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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3377-3384, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906819

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the focus of anti-cancer agents has gradually shifted from cytotoxic chemotherapy to molecular-targeted agents that interfere with frequently overexpressed or mutated molecules in cancer cells. Compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy, molecular-targeted therapy is a new biological therapy with higher specificity and lower toxicity, however, the adverse reactions caused by molecular-targeted agents cannot be ignored. Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse drug reactions, which could seriously affect the quality of life and even lead to treatment discontinuation and consequently decreased cancer control. To provide a reference for relevant research and clinical medication, we review the current reports on the incidence, pathogenic mechanism, and management of diarrhea induced by the molecular-targeted agents.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 266-273, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872628

ABSTRACT

Xianling Gubao is a common and effective medicine in the treatment of orthopedic diseases. In recent years, it has been reported to be associated with liver injury. However, through the analysis of the adverse drug reaction reports and key hospital cases, we found that there is considerable incomplete information in the reports of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury cases retrieved from the literature. Thus, it is difficult to accurately judge causality between the drug and liver injury. Six cases of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao were identified in key hospitals, two of which achieved the clinical diagnosis according to the assessment of the integrated evidence chain method. We further analyzed the public health data of all residents in Yinzhou. The gross incidence rate of Xianling Gubao-related liver injury was 0.034%, which corresponds to a level of rare incidence. This revealed that Xianling Gubao-related liver injury has significant divergence in individuals and an idiosyncratic nature. The gross incidence of liver injury related to Xianling Gubao was lower than that of other medicines for the treatment of orthopedic diseases. Based on the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury model mediated by immune stress, it was found that Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus were the major components that lead to liver injury, and the liver injury caused by a full prescription was less serious than that encountered with only Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus. This suggests that the other 4 herbs (Dipsaci Radix, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix,Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) can prevent/alleviate the liver injury. Through disassembled prescription analysis, we found that the attenuation efficacy of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was the most significant. In conclusion, Xianling Gubao may cause idiosyncratic liver injury in a tiny minority of susceptible individuals, but the incidence risk is lower than that of other commonly used drugs for orthopedic disease. Xianling Gubao should be discreetly applied to patients with immune stress. The major components that induced liver injury in Xianling Gubao were Epimedii Folium and Psoraleae Fructus, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma appears to attenuate this toxicity. This study provides a reference for the rational clinical medication with Xianling Gubao.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781760

ABSTRACT

The new teaching mode of based on the practice platform was explored so as to promote the mutual benefits for both teaching and learning. As the basic course of acupuncture-moxibustion and specialty, is the core theoretical and practical course. Through the establishment of on-campus practice platforms, e.g. the Technique Association of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and , physical therapy room of acupuncture-moxibustion and and the practical platform for promoting outside-campus medical service, in accordance with the teaching mode of "theory → practice → re-theory → re-practice", the class teaching of theory and the skill training were optimized, the three-dimensional practice platforms for teaching was constructed, meaning "class teaching → on-campus practice → social service". This teaching mode motivates the enthusiasm of teaching and learning, improves the teaching quality of , enhances the professional theoretical level as well as the clinical practice ability. Such teaching mode plays a positive role in the cultivation of talents of acupuncture-moxibustion and .


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Meridians , Moxibustion , Teaching
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1456-1461, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827590

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent epidemics affecting human health and life recently, and exploration of the pathogenesis and treatment of periodontitis has been valued by scholars. In recent years, sclerostin, a new factor on bone resorption and reconstruction caused by inflammation and mechanical stimulation, has been a research hotspot. This article summarizes the researches on sclerostin in periodontitis development in recent years. Among them, sclerostin has been shown to be a critical negative regulator of bone formation, thereby inhibiting bone remodeling in periodontitis development, and is closely associated with tooth movement. Besides, evidence indicates that the removal of sclerostin seems to reasonably protect the alveolar bone from resorption. Regulation of sclerostin expression is a novel, promising treatment for periodontitis and addresses several complications seen with traditional therapies; accordingly, many drugs with similar mechanisms have emerged. Moreover, the application prospect of sclerostin in periodontal therapy combined with orthodontic treatment is another promising approach. There are also a lot of drugs that regulate sclerostin. Anti-sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is the most direct one that inhibits bone resorption caused by sclerostin. At present, drugs that inhibit the expression of sclerostin have been applied to the treatment of diseases such as multiple myeloma and osteoporosis. Therefore, the application of sclerostin in the oral field is just around the corner, which provides a new therapeutic bone regulation strategy in oral and general health.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2169-2177, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780349

