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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 807-811, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.


Resumo As infecções por nematódeos gastrintestinais (ING) constituem a maior limitação à produção de pequenos ruminantes. Na busca do controle desses parasitos, estudos com plantas medicinais têm sido uma importante alternativa. Visto isto, o estudo desenvolvido teve como objetivo avaliar a ação ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis. O óleo foi extraído, analisado por cromatografia gasosa e testado sobre ovos e larvas de ING em seis concentrações, 227,5mg/mL; 113,7mg/mL; 56,8mg/mL; 28,4mg/mL; 14,2mg/mL; 7,1mg/mL. Para determinar a ação ovicida, ovos de ING foram recuperados de fezes de ovinos e incubados por 48h com as diferentes concentrações do óleo. Na avaliação da migração das larvas, as larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram obtidas por coprocultura, e associadas ao óleo essencial por 24h nas mesmas concentrações, permanecendo por mais 24h em microtamises, seguindo-se a contagem de larvas que migraram e que não migraram. Os testes in vitro com o óleo de R. officinalis mostraram o nível de significância (p<0.05) 97,4% a 100% na inibição da eclodibilidade e 20% a 74% na inibição da migração das larvas. Na análise por cromatografia gasosa o constituinte majoritário foi o eucaliptol. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o óleo essencial de R. officinalis possui ação ovicida e larvicida sobre ING de ovinos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nematoda/isolation & purification
2.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2019 Sep; 57(9): 721-732
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191514

ABSTRACT

Among the biological properties of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. (rosemary), the infusions and ethanolic extracts are popularly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. However, the effects of these extracts on the gastric motility are unknown. Here, we evaluated influence of the rosemary extracts on gastric motility and its chemical composition. Forty-eight female Wistar rats with food restriction for 12 h were made into eight experimental groups (n=6, each) and given oral treatments (1 mL) of ethanolic and aqueous extracts at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, and distilled water (control) and metoclopramide (2 mg/kg, intramuscular). After one hour, five metal spheres (1 mm) were administered with barium contrast. A series of radiographs were taken every hour for six hours. Significant differences were shown in the gastric emptying of the metal spheres within three hours among the extracts and the control groups. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both extracts presented kaempferol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid as major compounds, which would influence in the higher time for emptying. This study showed that the rosemary extracts increased the gastric emptying time in healthy rats, suppressing the gastric motility, and may be useful in treating digestive disorders, like diarrhea.

3.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(2): 132007, 26 jul. 2018. mapas, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912905

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, a significant percentage of the population lives without basic sanitation, experiencing so-called social vulnerability. The fact that these people share the environment with animals promotes the establishment of zoonotic parasitic infections, as well as the resultant parasitic cycles. Thus, parasites present in the environment must be identified, so that control measures can be recommended. In this context, this study's objective was to evaluate environmental contamination by parasitic forms in a socially vulnerable community in southern Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 100 soil samples collected from the community were processed by a sodium dichromate centrifuge-flotation technique and analyzed by a compound microscope (40X objective) for the identification of parasite eggs, oocysts and cysts. All points were positive for two or more parasites, with the identification of 33.59% non-identified coccidian oocysts, Strongylida (25.4%), Ascaridida (21.31%), Trichuris spp. (8.19%), Toxocara spp. (3.27%), Amoebas (4.08%), Dioctophyma renale (2.45%), and Giardia spp.(1.63%). The presence of parasitic forms in all points analyzed surpasses other studies of environmental contamination carried out in the southern region of Brazil. In addition, the identification of several parasitic forms with zoonotic potential is concerning, since it shows the possibility of parasitic transmission to humans and other animals. In view of the results, the conclusion is that the environment analyzed is contaminated by parasitic forms, constituting a serious public health problem. Therefore, implementing educational and preventive measures in the community to control parasites is of crucial importance.(AU)


