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1.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 186-190, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938685

ABSTRACT

Crohn’s disease is usually diagnosed according to intestinal symptoms, but extra-intestinal manifestations are important in approximately one-third of cases. Although several extra-intestinal symptoms associated with various organs have been reported, renal involvement is uncommon in patients with Crohn’s disease. Tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with Crohn’s disease is usually caused by infection, sarcoidosis, or medications. However, primary tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by Crohn’s disease alone is extremely rare. A 19-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital because of an increase in serum creatinine level. He underwent a kidney biopsy with renal insufficiency. Renal histological findings revealed granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. Thereafter, a colonoscopy was performed with suspicion of Crohn’s disease. Ultimately, he was diagnosed with granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis based on Crohn’s disease. The patient had improved gastrointestinal symptoms after the last treatment. This case report presents a rare case of primary tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by Crohn’s disease.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927010

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Renal ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is closely associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) exert powerful therapeutic effects in renal ischemia. However, the efficacy of iMSC-derived exosomes (iExo) on I/R injuries remains largely unknown. @*Methods@#Human iPSCs were differentiated into iMSCs using a modified one-step method. Ultrafiltration, combined with purification, was used to isolate iExo from iMSCs. iExo was administered following I/R injury in a mouse model. The effect of iExo on I/R injury was assessed through changes in renal function, histology, and expression of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis markers. Further, we evaluated its association with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling pathway. @*Results@#Mice subjected to I/R injury exhibited typical AKI patterns; serum creatinine level, tubular necrosis, apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine production, and oxidative stress were markedly increased compared to sham mice. However, treatment with iExo attenuated these changes, significantly improving renal function and tissue damage, similar to the renoprotective effects of iMSCs on I/R injury. Significant induction of activated ERK 1/2 signaling molecules was observed in mice treated with iExo compared to those in the I/R injury group. @*Conclusions@#The present study demonstrates that iExo administration ameliorated renal damage following I/R, suggesting that iMSC-derived exosomes may provide a novel therapeutic approach for AKI treatment.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895972

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a promising antioxidant; however, low bioavailability owing to lipid-solubility is a limiting factor. We developed water-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-W) and compared its effects with conventional lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac) nephropathy. @*Methods@#CoQ10-W was developed from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle based on acyltransferases. Chronic nephropathy was induced in rats with 28-day Tac treatment; they were concomitantly treated with CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W. CoQ10 level in plasma and kidney were measured using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L effects on Tac-induced nephropathy were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. Their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed in cultured proximal tubular cells, human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells. @*Results@#The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly higher in the CoQ10-W group than in the CoQ10-L group. Tac treatment caused renal dysfunction, typical pathologic lesions, and oxidative stress markers. Serum creatinine was restored in the Tac + CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W groups compared with that in the Tac group. CoQ10-W administration reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. Mitochondrial ultrastructure assessment revealed that the addition of CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W with Tac increased mitochondrial size and number than Tac treatment alone. In vitro investigations revealed that both CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in the Tac-induced HK-2 cell injury. @*Conclusions@#CoQ10-W has a better therapeutic effect in Tac-induced renal injury than conventional CoQ10-L, possibly associated with improved CoQ10 bioavailability

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903676

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a promising antioxidant; however, low bioavailability owing to lipid-solubility is a limiting factor. We developed water-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-W) and compared its effects with conventional lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac) nephropathy. @*Methods@#CoQ10-W was developed from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle based on acyltransferases. Chronic nephropathy was induced in rats with 28-day Tac treatment; they were concomitantly treated with CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W. CoQ10 level in plasma and kidney were measured using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L effects on Tac-induced nephropathy were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. Their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed in cultured proximal tubular cells, human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells. @*Results@#The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly higher in the CoQ10-W group than in the CoQ10-L group. Tac treatment caused renal dysfunction, typical pathologic lesions, and oxidative stress markers. Serum creatinine was restored in the Tac + CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W groups compared with that in the Tac group. CoQ10-W administration reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. Mitochondrial ultrastructure assessment revealed that the addition of CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W with Tac increased mitochondrial size and number than Tac treatment alone. In vitro investigations revealed that both CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in the Tac-induced HK-2 cell injury. @*Conclusions@#CoQ10-W has a better therapeutic effect in Tac-induced renal injury than conventional CoQ10-L, possibly associated with improved CoQ10 bioavailability

