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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e115-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967390

ABSTRACT

Gastritis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the gastric mucosa. It is very common and has various classification systems such as the updated Sydney system. As there is a lot of evidence that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of gastric cancer and that gastric cancer can be prevented by eradication, H. pylori gastritis has been emphasized recently. The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korea is the highest in the world, and due to the spread of screening endoscopy, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are commonly diagnosed in the general population. However, there have been no clinical guidelines developed in Korea for these lesions. Therefore, this clinical guideline has been developed by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research for important topics that are frequently encountered in clinical situations related to gastritis. Evidence-based guidelines were developed through systematic review and de novo processes, and eight recommendations were made for eight key questions. This guideline needs to be periodically revised according to the needs of clinical practice or as important evidence about this issue is published in the future.

2.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 3-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967162

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea and the world. Since 2004, this is the 4th gastric cancer guideline published in Korea which is the revised version of previous evidence-based approach in 2018. Current guideline is a collaborative work of the interdisciplinary working group including experts in the field of gastric surgery, gastroenterology, endoscopy, medical oncology, abdominal radiology, pathology, nuclear medicine, radiation oncology and guideline development methodology. Total of 33 key questions were updated or proposed after a collaborative review by the working group and 40 statements were developed according to the systematic review using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and KoreaMed database. The level of evidence and the grading of recommendations were categorized according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation proposition. Evidence level, benefit, harm, and clinical applicability was considered as the significant factors for recommendation. The working group reviewed recommendations and discussed for consensus. In the earlier part, general consideration discusses screening, diagnosis and staging of endoscopy, pathology, radiology, and nuclear medicine. Flowchart is depicted with statements which is supported by meta-analysis and references. Since clinical trial and systematic review was not suitable for postoperative oncologic and nutritional follow-up, working group agreed to conduct a nationwide survey investigating the clinical practice of all tertiary or general hospitals in Korea. The purpose of this survey was to provide baseline information on follow up. Herein we present a multidisciplinary-evidence based gastric cancer guideline.

3.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 5-14, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915761

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Long-term maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly used to prevent relapse of reflux symptoms; however, due to concerns about safety of long-term proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use, on-demand therapy is recommended as a longterm treatment modality. We compared the efficacy of on-demand and continuous PPI therapy for maintenance treatment of patients with GERD using meta-analysis. @*Methods@#Core electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing on-demand and continuous therapy in GERD patients. The primary outcome was treatment failure of maintenance therapy, and the secondary outcomes included symptomatic relief, patient satisfaction, and amount of PPI use. @*Results@#Overall, 11 studies were selected in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with continuous PPI therapy, on-demand therapy showed similar outcomes for treatment failure (risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-2.07), particularly in the non-erosive esophageal reflux disease and mild erosive reflux disease group (risk ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.39-5.63). In studies including severe esophagitis patients, continuous PPI maintenance treatment was more effective (β, 0.127 [95% CI, 0.066-0.188]; P < 0.001). Severity of esophagitis was associated with higher efficacies of continuous maintenance therapy. The amount of daily PPI use was about half in the on-demand group compared to the continuous group (risk difference −0.52; 95% CI, −0.62-−0.42). @*Conclusions@#On-demand PPI therapy shows comparable efficacy to the continuous maintenance treatment in the non-erosive esophageal reflux disease and mild erosive reflux disease group, and can remarkably reduce the amount of PPI use. Therefore, on-demand therapy may be preferentially recommended in the maintenance treatment of GERD unaccompanied by severe esophagitis.

4.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 111-120, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915750

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential for clinical decision making, conduction of clinical research, and drug application acquisition in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study is to develop a PRO instrument and to determine the respondents’ perception of the efficacy of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#A self-evaluation questionnaire for dyspepsia (SEQ-DYSPEPSIA) was developed and validated through a structured process. The 2-week reproducibility was evaluated, and the construct validity was assessed by correlating the scores of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA (including typical and major FD symptom subscales). Finally, the response to medication was assessed by comparing the changes after 4 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#A total of 193 Korean patients (age 48.5 ± 13.6 years, 69.4% women) completed the questionnaire. SEQ-DYSPEPSIA with 11 items had a good internal consistency (alpha = 0.770-0.905) and an acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.733-0.859). The self-evaluation questionnaire (SEQ)-major FD score highly correlated with the postprandial fullness/early satiety domain of the Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (correlation coefficient r = 0.741, P < 0.001), Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K) (r = 0.839, P < 0.001), and NDI-K quality of life (r = −0.275 to −0.344, P < 0.001). After medical treatment, decrease in the SEQ-typical FD and SEQ-major FD was significantly greater in the responder group than in nonresponder group (P= 0.019 and P = 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Korean version of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA has good reliability and validity, and can be a useful PRO measurement tool in patients with FD.

