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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879044

ABSTRACT

L~*, a~* and b~* values of prepared slices of Curcumae Rhizoma were measured by spectrophotometer. SPSS 21.0 was used for discriminant analysis to establish the color range and mathematical prediction model of prepared slices of Curcumae Rhizoma. The values of L~*, a~* and b~* of kwangsiensis ranged from 58.09-62.40, 4.53-5.66 and 23.61-24.29, while the values of L~*, a~* and b~* of phaeocaulis were between 64.02-70.71,-0.89-4.13 and 44.59-54.52, respectively. The values of L~*, a~* and b~* of wenyujin were 68.55-70.99,-0.11-1.47 and 28.26-32.19, respectively. The mathematical prediction model was proved to be able to realize 100% identification of Curcumae Rhizome of different origins through original and cross validation and external samples validation. A dual wavelength HPLC was established; the contents of 9 sesquiterpenoids and 3 Curcumae Rhizomes were determined simultaneously; and the contents of Curcumae Rhizome of different origins were determined. The results showed that kwangsiensis had higher contents of neocurdione, β-elemene and isocurcumaenol, phaeocaulis curcumin, furadienone, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin; and wenyujin mainly contained curdione, furadienes and guimarone. Pearson correlation analysis on L~*, a~*, b~* value and content of 12 components showed that curcumin, furadienone, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin had a significant positive correlation with b~* value(P<0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between neocurdione, β-elemene and isocurcumaenol and L~* value(P<0.01). Curdione, furadienes and guimarone were significantly correlated with L~* value(P<0.01),indicating that the appearance co-lor of Curcumae Rhizoma could reflect the change of the content of the internal components. This study provided reference for the rapid recognition of Curcumae Rhizoma and the establishment of quality evaluation system.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Color , Curcuma , Curcumin , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878819

ABSTRACT

Based on fingerprint and network pharmacology,the whole process quality control of Zhuru Decoction was conducted and efficacy-related substances were predicted.The fingerprints of raw materials,decoction pieces and Zhuru Decoction were established,and 25 common peaks were identified,including 9 common chromatographic peaks of 3'-hydroxy puerarin,puerarin,3'-methoxy puerarin,puerarin,aperioside,daidzin,daidzein,liquiritin,glycyrrhizic acid and 6-gingerol, with similarity all greater than 0.95.The main groups of pharmacodynamic substances can be transferred from raw materials,decoction pieces to Zhuru Decoction step by step,with a clear affiliation relationship.Based on the testability and traceability,the active ingredients were screened,and the network relationship of "component-target-pathway" was constructed and analyzed for the nine chemical components screened by network pharmacology.The enriched pathways included energy metabolism,alcoholism,and smooth muscle contraction and relaxation-related pathways.The nine active components of Zhuru Decoction may achieve the effects of clearing heat, alleviating a hangover, harmonizing stomach and stopping vomiting through these signaling pathways.Based on transitive and traceable properties of the above 9 components as well as their close relationship to the efficacy of Zhuru Decoction,these 9 components can be identified as potential efficacy-related substances and provide basis for the overall quality control of Zhuru Decoction.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Prescriptions , Quality Control
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878807

ABSTRACT

Licorice has long been regarded as one of the most popular herbs, with a very wide clinical application range. Whether being used alone or as an ingredient in prescription, it has an important role which cannot be ignored. However, the efficacy and chemical constituents of licorice will change after honey-processing. Therefore, it is necessary to find quality markers before and after honey-processing to lay the foundation for a comprehensive evaluation of the differences between raw and processed licorice pieces. HPLC-DAD was employed to establish fingerprints of raw and processed licorice. Multivariate statistical analysis methods including principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA) were applied to screen out the differential components before and after processing of licorice. Based on network pharmacology, the targets and pathways corresponding to the differential components were analyzed with databases such as Swiss Target Prediction and Metascape, and the "component-target-pathway" diagram was constructed with Cytoscape 3.6.0 software to predict the potential quality markers. A total of 17 common peaks were successfully identified in the established fingerprint, and seven differential components were selected as potential quality markers(licoricesaponin G2, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritigenin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritin apioside and isoliquiritigenin). The HPLC fingerprint method proposed in this study was efficient and feasible. The above seven differential chemical components screened out as potential quality markers of licorice can help to improve and promote the overall quality. These researches offer more sufficient theoretical basis for scientific application of licorice and its corresponding products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Honey/analysis
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872710