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901540

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on posttransplant clinical outcomes for deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation (KT) using the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) system. @*Methods@#Overall, 657 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving kidneys from 526 DDs from four transplant centers were included. We divided them into the high and low KDPI donor groups by 65%, the KDPI score, and both groups were subdivided into the AKI-DDKT and non-AKI-DDKT subgroups according to AKI in DDs. @*Results@#There was no significant difference in the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) between the high and low KDPI-KTR groups; however, the AKI-DDKT subgroup showed significantly higher incidence of DGF than the non-AKI-DDKT subgroup in both groups (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). The death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the high KDPI-KTR group than in the low KDPI-KTR group (p = 0.005). Only in the high KDPI-KTR group, the death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the KT from DDs with AKI stage 3 than KT from DDs with non-AKI or AKI stage 1 or 2 (p = 0.040). The interaction between AKI stage 3 in DDs and high KDPI on the allograft outcome was significant (p = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#KTs from DDs with AKI stage 3 showed an adverse impact on the allograft outcome in the high KDPI-KTR group. Therefore, DDs with a high KDPI score should be managed carefully so that severe AKI does not occur prior to KT.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875497

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Accumulating evidence indicates that L-carnitine (LC) protects against multiorgan damage through its antioxidant properties and preservation of the mitochondria. Little information is available about the effects of LC on renal fibrosis. This study examined whether LC treatment would provide renoprotection in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in vitro. @*Methods@#Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent UUO were treated daily with LC for 7 or 14 days. The influence of LC on renal injury caused by UUO was evaluated by histopathology, and analysis of gene expression, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, programmed cell death, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ AKT/forkhead box protein O 1a (FoxO1a) signaling. In addition, H2O2-exposed human kidney cells (HK-2) were treated with LC. @*Results@#LC treatment inhibited expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, and was followed by a significant attenuation of tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The increased oxidative stress caused by UUO was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive apoptosis and autophagy via PI3K/AKT/FoxO1a-dependent signaling, and this was abrogated by administration of LC. In H2O2-exposed HK-2 cells, LC decreased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, and suppressed expression of profibrotic cytokines and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. @*Conclusions@#LC protects against the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in an obstructed kidney.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875472

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated whether serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can predict mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). @*Methods@#This study enrolled 169 patients who underwent serum NGAL testing at CRRT initiation from June 2017 to January 2019. The predictive power of serum NGAL level for 28-day mortality was compared to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC) value. @*Results@#There were 55 survivors and 114 non-survivors at 28 days post-CRRT initiation. Median serum NGAL level was significantly higher in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group (743.0 ng/mL vs. 504.0 ng/mL, p = 0.003). The AuROC value of serum NGAL level was 0.640, which was lower than APACHEII score and SOFA score values (0.767 and 0.715, respectively). However, in the low APACHE-II score group (< 27.5), AuROC value of serum NGAL was significantly increased (0.698), and it was an independent risk factor for 28 day-mortality (hazard ratio, 2.405; 95% confidence interval, 1.209 to 4.783; p = 0.012). @*Conclusions@#In patients with AKI requiring CRRT, serum NGAL levels may be useful for predicting short-term mortality in those with low APACHE-II scores.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875448

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To investigate if BK virus (BKV)-specific T cell immunity measured by an interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay can predict the outcome of BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). @*Methods@#We included 68 KTRs with different viremia status (no viremia [n = 17], BK viremia [n = 27], and cleared viremia [n = 24]) and 44 healthy controls (HCs). The BK viremia group was divided into controller ( 3 months) according to sustained duration of BKV infection. We compared BKV-ELISPOT results against five BKV peptides (large tumor antigen [LT], St, VP1-3). @*Results@#BKV-ELISPOT results were higher in three KTRs groups with different BKV infection status than the HCs group (p < 0.05). In KTR groups, they were higher in cleared viremia group than no viremia or BK viremia group. Within the BK viremia group, controller group had higher LT-ELISPOT results compared to noncontroller group (p = 0.032). Also, KTRs without BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) had higher LT, St, VP1, and VP2-ELISPOT results than those with BKVN (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#BKV-ELISPOT assay may be effective in predicting clinical outcomes of BKV infection in terms of clearance of BK virus and development of BKVN.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919171