5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 70-92, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938666

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis. Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

6.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 409-417, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938112

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Post-operative weight loss in patients with gastric cancer lead to a poor quality of life and long-term survival. This study aims to evaluate the effects of gut regulatory hormones on post-operative weight loss in patients with subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#This prospective study was conducted for 12 months post-surgery in 14 controls and 13 gastrectomy patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Serum plasma ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory peptide-1, peptide YY, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance responses to a standardized test meal were recorded at multiple time points before and after gastrectomy at 4 and 12 months. @*Results@#The mean weight difference between the pre-operative state and the 4-month period was significantly reduced to 6.6 kg (P = 0.032), but significant weight reduction was not observed from 4 months to 12 months. The plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory peptide-1, and peptide YY were significantly increased 4 months postoperatively compared to the pre-operative state (all P= 0.035); however, pre-operative levels and relative changes over a period of 0-4 months of hormones were not correlated with body weight changes. Only the pre-operative ghrelin at peak had a negative correlation with changes in weight reduction in the 4 months after surgery (P = −0.8, P = 0.024). @*Conclusions@#Significant weight reduction was common after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer with a negative correlation pre-operative plasma ghrelin levels. Incretin hormones are modestly but significantly increased after subtotal gastrectomy; however, these changes did not affect the weight changes.

7.
Intestinal Research ; : 192-202, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925123

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is prevalent in East Asia. However, information on CAM in East Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is scarce. We aimed to profile the prevalence and pattern of CAM use among East Asian IBD patients and to identify factors associated with CAM use. We also compared physicians’ perspectives on CAM. @*Methods@#Patients with IBD from China, Japan, and South Korea were invited to complete questionnaires on CAM use. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected. Logistic regression analysis was applied for predictors of CAM use. Physicians from each country were asked about their opinion on CAM services or products. @*Results@#Overall, 905 patients with IBD participated in this study (China 232, Japan 255, and South Korea 418). Approximately 8.6% of patients with IBD used CAM services for their disease, while 29.7% of patients sought at least 1 kind of CAM product. Current active disease and Chinese or South Korean nationality over Japanese were independent predictors of CAM use. Chinese doctors were more likely to consider CAM helpful for patients with IBD than were Japanese and South Korean doctors. @*Conclusions@#In 8.6% and 29.7% of East Asian patients with IBD used CAM services and products, respectively, which does not differ from the prevalence in their Western counterparts. There is a significant gap regarding CAM usage among different Asian countries, not only from the patients’ perspective but also from the physicians’ point of view.

8.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902239

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

9.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

10.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 235-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903647

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage is both rare and potentially fatal. The incidence of gastroepiploic artery rupture, especially a non-aneurysmal rupture, is extremely low. We report the case of an elderly woman who was mistakenly diagnosed with procedure-related bleeding after gastroscopy. A 0.3 cm polyp was identified and removed during the procedure. The patient later developed shock due to which gastroscopy was repeated; however, no unusual findings were observed. Therefore, abdominopelvic computerized tomography was performed and gastroepiploic artery rupture was detected. Transcatheter arterial embolization was immediately performed without laparotomy, without any complications. The bleeding was controlled, and the patient was discharged after embolization. It is important to acknowledge the possibility of spontaneous rupture of the visceral arteries in elderly individuals with hypertension or atherosclerosis, especially in the event of sudden abdominal pain or shock immediately after an endoscopic procedure. This is the first case report of idiopathic spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery successfully managed by transcatheter arterial embolization in South Korea.