ABSTRACT

Objective:To quantitatively analyze the changes of Staphylococcus aureus in different processed products of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. Method:The real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (Real-time PCR) was established to quantitatively analyze S. aureus in Angelicae Sinensis Radix decoction pieces which bought from different producing areas, different enterprises and different storage time. The fluorescence quantitative reaction system was SYBR Premix Ex Taq Ⅱ of 10 μL, each of forward primer and reverse primer (10 μmol·L-1) of 0.8 μL, template/genome DNA of 1 μL, double distilled water of 7.4 μL. The reaction conditions of the fluorescence quantitative amplification curve were pre-denaturing for 30 s at 94 ℃, denaturing for 10 s at 94 ℃, annealing for 12 s at 60 ℃, extensing for 30 s at 72 ℃, cycling 45 times, single-point detection signal at 72 ℃. The melting curve was made from 72 ℃, and the step temperature of 0.5 ℃ was kept for 15 s to collect fluorescence. According to the results of Real-time PCR, representative samples were selected from Angelicae Sinensis Radix decoction pieces for comparison between plate counting method and Real-time PCR. Result:The content of S. aureus in different processed products was sorted by rank of raw Angelicae Sinensis Radix>soil-fried Angelicae Sinensis Radix>wine-processed Angelicae Sinensis Radix. The content of S. aureus was the lowest in the samples from Weiyuan area of Gansu province by comparing with other producing areas. Compared with the retail enterprises, the content of S. aureus in raw products and wine-processed products from production and sale enterprises was lower. Different storage time had certain effect on the content of S. aureus in raw products and wine-processed products, and the content of S. aureus increased with the increase of storage time. The detection results of plate counting method were 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than that of Real-time PCR. Conclusion:The established Real-time PCR is superior to plate counting method in specificity, sensitivity, reliability and reporting period, which can provide an effective method for rapid and accurate quantitative detection of S. aureus in different processed products of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773233

ABSTRACT

Ten batches of Angelica sinensis from three producing areas( Tuoxiang,Minxian and Weiyuan of Gansu province) were selected as the research objects,and processed into raw A. sinensis,A. sinensis with alcohol,and A. sinensis with soil respectively through the standard processing methods. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography( UPLC) was used to establish fingerprint for three processed products of A. sinensis,and determine the contents of 9 phenolic acids and phthalide compounds. The similarity was analyzed with Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine,which showed that the chromatographic peaks of the same processed samples of A. sinensis were basically similar,with all similarities greater than 0. 950. The difference between different processed products and their control spectra was not obvious,with all similarities also higher than 0. 950.On the basis of using principal component analysis( PCA) and OPLS-DA to seek the difference components between groups,the improved distance coefficient method can be used to effectively distinguish the three processed products of A. sinensis by fingerprint similarity. At the same time,the determination method of nine phenolic acids and phthalide in A. sinensis was established by UPLC,and the comparison between different processed products was carried out. The results showed that the content of various components was changed as compared with the raw A. sinensis. The contents of coniferyl ferulate and ligustilide in the A. sinensis with alcohol were increased significantly,and the content of coniferyl ferulate was obviously increased in A. sinensis with soil. The method established in this paper can effectively distinguish different processed products of A. sinensis and determine the content of the main components in them.