No Brasil, uma parcela significativa da população não possui saneamento básico e vive em situação de vulnerabilidade social, compartilhando o ambiente com animais, possibilitando o estabelecimento de infecções parasitárias zoonóticas e a manutenção do ciclo dos parasitos. Assim, para que medidas de controle sejam preconizadas, torna-se necessário a identificação dos parasitos presentes no ambiente. Neste contexto, este trabalho avaliou a contaminação ambiental por formas parasitárias em comunidade de vulnerabilidade social no sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas cem amostras de solo da comunidade, que foram processadas pela técnica de centrifugo-flutuação em solução de dicromato de sódio e analisadas em microscópio composto (objetiva 40X) para a identificação dos ovos, oocistos e cistos de parasitos. Todos os pontos de coleta foram positivos para dois ou mais parasitos, sendo diagnosticados oocistos de coccídios não-identificados (33,59%), Strongylida (25,4%), Ascaridida (21,31%), Trichuris spp. (8,19%), Toxocara spp. (3,27%), Amebas (4,08%), Dioctophyma renale (2,45%), Giardia spp. (1,63%). A quantidade de formas parasitárias em todos os pontos analisados supera a contida em outros estudos de contaminação ambiental já realizados na região sul do Brasil. Além disso, a identificação de diversas formas parasitárias com potencial zoonótico é preocupante, pois evidencia a possibilidade de transmissão de parasitoses ao homem e a outros animais. Diante dos resultados, conclui-se que o ambiente em questão está contaminado por formas parasitárias, constituindo um sério problema de saúde pública. Ressalta-se a importância da implantação de medidas educativas e preventivas com a comunidade para o controle dos parasitos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Social Vulnerability , Soil/parasitology , Zoonoses/etiology , Basic Sanitation , Brazil/epidemiology
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17858, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001585

ABSTRACT

From drug repurposing studies, this work aimed to evaluate the activity of different pyrazinoic acid (POA) derivatives against Sporothrix brasiliensis. The POA esters were prepared and characterized as previously reported by classical esterification reactions, with good to excellent yields. Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates from cats (n=6) and standard strains of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were used to assess the antifungal activity of the POA derivatives through broth microdilution assay (CLSI M38-A2). Among the tested compounds, molecules 3 and 4 showed fungistatic and fungicidal activities against all Sporothrix spp. strains, and the obtained MIC and MFC values ranged from 2.12 to 4.24 mg/mL and from 1.29 to 5.15 mg/mL, respectively. Compound 2 and 5 were active as in vitro inhibitors of fungal growth, but showed weak fungicidal activity, while molecules 1 and POA itself were inactive. The results suggest the activity of POA derivatives against Sporothrix spp. may be dependent on the lipophilicity. In addition, the antifungal susceptibility of the isolates to itraconazole was performed, showing that two Sporothrix isolates from cats were itraconazole-resistant. Compounds 3 and 4 were also active against these itraconazole-resistant isolates, indicating a possible alternative route to the standard mode of action of itraconazole.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/classification , Prodrugs , Itraconazole/analysis , Antifungal Agents
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 119-121, Jan.-Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic nematode that parasites the kidneys of wild and domestic carnivores, and it has been reported frequently in Brazil. The aim here was to register the number of cases of dogs and cats diagnosed with dioctophymosis by necropsy (1981 to 2014) and ultrasound examination (2010 to 2015) in Pelotas-RS. In this context, a survey was conducted on dioctophymosis cases diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV) and Veterinary Clinical Hospital (HCV) of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), and at a specialist veterinary imaging diagnostics clinic. In total, 95 cases were registered. The high series of the disease in dogs can be related to the presence of a large number of stray and semi-domestic dogs in the city, and also due to the ingestion of intermediate hosts of D. renale parasitized with the infective larvae. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelotas is a city with favorable conditions for the occurrence of dioctophymosis with high rate of disease in recent years.