11.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 294-299, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903584

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is a highly fatal condition characterized by widespread thromboembolism subsequent to a triggering factor (e.g., infection, trauma, and neoplasia) in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients. This paper reports a case of a 29-year-old male without the underlying disease who developed extensive mesenteric thromboembolism and jejunal necrosis during the treatment for acute enteritis. The patient’s condition was improved with low-molecular-weight heparin and an intravenous Ig treatment with emergency surgery. The serum antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin IgM) and lupus anticoagulant antibody tests showed positive results. Acute infectious enterocolitis is generally considered a mild disease. On the other hand, aggressive evaluation and treatment should be considered if the clinical conditions do not improve and deteriorate rapidly despite appropriate antibiotic treatment because of the possibility of acute immunological complications, such as catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

13.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 235-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895943

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage is both rare and potentially fatal. The incidence of gastroepiploic artery rupture, especially a non-aneurysmal rupture, is extremely low. We report the case of an elderly woman who was mistakenly diagnosed with procedure-related bleeding after gastroscopy. A 0.3 cm polyp was identified and removed during the procedure. The patient later developed shock due to which gastroscopy was repeated; however, no unusual findings were observed. Therefore, abdominopelvic computerized tomography was performed and gastroepiploic artery rupture was detected. Transcatheter arterial embolization was immediately performed without laparotomy, without any complications. The bleeding was controlled, and the patient was discharged after embolization. It is important to acknowledge the possibility of spontaneous rupture of the visceral arteries in elderly individuals with hypertension or atherosclerosis, especially in the event of sudden abdominal pain or shock immediately after an endoscopic procedure. This is the first case report of idiopathic spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery successfully managed by transcatheter arterial embolization in South Korea.

14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 294-299, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895880

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is a highly fatal condition characterized by widespread thromboembolism subsequent to a triggering factor (e.g., infection, trauma, and neoplasia) in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients. This paper reports a case of a 29-year-old male without the underlying disease who developed extensive mesenteric thromboembolism and jejunal necrosis during the treatment for acute enteritis. The patient’s condition was improved with low-molecular-weight heparin and an intravenous Ig treatment with emergency surgery. The serum antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin IgM) and lupus anticoagulant antibody tests showed positive results. Acute infectious enterocolitis is generally considered a mild disease. On the other hand, aggressive evaluation and treatment should be considered if the clinical conditions do not improve and deteriorate rapidly despite appropriate antibiotic treatment because of the possibility of acute immunological complications, such as catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894535

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

16.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 207-211, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834048

ABSTRACT

Collision tumors are extremely rare, and currently, no therapeutic protocols are established. A 64-year-old man presented to his physician with complaints of right chest and abdominal pain. The contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a mass measuring 3.6 cm around the gastric fundus. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and a semicircular longitudinal ulcerative mass was found at the distal esophagus. A mass measuring about 4 cm with central ulceration was noted at the cardia. The esophageal biopsy revealed positivity for a component of neuroendocrine carcinoma adjacent to a squamous cell carcinoma. PET-CT revealed a mass in the esophagus and cardia and several tumors in the whole liver, pancreas, and bone. The patient was finally diagnosed with a collision tumor of the esophagus with multiple metastases. In conclusion, patients with collision tumors must undergo active multidisciplinary management that will include pathologists and oncologists, who will decide on proper treatment strategies.

19.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 29-50, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833852

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause. It is highly prevalent in the World population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogenous nature of its pathogenesis. Therefore, FD represents a heavy medical burden for healthcare systems. We constituted a guideline development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of functional dyspepsia. This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, H. pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e158-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might play an important role in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) and symptomatic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for RE and symptomatic GERD and determine whether gender specific differences exist. METHODS: This study was conducted on a health cohort consisting of 10,158 participants who underwent comprehensive health screening. Lifestyles and gastrointestinal symptoms were investigated using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Questionnaires about menstrual status were added for the women. RESULTS: The prevalence of RE in men was significantly higher than that in women (10.6% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.001); however, symptomatic GERD showed predominance in women (6.2% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001). Although the prevalence of RE gradually increased with the duration of menopause stratified by decade (P = 0.007), that of symptomatic GERD rapidly increased across the menopausal transit in women. Apart from common risk factors of obesity and current smoking for RE, over 70 years of age in women and hiatal hernia and hypertriglyceridemia in men were significant risk factors. In symptomatic GERD, high somatization was a common risk factor. Excessive alcohol drinking was a significant risk factor in men, but not in women. CONCLUSION: This study showed a predominance of RE in men, but a predominance of symptomatic GERD in women. In women, dynamic increase in the prevalence of GERD is closely related to the menopause conditions and its duration. There are specific risk factors for RE and symptomatic GERD according to gender differences.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking , Cohort Studies , Esophagitis, Peptic , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Hernia, Hiatal , Hypertriglyceridemia , Life Style , Mass Screening , Menopause , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
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