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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 488-504, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881149


Medulloblastoma (MB) is a common yet highly heterogeneous childhood malignant brain tumor, however, clinically effective molecular targeted therapy is lacking. Modulation of hedgehog (HH) signaling by epigenetically targeting the transcriptional factors GLI through bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) has recently spurred new interest as potential treatment of HH-driven MB. Through screening of current clinical BRD4 inhibitors for their inhibitory potency against glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI) protein, the BRD4 inhibitor

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2272-2298, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881111


Multiple cancer immunotherapies including chimeric antigen receptor T cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been successfully developed to treat various cancers by motivating the adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Particularly, the checkpoint blockade approach has achieved great clinic success as evidenced by several U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anti-programmed death receptor 1/ligand 1 or anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 antibodies. However, the majority of cancers have low clinical response rates to these ICIs due to poor tumor immunogenicity. Indeed, the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase‒stimulator of interferon genes‒TANK-binding kinase 1 (cGAS‒STING‒TBK1) axis is now appreciated as the major signaling pathway in innate immune response across different species. Aberrant signaling of this pathway has been closely linked to multiple diseases, including auto-inflammation, virus infection and cancers. In this perspective, we provide an updated review on the latest progress on the development of small molecule modulators targeting the cGAS‒STING‒TBK1 signaling pathway and their preclinical and clinical use as a new immune stimulatory therapy. Meanwhile, highlights on the clinical candidates, limitations and challenges, as well as future directions in this field are also discussed. Further, small molecule inhibitors targeting this signaling axis and their potential therapeutic use for various indications are discussed as well.