Subject(s)
4-Butyrolactone , Angelica sinensis , Chemistry , Benzofurans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coumaric Acids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hydroxybenzoates , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Principal Component Analysis
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773129

ABSTRACT

To establish ultra performance liquid chromatography( UPLC) fingerprint of Puerariae Lobatae Radix from different habitats and simultaneously determine the contents of six isoflavonoids. The UPLC fingerprint analysis and content determination were performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18)( 2. 1 mm×50 mm,1. 7 μm) chromatographic column,with acetonitrile-0. 05% formic acid as mobile phase for gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 250 nm; the flow rate was 0. 2 mL·min~(-1); the column temperature was 30 ℃ and the injection volume was 2 μL. Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) was adopted; principal component analysis( PCA) and discriminant analysis by partial least square method( PLS-DA) in Simca-P software were used to identify the differential components in samples from three habitats. The similarity was over 0. 90 in 29 batches of samples,indicating good consistency of the samples. The samples were clustered into 3 categories by PCA and PLS-DA,and six differential components such as puerarin apioside,daidzin,and isoflavoues aglycone were found. The determination results of 6 isoflavones,including 3'-hydroxy puerarin,puerarin,3'-methoxy puerarin,puerarin apioside,daidzin,and isoflavoues aglycone,showed that the content of the same component and the fluctuation range between different components were all different among different habitats. The total content of 6 isoflavones from different regions was Anhui 11. 21% >Henan 10. 97% >Shannxi 9. 38%. The establishment of UPLC fingerprint combined with simultaneous determination of 6 active components provides a more comprehensive reference for quality control and quality evaluation of Puerariae Lobatae Radix.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ecosystem , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Pueraria , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690497

ABSTRACT

To analyse the quality of three processed products of Rhizome of Curcuma wenyujin by establishing an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for simultaneously determining five sesquiterpene components in three processed products of rhizome of C. wenyujin and establishing UPLC fingerprints. Component determination was achieved on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C₁₈ column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.7 μm), with acetonitrile-water as mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.3 mL·min⁻¹; column temperature was 30 °C; the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm and injection volume was 1 μL. The similarity was analyzed with "Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Materia Medica (2012.130723)", and hydrophobic cluster analysis (HCA), principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were conducted by using simca-p14.1 software to investigate the differences in components among these three kinds of processed products. The curzerene, curdione, curcumol, germacrone, furanodiene and β-elemene showed good linearity relationship with chromatographic peak area within the ranges of 10.8-320(=0.999 9), 10.36-259(=0.998 1), 10.54-263.5(=0.999 3), 30.2-755(=0.999 6)and 34.38-862(=0.999 9)mg·L⁻¹, respectively; their average recoveries were 98.75%, 98.69%, 98.63%, 99.76% and 99.57% respectively, with RSD of 2.67%, 1.47%, 1.29%, 2.54% and 0.87% respectively. The similarity of 30 batches of samples was larger than 0.9, indicating good consistency of the samples. The samples can be clearly classified into three categories for HCA, PCA and OPLS-DA pattern recognition, the differential chromatographic peak among three processed products was found respectively. The results showed that the pharmacology basis had changed obviously after processing of Rhizome of C. wenyujin, so it can provide the scientific basis for rational clinical application and establishing quality standards of three processed products of Rhizome of curcuma wenyujin.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258482

