracted from volume transfer constant (Ktrans), fractional volume of vascular plasma space (Vp), and fractional volume of extravascular extracellular space (Ve) maps of DCE MRI, wherein the regions of interest were based on both T1-weighted contrast-enhancing areas and non-enhancing T2 hyperintense areas. Using feature selection algorithms, salient radiomic features were selected from the 642 features. Next, a radiomics risk score was developed using a weighted combination of the selected features in the discovery set (n = 105); the risk score was validated in the validation set (n = 45) by investigating the difference in prognosis between the “radiomics risk score” groups. Finally, multivariable Cox regression analysis for progression-free survival was performed using the radiomics risk score and clinical variables as covariates. @*Results@#16 radiomic features obtained from non-enhancing T2 hyperintense areas were selected among the 642 features identified. The radiomics risk score was used to stratify high- and low-risk groups in both the discovery and validation sets (both p < 0.001 by the log-rank test). The radiomics risk score and presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation showed independent associations with progression-free survival in opposite directions (hazard ratio, 3.56; p = 0.004 and hazard ratio, 0.34; p = 0.022, respectively). @*Conclusion@#We developed and validated the “radiomics risk score” from the features of DCE MRI based on non-enhancing T2 hyperintense areas for risk stratification of patients with glioblastoma. It was associated with progression-free survival independently of IDH mutation status.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 355-366, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889736

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and survival of patients with primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea and to compare our findings with those from the United States. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected data on primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed between 2007 and 2016 from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and 5-year relative survival rates (RSRs) were evaluated. We applied the classification and definitions of the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States to our analysis for direct comparison with United States data. @*Results@#A total of 115,050 primary brain and CNS tumors were identified, and the ASR of all tumors was 22.01 per 100,000 individuals, which was lower than the 23.41 in the United States. However, the ASR of malignant tumors was significantly lower herein (4.27) than in the United States (7.08). Meningeal tumors were the most common histologic group among all tumors (ASR, 8.32). The 5-year RSR of all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 86.4%, and that of all malignant tumors was 44.1%, which was higher than the 35.8% observed in the United States. Among malignant tumors, glioblastomas had the lowest 5-year RSR (12.1%). @*Conclusion@#In Korea, malignant brain and other CNS tumors have a lower incidence and better survival outcome.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 389-398, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889722

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

13.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889703

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

14.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 9-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889702

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1514-1524, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a radiomics risk score based on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI for prognosis prediction in patients with glioblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred and fifty patients (92 male [61.3%]; mean age ± standard deviation, 60.5 ± 13.5 years) with glioblastoma who underwent preoperative MRI were enrolled in the study. Six hundred and forty-two radiomic features were extracted from volume transfer constant (Ktrans), fractional volume of vascular plasma space (Vp), and fractional volume of extravascular extracellular space (Ve) maps of DCE MRI, wherein the regions of interest were based on both T1-weighted contrast-enhancing areas and non-enhancing T2 hyperintense areas. Using feature selection algorithms, salient radiomic features were selected from the 642 features. Next, a radiomics risk score was developed using a weighted combination of the selected features in the discovery set (n = 105); the risk score was validated in the validation set (n = 45) by investigating the difference in prognosis between the “radiomics risk score” groups. Finally, multivariable Cox regression analysis for progression-free survival was performed using the radiomics risk score and clinical variables as covariates. @*Results@#16 radiomic features obtained from non-enhancing T2 hyperintense areas were selected among the 642 features identified. The radiomics risk score was used to stratify high- and low-risk groups in both the discovery and validation sets (both p < 0.001 by the log-rank test). The radiomics risk score and presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation showed independent associations with progression-free survival in opposite directions (hazard ratio, 3.56; p = 0.004 and hazard ratio, 0.34; p = 0.022, respectively). @*Conclusion@#We developed and validated the “radiomics risk score” from the features of DCE MRI based on non-enhancing T2 hyperintense areas for risk stratification of patients with glioblastoma. It was associated with progression-free survival independently of IDH mutation status.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 233-242, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875260