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Tacrolimus has been used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation. Despite the therapeutic benefits, tacrolimus’s use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. To reduce tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, effective humanized experimental models may be helpful. Here, we modeled tacrolimus nephrotoxicity using kidney organoids derived from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro. @*Methods@#Kidney organoids were differentiated from the CMC11 iPSC cell line, re-seeded in 96-well plates, and treated with tacrolimus at doses of 0, 30, or 60 μM for 24 hours. This in vitro model was compared to a mouse model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and the associated mechanisms were investigated. @*Results@#The size of the kidney organoids and cell viability decreased in dose-dependent manners after treatment with tacrolimus. The number of tubular cells decreased with a loss of polarity, similar to the effects seen in mouse tacrolimus nephrotoxicity. Ultrastructural analysis showed numerous vacuoles in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney organoids treated with tacrolimus. Tacrolimus treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagic activity was enhanced in the kidney organoids. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, accelerated cell death in the kidney organoid model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, which was attenuated by treatment with 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that the augmentation of autophagy by rapamycin treatment accelerated tacrolimus nephrotoxicity. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that human kidney organoids are an effective in vitro model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and that autophagy plays a critical role in tacrolimus nephrotoxicity.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919163

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor in kidney disease progression. However, the underlying mechanisms for this are lacking. This study aimed to assess whether nicotine (NIC), a major toxic component of cigarette smoking, would exacerbates tacrolimus (TAC)-induced renal injury. @*Methods@#Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with NIC, TAC, or both drugs for 4 weeks. The influence of NIC on TAC-caused renal injury was examined via renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and programmed cell death (apoptosis and autophagy). @*Results@#Both NIC and TAC significantly impaired renal function and histopathology, while combined NIC and TAC treatment aggravated these parameters beyond the effects of either alone. Increased oxidative stress, ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, proinf lammatory and profibrotic cytokine expressions, and programmed cell death from either NIC or TAC were also aggravated by the two combined. @*Conclusions@#Our observations suggest that NIC exacerbates chronic TAC nephrotoxicity, implying that smoking cessation may be beneficial for transplant smokers taking TAC.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917065

ABSTRACT

In kidney transplantation (KT), overcoming donor shortage is particularly challenging in patients with preexisting donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA), called HLA-incompatible KT (HLAi KT), carrying the risk of rejection and allograft loss. Thus, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the degree of sensitization before HLAi KT, and undertake appropriate pretreatment strategies. To determine the degree of sensitization, complement-dependent cytotoxicity has been the only method employed; the development of a method using flow cytometry further improved the test sensitivity. However, these tests present disadvantages, including the need for living cells, with a solid-phase assay developed to resolve this problem. Currently, the method using Luminex (Luminex Corp.) is widely used in clinical practice. As this method measures DSAs using single antigen beads, it is possible to classify immunological risks by measuring the type and amount of DSAs. Furthermore, there have been major advances in methods that involve DSA removal before HLAi KT. In the early stages of desensitization, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins were the main treatment methods employed; however, the introduction of CD20 monoclonal antibody and proteasome inhibitors further increased the success rate of desensitization. Currently, HLAi KT has been established as an important transplant method, but an understanding of DSAs and a novel desensitization treatment are warranted.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917043

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a frequent feature in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiate ECs (hiPSC-ECs) from patients with ESRD, and appraise the usefulness of hiPSC-ECs as a model to investigate EC dysfunction. @*Methods@#We generated hiPSCs using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from three patients with ESRD and three healthy controls (HCs). Next, we differentiated hiPSC-ECs using the generated hiPSCs and assessed the expression of endothelial markers by immunofluorescence. The differentiation efficacy, EC dysfunction, and molecular signatures of EC-related genes based on microarray analysis were compared between the ESRD and HC groups. @*Results@#In both groups, hiPSCs and hiPSC-ECs were successfully obtained based on induced pluripotent stem cell or EC marker expression in immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. However, the efficiency of differentiation of ECs from hiPSCs was lower in the ESRD-hiPSCs than in the HC-hiPSCs. In addition, unlike HC-hiPSC-ECs, ESRD-hiPSC-ECs failed to form interconnecting branching point networks in an in vitro tube formation assay. During microarray analysis, transcripts associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were upregulated and transcripts associated with vascular development and basement membrane extracellular matrix components were downregulated in ESRD-hiPSC-ECs relative to in HC-hiPSC-ECs. @*Conclusion@#ESRD-hiPSC-ECs showed a greater level of EC dysfunction than HC-hiPSC-ECs did based on functional assay results and molecular profiles. hiPSC-ECs may be used as a disease model to investigate the pathophysiology of EC dysfunction in ESRD.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893836