ABSTRACT

To compare the effects of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizomaon immune hepatic fibrosis, proliferation of HSC-T6, and expressions of α-SMA and Procollagen I. The immunological liver fibrosis model was prepared through intraperitoneal injection with porcine serum 0.5 mL in each rat, twice a week, for 14 weeks. Expressions of serum ALT, AST, PC-Ⅲ, IV-C, LN, HA and HYP, MDA in liver tissues were observed after administration of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma (0.95, 1.90 g•kg⁻¹). The pathological changes in liver tissues were observed by HE staining. Masson staining and Sirius red staining were used to observe the expression of collagen in rat liver. HSC-T6 was cultured, and the proliferation of HSC-T6 was determined by MTT assay at different concentrations in 12, 24, 36, 48 h. The expressions of α-SMA and Procollagen I were detected by Real-time PCR. The results showed that expressions of serum ALT, AST, PC-Ⅲ, IV-C, LN and HA in Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma groups (0.95, 1.90 g•kg⁻¹) were significantly lower than model group; in terms of effect, vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma group was superior to Curcumae Rhizoma group. Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma containing serum could inhibit the proliferation of HSC-T6 in a dose-effect and time-effect manner. Expressions of α-SMA and Procollagen I in HSC-T6 were decreased after 24 h, especially in 20% vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma containing serum group (P<0.01). Both Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma could reduce immune hepatic fibrosis to varying extent. Their anti-hepatic fibrosis mechanism may be correlated with inhibition of the proliferation of HSC-T6, and reduction of the formation of extracellular matrix and promotion of its degradation.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275200

ABSTRACT

Different drying methods, including drying in the sun, sulphur fumigation, hot air drying, microwave drying, infrared drying and various coupling techniques,were used to dry fresh Gastrodiae Rhizoma. Characteristics, extracts and the contents of active components of all samples were compared to investigate the effects of different drying methods on quality of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. The results showed that the characteristics of the samples would be better with use of sulphur fumigation, hot air drying, and hot air-microwave drying. Different drying methods had little effects on extracts. Among them, the extract content was higher after hot air drying. The stilbene glycosides would transformation and the contents of Gastrodiae Rhizoma polysaccharides would decline with use of sulphur fumigation, microwave drying and infrared drying. In the comprehensive analysis of characteristics, content of active components, production cost and other factors, hot air drying or hot air-microwave drying was recommended as the first choice.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287112

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of ligustrazine nanoparticles nano spray (LNNS) on transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signal protein of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMC) induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and the anti-adhesion mechanism of LNNS in the abdominal cavity.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The primary culture and subculture of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMC) was processed by trypsin digestion method in vitro. The third generation was identifified for experiment and divided into 5 groups: a blank group: RPMC without treatment; a control group: RPMC stimulated with TNF-α; RPMC treated by a low-dosage LNNS group (2.5 mg/L); RPMC treated by a medium-dosage LNNS group (5 mg/L); and RPMC treated by a high-dosage LNNS group (10 mg/L). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was applied to test the expression of fifibronectin, collagen I (COL-I), TGF-β mRNA, and Western blot method to test the Smad protein 7 expression of RPMC.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the blank group, a signifificant elevation in fifibronectin (FN), COL-I and TGF-β mRNA expression of RPMC were observed in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, LNNS suppressed the expressions of FN, COL-I and TGF-β mRNA in a concentrationdependent manner (P<0.05). The expression of Smad7 protein of RPMC was down-regulated by TNF-α stimulation, and up-regulated with the increase of LNNS dose (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TNF-α may induce changes in RPMC's viability, leading to peritoneal injury. LNNS could reverse the induction of fifibrosis related cytokine FN, COL-I and TGF-β, up-regulating the expression of Smad7 by TNF-α in RPMC, thus attenuate peritoneal injury by repairing mesothelial cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen Type I , Genetics , Metabolism , Epithelium , Metabolism , Fibronectins , Metabolism , Male , Nanoparticles , Chemistry , Particle Size , Peritoneal Cavity , Cell Biology , Pyrazines , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Pharmacology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307155