Resumo Dioctophyme renale é um nematódeo zoonótico que parasita principalmente o rim de carnívoros silvestres e domésticos, e tem sido relatado com frequência no Brasil. Objetivou-se registrar o número de casos de cães e gatos diagnosticados com dioctofimatose por necropsia (1981 a 2014) e exame ultrassonográfico (2010 a 2015) em Pelotas-RS. Nesse contexto, foi realizado um inquérito de casos de dioctofimatose em animais de companhia no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) e no Hospital de Clínicas Veterinária (HCV) da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), e em uma clínica veterinária especializada em diagnóstico por imagem, totalizando 95 casos registrados. A elevada casuística da doença em cães pode estar relacionada à presença de um grande número de cães errantes e semi-domiciliados na cidade, e também devido à ingestão dos hospedeiros intermediários de D. renale parasitados com a larva infectante. Assim, conclui-se que Pelotas é uma cidade propícia para a ocorrência de dioctofimatose, com elevada casuística da doença nos últimos anos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Enoplida Infections/veterinary , Dioctophymatoidea/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Brazil , Enoplida Infections/parasitology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 89-91, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution, although its occurrence is little known. The objective here was to evaluate the presence of parasite eggs in the environment and in the urine of dogs and cats in an urban area. Soil samples and urine were evaluated respectively by means of the Caldwell-Caldwell technique and urinalysis. Out of the 100 soil samples, 3% presented D. renale eggs, and out of the 43 urine samples, 18.6% were positive, including the feline samples. Thus, D. renale eggs are present in the urban environment, and dogs and cats are parasitized by this nematode, which therefore represents a risk to public health.


Resumo Dioctophyme renale é um parasito zoonótico com distribuição cosmopolita, entretanto sua ocorrência é pouco conhecida. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar a presença de ovos do parasito no ambiente e na urina de cães e gatos de zona urbana. As amostras de solo e urina foram avaliadas, respectivamente, pela técnica de Caldwell e Caldwell e por urinálise. Das 100 amostras de solo, 3% apresentaram ovos de D. renale, e das 43 amostras de urina, 18,6% foram positivas, incluindo a de felino. Conclui-se que ovos de D. renale estão presentes no ambiente urbano, assim como os caninos e felinos apresentam-se parasitados, representando um risco para a saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Soil/parasitology , Urine/parasitology , Dioctophymatoidea/isolation & purification , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 896-901, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828210

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 µg/mL and >16 µg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 µg/mL and MFC of 8 µg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sporothrix/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Sporotrichosis/microbiology , Sporothrix/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Zoonoses/microbiology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
8.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 23(3-4): 126-132, jul./dez. 2016. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967412

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar plantas utilizadas como medicinais e aquelas com potencial tóxico localizadas no bairro Simões Lopes, Padre Réus e Porto em Pelotas-RS. Durante um ano foram entrevistados 111 proprietários de animais atendidos no Ambulatório Veterinário-Universidade Federal de Pelotas, com o propósito de avaliar o conhecimento, cultivo, utilização e forma de obtenção das plantas medicinais, faixa etária e o sexo das pessoas, número de animais nas residências e resultados do uso de plantas nos animais. Após investigação inicial, realizaram-se visitas na comunidade com intuito de fotografar e coletar amostras das plantas para identificação botânica. Foram listadas 74 plantas com fins medicinais, principalmente das famílias Asteraceae e Lamiaceae, usadas em minoria nos animais. As principais indicações de uso foram para o sistema digestório e tegumentar, seguido do musculoesquelético e respiratório, sob forma de infusão e decocto. Grande parte dos entrevistados desconhecia os efeitos adversos do uso inadequado de plantas medicinais, e espécies diferentes eram conhecidas com o mesmo nome popular, podendo resultar em toxicidade, dosagens errôneas e ações desconhecidas. Em relação ao cultivo e utilização das plantas medicinais, predominava em pessoas com idade média de 41,2 anos, que obtiveram o conhecimento principalmente de pais e avós. As plantas com potencial tóxico encontradas pertenciam às famílias Araceae, Euphorbiaceae e Araliaceae, totalizando 20 espécies; porém, apenas seis foram citadas como tóxicas pelos entrevistados. Assim, observou-se a existência e uso de muitas plantas medicinais, além da presença de espécies potencialmente tóxicas na região, sendo imprescindível ressaltar, com embasamento científico, possíveis benefícios e riscos da administração em animais.