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on posttransplant clinical outcomes for deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantation (KT) using the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) system. @*Methods@#Overall, 657 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving kidneys from 526 DDs from four transplant centers were included. We divided them into the high and low KDPI donor groups by 65%, the KDPI score, and both groups were subdivided into the AKI-DDKT and non-AKI-DDKT subgroups according to AKI in DDs. @*Results@#There was no significant difference in the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) between the high and low KDPI-KTR groups; however, the AKI-DDKT subgroup showed significantly higher incidence of DGF than the non-AKI-DDKT subgroup in both groups (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). The death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the high KDPI-KTR group than in the low KDPI-KTR group (p = 0.005). Only in the high KDPI-KTR group, the death-censored graft survival rate was significantly lower in the KT from DDs with AKI stage 3 than KT from DDs with non-AKI or AKI stage 1 or 2 (p = 0.040). The interaction between AKI stage 3 in DDs and high KDPI on the allograft outcome was significant (p = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#KTs from DDs with AKI stage 3 showed an adverse impact on the allograft outcome in the high KDPI-KTR group. Therefore, DDs with a high KDPI score should be managed carefully so that severe AKI does not occur prior to KT.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898125

ABSTRACT

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that presents with exocrine gland dysfunction. Renal involvement is common in SS and often results in tubulointerstitial nephritis, renal tubular acidosis, and Fanconi’s syndrome. Electrolyte imbalances are commonly the first symptom of renal involvement of SS. The most common feature of dysnatremia in SS is hypernatremia with diabetes insipidus. However, cases of hyponatremia with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) are rarely reported in patients with SS. Herein, we report a case of recurrent severe SIADH in a patient with SS.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901508

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infection is the second leading cause of death in patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with an increased risk of infection-related hospitalization (IRH) when compared with hemodialysis. In this study, we investigated the influence of IRH on clinical outcomes in incident PD patients. @*Methods@#In total, 583 incident PD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center Registry for End-Stage Renal Disease, a nationwide multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Incident PD patients who had been hospitalized for infection-related diseases were defined as the IRH group. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was technical failure. The median follow-up period was 29 months. @*Results@#Seventy-three PD patients (12.5%) were categorized in the IRH group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for IRH (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 5.29; P = 0.007). The most common causes of IRH were peritonitis (63.0%) and respiratory tract infection (9.6%). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that IRH was a significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.62; P = 0.026) and for the technical failure of PD (HR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.90 to 5.51; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our data showed that after initiation of PD, IRH was significantly associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality and technical failure.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834934

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to compare the effect of anemia on clinical outcomes according to age in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). @*Methods@#A total of 3,409 patients from the Clinical Research Center for ESRD were included and divided into three groups by age: age < 40 (n = 488), 40 ≤ age < 60 (n = 1,650), and age ≥ 60 (n = 1,271). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization according to mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. @*Results@#Among participants ≥ 60 years of age, the Hb < 10 g/dL group had greater all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.098; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.567-2.808; P < 0.001) than the 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL group, whereas among participants < 40 years of age, the Hb ≥ 12 g/dL group had greater mortality than the 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL group. Moreover, in participants ≥ 60 years of age, the HR for all-cause hospitalization for the Hb < 10 g/dL group was significantly greater than that of the 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL group (HR, 1.472; 95% CI, 1.057-2.051; P = 0.022), whereas it was significantly lower in the Hb ≥ 12 g/dL group (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.362-0.820; P = 0.004) However, among participants < 40 years of age, the incidence of all-cause hospitalization did not differ according to the Hb concentration (HR, 1.273; 95% CI, 0.814-1.991; P = 0.290 for the Hb < 10 g/dL group; reference, 10 ≤ Hb < 12 g/dL; HR, 0.787; 95% CI, 0.439-1.410; P = 0.265 for Hb ≥ 12 g/dL group). @*Conclusion@#The impact of anemia on mortality was more significant in elderly ESRD patients. Strict monitoring and management of anemia should be required for elderly ESRD patients.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831888