ABSTRACT

Volatile oils are important active components in traditional Chinese medicine, but their components are complicated and unstable. It is common to use cyclodextrin inclusion technique to improve the stability of volatile oils and make them easier to be prepared. At present, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is the most common inclusion material. The evaluation indicators for inclusion technique usually contain the inclusion rate and the oil content in the inclusion compound. However, the articles about the study on selecting inclusion materials for volatile oils were few. In this paper, menthol, the main active ingredient of mint volatile oil, was used as model drug, while β-CD and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) were used as the inclusion materials. Inclusion equilibrium constant (K), solubilization ratio were investigated, and the results were combined with IR, DSC and TG to verify the formation of inclusion complexes. It turned out that in the range of 0-15 mmol•L⁻¹, the solubility of menthol was increased linearly with the increase of HP-β-CD concentration, with AL-type phase solubility diagram, K=3 188.62 L•mol⁻¹; in the range of 0-12.5 mmol•L⁻¹, the solubility of menthol was increased linearly with the increase of β-CD concentration, K=818.73 L•mol⁻¹. When the concentration was over 12.5 mmol•L⁻¹, the solubility of menthol appeared to be a negative deviation with the increase of β-CD concentration, with AN-type solubility diagram. The above results showed that the inclusion behavior was different between β-CD and HP-β-CD, laying a foundation for further study on inclusion complexes of volatile oil.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320859

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma on endogenous metabolites in bile by investigating the endogenous metabolites difference in bile before and after Curcumae Rhizoma was processed with vinegar. Alcohol extracts of crude and vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma, as well as normal saline were prepared respectively, which were then given to the rats by intragastric administration for 0.5 h. Then common bile duct intubation drainage was conducted to collect 12 h bile of the rats. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis of bile samples was applied after 1∶3 acetonitrile protein precipitation; unidimensional statistics were combined with multivariate statistics and PeakView software was compared with network database to identify the potential biomarkers. Vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma extracts had significant effects on metabolites spectrum in bile of the rats. With the boundaries of P<0.05, 13 metabolites with significant differences were found in bile of crude and vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma groups, and 8 of them were identified when considering the network database. T-test unidimensional statistical analysis was applied between administration groups and blank group to obtain 7 metabolites with significant differences and identify them as potential biomarkers. 6 of the potential biomarkers were up-regulated in vinegar-processed group, which were related to the metabolism regulation of phospholipid metabolism, fat metabolism, bile acid metabolism, and N-acylethanolamine hydrolysis reaction balance, indicating the mechanism of vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma on endogenous metabolites in bile of the rats.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1600-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779330

ABSTRACT

UHPLC-QTOF/MS technique was used to study the differences of lignans and their metabolites derived from Schisandra chinensis and vinegar Schisandra chinensis in rat plasma, bile, urine and faeces by the data processing techniques such as the dynamic background subtract (DBS), mass defect filtering (MDF) and enhance peak list (EPL) in analysis. In order to enhance accuracy for Schisandra chinensis hepatoprotective effect, we established rat acute alcoholic liver injury model in this experiment, and studied the prototype components and metabolisms of Schisandra lignans in vivo under pathological condition. The main ingredients of alcohol extract are lignans, including deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin B, schizandrin C, schizandrol, schizandrol B, schisantherin, schisantherin B, schisanhenol, gomisin G, gomisin J. The metabolic transformation of lignans in rats was mainly induced by methylation, hydroxyl, oxidation, and so on. Finally, we identified 6 kinds of prototype components and their 20 potential metabolites in Schisandra chinensis group and vinegar Schisandra chinensis group.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237681

ABSTRACT

Drugs are exogenous compounds for human bodies, and will be metabolized by many enzymes after administration. CYP450 enzyme, as a major metabolic enzyme, is an important phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. In human bodies, about 75% of drug metabolism is conducted by CYP450 enzymes, and CYP450 enzymes is the key factor for drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) -TCM, TCM-medicine and other drug combination. In order to make clear the interaction between metabolic enzymes and TCM metabolism, we generally chose the enzymatic activity as an evaluation index. That is to say, the enhancement or reduction of CYP450 enzyme activity was used to infer the inducing or inhibitory effect of active ingredients and extracts of traditional Chinese medicine on enzymes. At present, the common method for measuring metabolic enzyme activity is Cocktail probe drugs, and it is the key to select the suitable probe substrates. This is of great significance for study drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) process in organisms. The study focuses on the interaction between TCMs, active ingredients, herbal extracts, cocktail probe substrates as well as CYP450 enzymes, in order to guide future studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Chemistry , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Activators , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Humans
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305339