ABSTRACT

There are many kinds of processed products of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (ALRP), but their differences in toxicity and efficacy have not been identified. The minimum premature ventricular contraction (PVC) method was used to evaluate the biological toxicity of eight processed products. The results showed that the minimal toxic dose (MTD) of an ethanol extract of Shengfupian (SFP) was 0.16 g·kg-1, which was much lower than that of Heishunpian (HSP), Baifupian (BFP), Baofupian (BAP), Paofuzi (PFZ) or Zhengfupian (ZFP), with MTDs ranging from 2.64 to 5.75 g·kg-1. No cardiotoxicity was detected with Chaofupian (CFP) and Paotianxiong (PTX). A novel +dp/dtmax assay for acute heart failure in rats was developed to evaluate the cardiac activity. It was found that all eight processed products had cardiac effects, with Shengfupian showing the strongest cardiotonic effect and the ability to restore damaged cardiac function to normal within 15 minutes of injection. Heishunpian, Baifupian and the three other products displayed moderate activity, while Paofuzi and Paotianxiong were the weakest. An LC-MS/MS method was utilized to determine the content of 13 alkaloids in water extracts. The results demonstrated that hypertoxic aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine could not be detected, higenamine was only present in Shengfupian, and salsolinol was about 4-56 times higher in Shengfupian than in other products. A correlation analysis showed that salsolinol had the best correlation with the cardiotonic index, with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.817, while the three monoester alkaloids failed to correlate with the cardiotonic effect. Higenamine and salsolinol were cardiotonic, while the 11 other components had no cardiotonic activity. This study establishes methods for precise evaluation of cardiotoxicity and cardiac activity, reveals the toxicity and efficacy of common processed products, and identifies the key quality markers for cardiac activity, providing scientific support for the quality evaluation and clinical application of processed products of aconite.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2011-2018, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780294

ABSTRACT

The Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastatic mouse model was used to investigate the effects of gefitinib and Sijunzi Tang (SJZ) on pre-metastatic niche. The experimental protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee which belongs to Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. To generate spontaneous lung metastatic models, 1×106 luciferase-labeled LLC cells were injected subcutaneously in the shaved right flank of mice. One day after LLC inoculation, the mice were randomly divided into model (saline), gefitinib (50 mg·kg-1) treatment, SJZ treatment (25.74 g·kg-1), and co-treatment gefitinib with SJZ groups, with intragastrical administration. After 14 days of continuous administration, tumor size was detected by IVIS® Spectrum system. The number of monocytes and neutrophils and the expression levels of chemokine receptors (CXCR1, CCR2) and carcinogenic gene (c-Kit), in peripheral blood, spleen and lung tissues of mice were determined by flow cytometry. The contents of interleukin-IL-1α (IL-1α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 21 days of treatment, tumors were surgically removed, weighed and the tumor volume was measured with vernier caliper and the antitumor effect of co-administration was evaluated. After 45 days of administration, the survival of mice was recorded. The results of flow cytometry showed that the percentage of neutrophils in gefitinib group, SJZ group, and co-treatment group was significantly decreased in the lung tissue compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between three treatment groups (P>0.05). In the mouse peripheral blood and lung tissue, compared with the model group, the expression levels of CXCR1, CCR2 and c-Kit on the surface of neutrophils and monocytes in SJZ group and co-treatment group decreased or decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05). However, there was a significant increase in the expression level of c-Kit on the surface of monocytes (P<0.05). In the mouse spleen tissue, the expression levels of CXCR1, CCR2 and c-Kit in the gefitinib group increased significantly (P<0.05), while decreased significantly in SJZ or co-treatment group (P<0.05). The results of ELISA showed that the content of IL-1α in SJZ group decreased significantly in the plasma of the mice compared with the model group (P<0.01) and the content of IL-6 in co-treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the gefitinib group, the content of IL-1 in the co-treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the tumor tissues of mice, compared with the model group, the content of IL-1α in the co-treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Furthermore, the content of IL-1α in co-administrated group and IL-6 in SJZ or co-treatment group decreased significantly compared with the gefitinib group (P<0.05). After 21 days of continuous administration, the tumor inhibition rates of gefitinib group, SJZ group and co-administrated group were 45.7%, 38.4%, and 84.8%, respectively. After 45 days of administration, the survival rate of the model group was 0%, whereas the gefitinib, SJZ or co-treatment group has a survival rate of 40%, 60%, or 60%, respectively. In summary, our study illustrated that Sijunzi Tang could improve the anti-tumor effect of gefitinib by regulating pre-metastatic niche.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816059