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the association of MRI features with the major genomic profiles and prognosis of World Health Organization grade III (G3) gliomas compared with those of glioblastomas (GBMs). @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 76 G3 glioma and 155 GBM patients with pathologically confirmed disease who had pretreatment brain MRI and major genetic information of tumors. Qualitative and quantitative imaging features, including volumetrics and histogram parameters, such as normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV), cerebral blood flow (nCBF), and apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) were evaluated. The G3 gliomas were divided into three groups for the analysis: with this isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutation, IDH mutation and a chromosome arm 1p/19q-codeleted (IDHmut1p/19qdel), IDH mutation, 1p/19q-nondeleted (IDHmut1p/19qnondel), and IDH wildtype (IDHwt). A prediction model for the genetic profiles of G3 gliomas was developed and validated on a separate cohort. Both the quantitative and qualitative imaging parameters and progression-free survival (PFS) of G3 gliomas were compared and survival analysis was performed. Moreover, the imaging parameters and PFS between IDHwt G3 gliomas and GBMs were compared. @*Results@#IDHmut G3 gliomas showed a larger volume (p = 0.017), lower nCBF (p = 0.048), and higher nADC (p = 0.007) than IDHwt. Between the IDHmut tumors, IDHmut1p/19qdel G3 gliomas had higher nCBV (p = 0.024) and lower nADC (p = 0.002) than IDHmut1p/19qnondel G3 gliomas. Moreover, IDHmut1p/19qdel tumors had the best prognosis and IDHwt tumors had the worst prognosis among G3 gliomas (p < 0.001). PFS was significantly associated with the 95th percentile values of nCBV and nCBF in G3 gliomas. There was no significant difference in neither PFS nor imaging features between IDHwt G3 gliomas and IDHwt GBMs. @*Conclusion@#We found significant differences in MRI features, including volumetrics, CBV, and ADC, in G3 gliomas, according to IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status, which can be utilized for the prediction of genomic profiles and the prognosis of G3 glioma patients. The MRI signatures and prognosis of IDHwt G3 gliomas tend to follow those of IDHwt GBMs.

17.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 102-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874905

ABSTRACT

Background@#CDKN2A is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the cell cycle inhibitor protein p16. Homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A gene has been associated with shortened survival in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–mutant gliomas. This study aimed to analyze the prognostic value of p16 and to evaluate whether p16 immunohistochemical staining could be used as a prognostic marker to replace CDKN2A genotyping in diffuse gliomas. @*Methods@#p16 immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays of 326 diffuse gliomas with diagnoses that reflected IDH-mutations and 1p/19q codeletion status. The results were divided into three groups (negative, focal expression, overexpression) according to the presence and degree of p16 expression. Survival analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of p16 expression. @*Results@#A loss of p16 expression predicted a significantly worse outcome in all glioma patients (n=326, p<.001), in the IDH-mutant glioma patients (n=103, p=.010), and in the IDH-mutant astrocytoma patients (n=73, p=.032). However, loss of p16 expression did not predict the outcome in the IDH-wildtype glioma patients (n=223, p=.121) or in the oligodendroglial tumor patients with the IDH-mutation and 1p/19q codeletion (n=30, p=.457). Multivariate analysis showed the association was still significant in the IDH-mutant glioma patients (p=.008; hazard ratio [HR], 2.637; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.295 to 5.372) and in the IDH-mutant astrocytoma patients (p=.001; HR, 3.586; 95% CI, 1.649 to 7.801). Interestingly, patients who presented with tumors with p16 overexpression also had shorter survival times than did patients with tumors with p16 focal expression in the whole glioma (p< .001) and in IDH-mutant glioma groups. (p=.046). @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that detection of p16 expression by immunohistochemistry can be used as a useful surrogate test to predict prognosis, especially in IDH-mutant astrocytoma patients.

18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 355-366, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897440

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and survival of patients with primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea and to compare our findings with those from the United States. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected data on primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed between 2007 and 2016 from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and 5-year relative survival rates (RSRs) were evaluated. We applied the classification and definitions of the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States to our analysis for direct comparison with United States data. @*Results@#A total of 115,050 primary brain and CNS tumors were identified, and the ASR of all tumors was 22.01 per 100,000 individuals, which was lower than the 23.41 in the United States. However, the ASR of malignant tumors was significantly lower herein (4.27) than in the United States (7.08). Meningeal tumors were the most common histologic group among all tumors (ASR, 8.32). The 5-year RSR of all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 86.4%, and that of all malignant tumors was 44.1%, which was higher than the 35.8% observed in the United States. Among malignant tumors, glioblastomas had the lowest 5-year RSR (12.1%). @*Conclusion@#In Korea, malignant brain and other CNS tumors have a lower incidence and better survival outcome.

19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 389-398, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897426

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

20.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

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