ABSTRACT

This study is to establish an HPLC-DAD-ELSD method for simultaneous determination of 5 flavones and saponins in Rhizoma Anemarrhenae including neo-mangiferin, mangiferin, timosaponin B II, timosaponin B III and timosaponin A III. Samples were analyzed on a Merck Purospher STAR column(4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile( A) and 0. 1% formic acid (B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL · min(-1). The column temperature was set at 40 °C. The DAD detector wavelength was set at 254 nm. The ELSD conditions were as follows: the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.0 L · min(-1) and temperature of drift tube was 105 °C. The volume was 10 μL. The five compounds were well separated with good linear correlations. The mean recoveries were between 102.0%-104.0%. This method was quick and reliable which provides a foundation for quality control of R. Anemarrhenae.


Subject(s)
Anemarrhena , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavones , Rhizome , Chemistry , Saponins
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327890

ABSTRACT

Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.


Subject(s)
Fumigation , Methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Quality Control , Social Control, Formal , Sulfur , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327889

ABSTRACT

Sulfur fumigation (SF) is a universal phenomenon in primary processing of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in modern times. In the process, fumigation, sulfur or both of them act on the TCMs. Some active components of TCMs change quantitatively or qualitatively during the processing. At the same time, the sulfur dioxide and heavy metal would remain and cause a serious influence on quality and future development of TCM. This article reviews the chemical compositions change after SF to study the change law and their influence on quality. This article provide references for SF in TCMs' processing for a better and safer quality.


Subject(s)
Drug Contamination , Fumigation , Methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Quality Control , Sulfur , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327888

ABSTRACT

Sulfur fumigation, which is traditional method for preservation, pest control, insecticide and sterilization, has long been widely used in processing and storage and played a positive role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As some businesses sided pursuit of profit, abused and repeated use of sulfur fumigation, have resulted in a large number of harmful residues, such as sulf dioxide (SO2) and harmful heavy metals, which brings a significant impact and danger on human health. This article summarizes the sulfur species and the sulfur fumigation methods and analyzes the harmful substances in TCM after sulfur fumigation, to provide a reference of the choice of species for the sulfur, the optimization of sulfur fumigation process and the standardized processing of TCM after sulfur fumigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Contamination , Fumigation , Methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Safety , Sulfur , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327886

ABSTRACT

The contents of adenosine, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, parishin and sulfur dioxide residue were compared in differently-processed Gastrodiae Rhizoma to provide the basis for a reasonable processing method of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. The analysis was performed on a Merck Purospher STAR column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) under gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The eluates were detected at 270 nm, and the column temperature was 35°C. The content of adenosin, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and parishin in processing of boiling or sulfur-fumigated were lower than that of in processing of steaming. Furthermore, the sulfur dioxide residue of sulphur-fumigated groups exceed 400 mg x kg(-1). This stable and reliable method will contribute to the quality control of different processed Gastrodiae Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Sulfur Dioxide , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327885

ABSTRACT

To compare the differences of the active ingredient contents and the sulfur dioxide residue in Astragali Radix before and after sulfur fumigation and provide a basis for establishing an alternative processing method. Astragali Radix, harvested at the same time in Longxi Gansu, were processed with different methods. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of the active ingredients in Astragali Radix and the revised method of the pharmacopoeia of China in 2011 was applied to determine the sulfur dioxide residue. The results show that the three-fold sulfur-fumigation group has the highest level of astragaloside IV and the dried sulfur-fumigation group with 10% water has the lowest level; the content of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside is the highest in naturally dried group and the lowest in the group of sulfur fumigating for 3 times; the sulfur dioxide residue of all sulfur-fumigation groups exceeds certain limit significantly and the group of sulfur fumigating for 3 times reaches the highest level.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fumigation , Sulfur Dioxide , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
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