ABSTRACT

In 2018, American Diabetes Association(ADA), European Association for the Study of Diabetes(EASD), Chinese Diabetes Society(CDS), Chinese Geriatrics Society(CGS) and Chinese Society of Microcirculation(CSM), etc. published several guidelines and statements on diabetes and its complications. The prevention of diabetes, diagnostic criteria of diabetes, the characteristics of blood pressure and blood lipid, integrated management of diabetes, the efficacy and adverse reaction of hypoglycemic drugs were also suggested and recommended. These guidelines and statements play key roles in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and future research of diabetes mellitus, which is reviewed in this article.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852220

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effects and the mechanism of oridonin on inhibiting the invasion and migration abilities of human melanoma A375 cells. Methods Human melanoma A375 cells were cultured and treated respectively with indicated concentrations of oridonin by cell culture technique. The proliferation rate was detected by CCK-8 method. The migration ability was measured by wound healing assay. The invasion ability was examined by Transwell assay. The adhesion capabilities were evaluated by adhesion assay. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) related protein expression levels were determined by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed the median inhibition concentration (IC50) of 48 h was 47.94 μmol/L. Oridonin (5, 10, and 20 μmol/L) inhibited the migration, invasion and adhesion abilities of human melanoma A375 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). After oridonin treatment, the protein expression levels of E-cadherin increased significantly (P < 0.05) and the protein levels of Snail, N-cadherin, vimentin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion Oridonin inhibits the migration, invasion and adhesion abilities of human melanoma A375 cells. The mechanism may be related with the regulating effects of oridonin on EMT and MMPs.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1069-1076, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779696

ABSTRACT

It is investigated that the hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum (PM)was attenuated by its processed products of nine times steaming and nine times sunning(RPM)based on immunological stress-mediated animal model by using metabolomics method. Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats were intragastrically administered with(5.4 g crude drug per kg body weight)of 50% alcohol extracts of PM and its processed products of nine times steaming and nine times sunning respectively or co-treated with non-toxic dose of lipopolysaccharide(LPS, 2.8 mg·kg-1)via tail vein injection. The plasma alanine aminotransferase(ALT)and aspartate aminotransferase(AST)activities were assayed and the isolated livers were evaluated for histopathological changes. Global metabolomics profiling, multivariate analysis and data base searching were performed to discover common differential metabolites for idiosyncratic liver injury. The results showed that co-treatment with non-toxic dose of LPS and PM could result in significant liver injury, indicated by the elevation of plasma ALT and AST activities, as well as obvious liver histologic damage; whereas RPM failed to induce detectable liver injury. Furthermore, 10 potential metabolomics biomarkers that differentially expressed in LPS/PM group compared with LPS/RPM without liver injury were identified by untargeted metabolomics, mainly involved ten pathways: sphingolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, galactose metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, pyrimidine metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, primary bile acid biosynthesis. This work illustrated the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of heshouwu and provided a metabolomic insight into diosyncratic liver injury of PM and RPM.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1063-1068, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779695