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has antioxidant effects and is commercially available and marketed extensively. However, due to its low bioavailability, its effects are still controversial. We developed a water-soluble CoQ10-based micelle formulation (CoQ10-W) and tested it in an experimental model of tacrolimus (TAC)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#We developed CoQ10-W from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle preparation based on acyltransferases. TAC-induced DM rats were treated with either lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) or CoQ10-W for 4 weeks. Their plasma and pancreatic CoQ10 concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. The therapeutic efficacies of CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L on TAC-induced DM were compared using functional and morphological parameters and their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also evaluated in cultured rat insulinoma cells. @*Results@#The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly increased in the CoQ10-W group compared to that in the CoQ10-L group. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion revealed that CoQ10-W controlled hyperglycemia and restored insulin secretion significantly better than CoQ10-L. The TAC-mediated decrease in pancreatic islet size was significantly attenuated by CoQ10-W but not by CoQ10-L. TAC-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis were significantly more reduced by CoQ10-W than CoQ10-L. Electron microscopy revealed that CoQ10-W restored TAC-induced attenuation in the number of insulin granules and the average mitochondrial area, unlike CoQ10-L. In vitro studies showed that CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W both improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in TAC-treated islet cells to a similar extent. @*Conclusions@#CoQ10-W has better therapeutic efficacy than CoQ10-L in TAC-induced DM.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831827

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#It is undetermined if herbal medicines (HM) containing aristolochic acid (AA)-containing have similar nephrotoxicity to AA itself. @*Methods@#We administered HM containing a high concentration of AA for 5 days (short-term study) or a low concentration of AA for 30 days (long-term study) to C57BL/6 mice; for comparison, same dose of AA compound was used as controls. @*Results@#The nephrotoxicity in the HM- and AA-treated mice was compared in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, and mitochondrial damage. Short-term HM treatment resulted in acute kidney injury (marked renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] expression) in which the severity of renal dysfunction and histopathology was comparable with that induced by the administration of AA alone. Long-term HM treatment resulted in features of chronic kidney disease (CKD, mild renal dysfunction and tubular atrophy and dilatation). No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the HM- and AA-treated mice. HM-induced oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and manganese- dependent superoxide dismutase expression) and apoptotic cell death (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling [TUNEL]-positive cells and active caspase-3 expression) were similar in HM- and AA-treated mice in the short-term and long-term studies. Mitochondrial injury, evaluated by electron microscopy, was also similar in HM- and AA-treated mice in the short-term and long-term studies. @*Conclusions@#The nephrotoxic potential of HM containing AA was similar to that of AA itself.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831760

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an important factor influencing immunologic dysfunction, but the effect of PTH level on infection-related outcomes remains unclear in incident dialysis. @*Methods@#We evaluated a multicenter prospective cohort study of 1,771 incident dialysis patients (1,260 hemodialysis and 511 peritoneal dialysis) in Korea. Patients were divided into three groups based on serum intact PTH (iPTH) level. The primary outcomes were all-cause and infection-related mortality and multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the role of iPTH in all-cause and infection-related mortality. @*Results@#During the follow-up period of 27.3 months, 175 patients (9.9%) died, and infection-related death represented 20% of all-cause mortality. Both all-cause mortality and infection-related mortality rates (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, by logrank) were markedly higher in patients with serum iPTH < 150 pg/mL than in the other groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with serum iPTH < 150 pg/mL remained at higher risk for infection-related mortality than patients in the target range of 150 ≤ iPTH < 300 pg/mL, after adjusting for confounding variables (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 5.99; p = 0.04). The HR of infection-related mortality in patients with serum iPTH < 150 pg/mL was significantly higher in patients with low serum phosphorus, low Ca × P product, low serum alkaline phosphatase and those older than 65 years. @*Conclusions@#Low serum iPTH level is an independent predictor of infection-related mortality in incident dialysis patients.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831519

ABSTRACT

Chaga mushrooms are widely used in folk remedies and in alternative medicine. Contrary to many beneficial effects, its adverse effect is rarely reported. We here report a case of end-stage renal disease after long-term taking Chaga mushroom. A 49-year-old Korean man with end stage renal disease (ESRD) was transferred to our hospital. Review of kidney biopsy finding was consistent with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with oxalate crystal deposits and drug history revealed long-term exposure to Chaga mushroom powder due to intractable atopic dermatitis. We suspected the association between Chaga mushroom and oxalate nephropathy, and measured the oxalate content of remained Chaga mushroom. The Chaga mushroom had extremely high oxalate content (14.2/100 g). Estimated daily oxalate intake of our case was 2 times for four years and 5 times for one year higher than that of usual diet. Chaga mushroom is a potential risk factor of chronic kidney disease considering high oxalate content. Nephrologist should consider oxalate nephropathy in ESRD patients exposed to Chaga mushrooms.

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