ABSTRACT

By using the drug metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, the effects of metabolic factors on potential liver injury induced by the main component, trans-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside(trans-SG), in Polygonum multiflorum was investigated. The main metabolic enzyme isoforms involved in trans-SG metabolism were also screened. The results showed that trans-SG at the dosage 31 mg·kg-1 did not cause liver injury; and the combination of trans-SG with the phase I metabolic enzyme inhibitor, 1-benzylimidazole (10 mg·kg-1), did not change the degree of liver injury(compared with LPS + trans-SG group, P > 0.05). However, the combination of trans-SG with phase II metabolic enzyme inhibitor, ketoconazole(35 mg·kg-1), significantly increased the degree of liver injury(compared with LPS + trans-SG group, P < 0.05). The phase I metabolites of trans-SG were not detected in human liver microsomes phase I metabolism system, while the phase II trans-SG metabolites were detected in recombinant human UGT isozymes phase II metabolism system. Six isoforms of uridine diphosphate glucuronate transferase(UGT)exhibited abilities to metabolize trans-SG and the order of metabolic ability was: UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 > UGT1A7 > UGT1A10 > UGT2B7 > UGT1A8. The results showed that trans-SG was mainly metabolized by UGT in phase II metabolism. The inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes of phase II can increase the liver injury susceptibility of trans-SG, which provides a reference to the evaluation of susceptible factors and drug incompatibility research of Polygonum multiflorum.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1055-1062, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779694

ABSTRACT

The drug hepatotoxicity assessment method in vitro was established by 3D organoid model of HepaRG cell line in combination with high content imaging analysis. HepaRG cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like morphology and bile canaliculus-like structures by treatment with hydrocortisone and dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), inducing the expressions of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, nuclear receptors and hepatocyte-specific protein albumin(ALB)genes, finally forming the stable organoids with closely resembling liver function in vitro. Through the high content imaging analysis and the specific, multi-targets fluorescent dye, the number of live/dead cells, mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP), intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS)were analyzed for the drug hepatotoxicity evaluation. The results showed that the organoids evaluation model of HepaRG cells in vitro could be used to assess accurately the difference between hepatotoxicity positive control drugs of amiodarone(AMD), cyclosporin(CSP)and the negative control drug of aspirin(ASP): AMD and CSP concentration-dependently decreased the number of total and live organoid cells. The number of dead organoid cells was increased sharply when the concentration of AMD was more than 50 μmol·L-1, while no significant changes was observed for ASP. AMD and CSP concentration-dependently caused the MMP declined and the ROS increased, with AMD showing a greater degree than CSP and ASP presenting no markedly effect. In conclusion, the organoid evaluation method of HepaRG cells in combination with high content imaging analysis can be used for the drug hepatotoxicity assessment in vitro. It displays the advantages of multi-target, high throughput, intuitive results as well as quantitatively.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1048-1054, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779693

ABSTRACT

In this study, the three dimensional(3D)organoid culture system was established by liquid overlay method, and applied as an effective model to evaluate the hepatic injury of susceptible compounds in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Compared with the ordinary two dimensional(2D)culture of liver cells, the albumin expression of L02 cells and HepG2 cells were increased by 2.5 and 6.7 times in the 3D organoid culture system, respectively. After the cultivation of 21 days, urea generation levels of 3D culture were increased by 8.3 and 15.5 times. More importantly, HepG2 cells were more suitable to development of organoids than L02 cells. The gene expressions of phase I and II drug metabolism enzymes of HepG2 cells cultured as 3D organoids were significantly increased than that in 2D culture, such as the fold changes of CYP2C9 was up to 381.9, CYP3A4 to 87.0, CYP2D6 to 312.6. In addition, drug transporter relative genes were also up-regulated. The results demonstrated that the liver synthesis and metabolic function of the 3D model were better than that of the 2D cultured hepatocytes. The results of hepatotoxicity evaluation showed this developed model can be used to assess the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen and other positive control drugs, which were considered with defined hepatotoxicity. On the 3D culture model, the IC50 value of repeated drug dose administration was significantly lower than that of single dose administration. However, the IC50 of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-cis-stilbene-2-O-β-glucoside(cis-SG), which is the susceptible compound in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., could not be detected in 2D cultured model. With the treatment of a single dose administration in organ 3D culture model, the IC50 of cis-SG was 1.9 times than that of cyclosporine A, and the IC50 of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene-2-O-β-glucoside(trans-SG)was 4.1 times than cis-SG. The hepatotoxicity results of cis-SG and trans-SG on the 3D cultures were similar to in vivo toxicity results obtained in previous work. On organ 3D culture model, the IC50 of cis-SG with repeat of administration decreased compared with that with single dose administration, suggesting that long-term medication may increase the risk of liver injury. In summary, the 3D organoid culture system can be used for a long period to preserve the capacity of liver synthesis and metabolism. The organoids were a model suitable for evaluation of mechanism of the drugs with low toxicity.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1041-1047, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779692

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the correlation between idiosyncratic liver injury and content of cis-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside(cis-SG)in radix Polygoni multiflori Preparata(RPMP). In order to compare the effect of hepatotoxicity of different cis-SG contents in RPMP, rats were administered with 50% alcohol extracts of RPMP(7.56 g·kg-1, via intragastric administration)alone or co-treated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS, 2.8 mg·kg-1, via tail vein injection). The results showed that no significant alterations of plasma ALT and AST activities were observed in the normal rats. In the LPS treated rats, the group without light treatment and the group with 0.10% cis-SG after light treatment did not exhibit obvious injury in liver. The group with 0.35% cis-SG after light treatment and the group with 0.70% cis-SG after light treatment showed significant increases in ALT, AST, TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB p65 and apoptosis rate(P < 0.05), causing pathological changes in the liver tissue. Through the content analysis of drug in patients with liver injury, we found that the content of cis-SG(> 0.40%)was generally higher than that of pieces collected from different origins(< 0.10%). The comparative analysis of experiments and clinical data showed that there was a relationship between the content of cis-SG and idiosyncratic liver injury. In order to reduce the risk of clinical medication, the content of cis-SG of 0.10% should be a limit of quality control in the production processing of Polygonum multiflorum.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1033-1040, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779691

ABSTRACT

On basis of the idiosyncratic lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-mediated hepatotoxicity model, liver injury induced by Zhuangguguanjie wan(ZGW)was evaluated, and the mechanism was explored. Idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity model was established in rats by injecting LPS at a dosage of 2.8 mg·kg-1. Rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, LPS group, ZGW group and LPS+ZGW group. Alanine aminotransferase(ALT)and aspartate aminotransferase(AST)activities were analyzed in serum; pathological changes(HE staining)and the content of cytokines of liver were tested; and immune cell subpopulation ration were determined in blood and liver. Compared with the control group, the ZGW group and LPS group had no significant changes in ALT, AST and liver pathology(P> 0.05); while the ZGW+LPS group exhibited an elevation in ALT and AST(P< 0.05). Disorder of liver lobular arrangement and irregular island-like or massive necrosis of liver cells were observed in the group. Several cytokines in the liver were increased in LPS group and ZGW+LPS group(P< 0.05 or P< 0.01), and the level in ZGW+LPS group was higher than that of LPS group. Compared with the control group, the ratio of CD3+ T cell/lymphocyte of blood in LPS group was significantly decreased(P< 0.01); while the percentage of CD3+ T cells in the liver were significantly increased(P< 0.05). The contents of immune cells of blood had no significant changes between LPS group and ZGW+LPS group(P> 0.05). CD3+ T cell in the liver of ZGW+LPS group was significantly increased over the LPS group(P< 0.05). Aggregation or activity of CD3+ T cell was increased by ZGW combined with LPS. These results suggest that ZGW could promote T lymphocyte recruitment to liver under the immune activation state leading to inflammatory response, which may contribute to idiosyncratic liver injury.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350128

ABSTRACT

To explore the active substance of antiplatelet aggregation of Polygoni Multiflori Radix by using chemical fingerprints and antiplatelet aggregation bioactivity test for spectrum-effect correlation analysis. The Polygoni Multiflori Radix was tested by antiplatelet aggregation in vitro, and the results showed that 50% aqueous ethanol extract of Polygoni Multiflori Radix had more potent antiplatelet aggregation effect than 10% or 90% aqueous ethanol extract, and ultrasonic extraction was superior to refluxing extraction in the aspect of antiplatelet aggregation. The antiplatelet aggregation bioactivity of the different Polygoni Multiflori Radix extracts was evaluated and the results showed that the inhibition rate was 32.03%-74.56%. Spectrum-effect correlation analysis indicated that trans-stilbene glucoside, cis-stilbene glucoside and catechinic acid had higher correlation coefficient and they were 0.963 (P<0.01), 0.902 (P<0.01) and 0.656 (P<0.05) respectively; furthermore, all of the above three compounds demonstrated significant antiplatelet aggregation bioactivities. Considering their content difference in Polygoni Multiflori Radix, we calculated the relative active contributions, and the results suggested that trans-stilbene glucoside was the main active substance of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the aspect of antiplatelet aggregation in vitro.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 116-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779144

ABSTRACT

Decoction is one of the most commonly used dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. The stability of chemical constituents in decoction is closely related to the clinical efficacy and safety. There were few reports about the influence of metal ions in the stability of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no evidence that metal ions in decoction water need to be controlled. In this study, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), one of the main constituents in Polygoni Multiflori Radix was studied. Ordinary tap water, deionized water, and water containing different metal ions were used to investigate and compare the influence on THSG . The results showed that after storage in a dark place at the room temperature for 10 days, the degradation of THSG was 7% in deionized water, while undetectable in tap water. The content of THSG could be decreased by different kinds of metal ions, and the effect was concentration- dependent. Moreover, Fe3+ and Fe2+ showed the greatest influence at the same concentration; and our study has shown that THSG decreased more than 98% in Fe3+ and Fe2+ solutions at 500 ppm concentration. In the same time we found out p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (molecular weight: 122.036 7) and 2,3,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde-2- O-glycoside (molecular weight: 316.079 4) were the main degradation products of THSG in tap water and water containing Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+. The product of THSG dimer with a water molecule was found in water containing Fe3+ and Fe2+. The above results showed that the metal ions in water could significantly influence the stability of THSG in water, indicating that the clinical efficacy and safety of decoction would be affected if the metal ions in water were not under control. It's suggested that deionized water should be used in the preparation of decoction containing Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the clinic to avoid degradation of THSG. Meanwhile, decoction prepared by tap water should be taken by patients in a short time. Our investigation provides important information and reference about the influence of metal ions on the stability of decoctions in other traditional Chinese medicine that have unstable groups such as hydroxyls and unsaturated bonds, etc.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 116-121, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320007

ABSTRACT

Decoction is one of the most commonly used dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. The stability of chemical constituents in decoction is closely related to the clinical efficacy and safety. There were few reports about the influence of metal ions in the stability of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no evidence that metal ions in decoction water need to be controlled. In this study, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), one of the main constituents in Polygoni Multiflori Radix was studied. Ordinary tap water, deionized water, and water containing different metal ions were used to investigate and compare the influence on THSG. The results showed that after storage in a dark place at the room temperature for 10 days, the degradation of THSG was 7% in deionized water, while undetectable in tap water. The content of THSG could be decreased by different kinds of metal ions, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Moreover, Fe3+ and Fe2+ showed the greatest influence at the same concentration; and our study has shown that THSG decreased more than 98% in Fe and Fe2+ solutions at 500 ppm concentration. In the same time we found out p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (molecular weight: 122.036 7) and 2,3,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde-2-O-glycoside (molecular weight: 316.079 4) were the main degradation products of THSG in tap water and water containing Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+. The product of THSG dimer with a water molecule was found in water containing Fe3+ and Fe2+. The above results showed that the metal ions in water could significantly influence the stability of THSG in water, indicating that the clinical efficacy and safety of decoction would be affected if the metal ions in water were not under control. It's suggested that deionized water should be used in the preparation of decoction containing Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the clinic to avoid degradation of THSG. Meanwhile, decoction prepared by tap water should be taken by patients in a short time. Our investigation provides important information and reference about the influence of metal ions on the stability of decoctions in other traditional Chinese medicine that have unstable groups such as hydroxyls and unsaturated bonds, etc.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glucosides , Chemistry , Ions , Chemistry , Metals , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Stilbenes , Chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230040

ABSTRACT

According to different toxicities of various aqueous extracts of Polygonum multiflorum on hepatocyte, the impacts of chemical composition on the safety of P. multiforum was studied. In this study, 8 main chemical compositions in aqueous extracts of P. multiflorum were determined by the established HPLC method; at the same time, the inhibition ratios of different aqueous extracts of P. multiflorum on L02 cell were determined. Afterwards, the potential compounds related to the toxicity of P. multiforum were tentatively found through a multiple correlation analysis. The results showed that P. multiforum with different chemical compositions exhibited great differences in dissolution. The hepatocyte toxicity of P. multiflorum powder was much greater than P. multiflorum lumps. In addition, three constituents closely related to toxicity of P. multiflorum were found by multiple correlation analysis. The study revealed that chemical composition of P. multiflorum is closely related to the hepatotoxicity, and the hepatotoxicity of P. multiflorum powder is greater than that of other dosage forms. This study indicates that P. multiflorum with different chemical compositions show varying toxicity, which therefore shall be given high attention.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307082

ABSTRACT

Aconiti Lateralis Radix (Fuzi) is a toxic traditional Chinese medicine with definite efficacy. In order to improve the quality control of its different prepared products and ensure the security in clinic, it is significant to establish a method of quality evaluation related to clinic adverse effects. Aiming at the important biological marker of early cardiac toxicity reaction, there was no method to detect it. In this manuscript, a novel approach for measuring the minimal toxic dose (MTD) of premature ventricular contractions (PVC) poisoning of rats was established. Then, the determination methodology and conditions were optimized to meet the needs of the quality and biological assessment, including animal sex, weight, stability of standards and test solutions. Using this method, the MTD value of different Fuzi products were determined, such as Heishunpian, Baifupian, Zhengfupian, Baofupian, and Paotianxiong. The results showed that the MTD of Fuzi was significantly decreased after detoxification processed (P<0.05) and the MTD of Heishunpian, Zhengfupian, Baofupian and Baifupian was as much as 15.76, 22.36, 19.65 and 20.97 times to that of unprocessed Shengfuzi. In addition, Paotianxiong could not induce PVC in rats, which indicated that Paotianxiong was nontoxic and safe.This method could appropriately reflects the cardiotoxity of Fuzi and its prepared samples. Together with the chemical composition analysis, the contents of diester alkaloids were explored including aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine as well as monoester alkaloids in Fuzi and its prepared products were significantly associated with PVC. Furthermore, there may be some components undetermined facilitating arrhythmia to be worth exploring. This research provides an overall and comprehensive approach to diagnose early clinical cardiotoxity and control the quality of Fuzi, which could not only be a complementary solution for the chemical evaluation, but a new method to ensure its efficacy and security of clinical application.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330182

ABSTRACT

To investigate the difference of liver injury in rats gavaged with crude and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix. The 75% ethanol extract of crude and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (50 g · kg(-1) crude medicine weight/body weight) were continuous oral administered to rats for 6 weeks. Serum biochemical indicators were dynamically detected, the change of liver histopathology was assessed 6 weeks later. Principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to screen sensitive indicator of the liver damage induced by polygoni multiflori radix. Biochemical tests showed that the crude Polygoni Multiflori Radix group had significant increase of serum ALT, AST, ALP, DBIL and TBIL (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and significant decreases of serum IBIL and TBA (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while the processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix group showed no obvious changes, compared to the untreated normal group. Histopathologic analysis revealed that crude Polygoni Multiflori Radix group exhibited significant inflammatory cells infiltration in portal area around the blood vessels, tissue destruction and local necrosis of liver cells. There were not obvious pathological changes in processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix group. The results demonstrated that the injury effect of processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix on liver injury of rats was significantly lower than that of unprocessed, and that processing can effectively reduce the hepatotoxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Traditional transaminase liver function indicators were not sensitive for crude Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver damage. The serum content of DBIL and TBIL can reflect the liver damage induced by crude Polygoni Multiflori Radix early and can be sensitive indicators for clinical monitoring the usage of it.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Female , Liver , Wounds and Injuries , Male , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Toxicity , Polygonum , Chemistry , Toxicity , Rats
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