The aim of this study was to identify plants used in traditional medicine, as well as those with toxic potential in the neighborhoods of Simões Lopes, Padre Réus and Porto in the city of Pelotas. For a year there were interviewed 111 owners of animals treated at the Veterinary Clinic-Universidade Federal de Pelotas, in order to assess the knowledge, cultivation, use and form of obtaining medicinal plants, age and sex of people, number of animals and results of the use of plants in the animals. After initial investigation, visits were held in the community aiming to shoot and collect samples of plants for botanical identification. They were listed 74 plants for medicinal purposes, mainly from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families, minimally used in animals. The main indications of use were for digestive and integumentary system, followed by musculoskeletal and respiratory, by infusion and decoction. Most of the interviewers were unaware of the adverse effects of inappropriate use of medicinal plants, and different species were known with the same common name, so they could result in toxicity, wrong dosages and unknown actions. There was a predominance of cultivation and use of medicinal plants in people with an average age of 41.2 years who obtained knowledge mainly from parents and grandparents. The toxic potential plants found were from Araceae, Euphorbiaceae and Araliaceae families, in a total of 20 species, but only six were cited as toxic by the interviewees. There was noticed the existence and use of many medicinal plants and presence of potentially toxic species in the region; so it is essential to evidence scientifically possible benefits and risks of administration in animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal , Plants, Toxic , Asteraceae , Lamiaceae
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(2): 221-237, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794998

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.


RESUMO Casos de esporotricose em humanos e animais sem resposta clínica satisfatória têm aumentado, sinal de alarme para o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antifúngicos convencionais. A urgente busca por alternativas terapêuticas tem incentivado as pesquisas em plantas medicinais com atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. Um levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado com base em artigos científicos sobre a atividade antifúngica in vitro e in vivo de óleos essenciais e extratos de plantas preparados em diferentes solventes contra o complexo Sporothrix schenckii. A metodologia do estudo consistiu em uma revisão bibliográfica em Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme e Springer link com artigos desde 1986 até 2015. Foram encontradas 141 espécies de plantas já investigadas, das quais 100 espécies concentradas em 39 famílias botânicas apresentaram atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. confirmada. Combretaceae, Asteraceae e Lamiaceae representaram as famílias botânicas com maior número de espécies vegetais com potencial antifúngico, empregando diferentes metodologias. Entretanto, há poucos estudos com plantas medicinais em infecção experimental animal comprovando sua atividade no tratamento da esporotricose. Reforça-se a necessidade de mais pesquisas relacionadas à padronização de metodologias in vitro e a estudos in vivo relacionados à segurança e potencial tóxico dessas plantas com atividade anti-Sporothrix spp.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Sporotrichosis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Asteraceae , Combretaceae , Lamiaceae
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 139-144, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676911

ABSTRACT

The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Mouth/pathology , Candidiasis, Oral , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Periodontal Diseases , Methods
11.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 15(1)jan-jun. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681426

ABSTRACT

A esporotricose é a micose subcutânea de maior ocorrência em pequenos animais, especialmente felinos e caninos. Esta doença causa lesões cutâneas ulceradas de caráter subagudo ou crônico que podem resultar no comprometimento do estado geral do animal. Este estudo avaliou alterações hematológicas em gatos com esporotricose relacionando-as com a forma clínica da doença. As alterações hematológicas foram observadas em 73,3% dos animais, sendo caracterizadas principalmente por leucocitose por neutrofilia e anemia. Os resultados demonstram que animais com a forma cutânea fixa da micose não apresentam alterações no hemograma, enquanto animais com a forma cutânea disseminada desenvolvem importantes alterações que indicam o agravamento do quadro clínico com possibilidade de evolução da micose para uma forma sistêmica.


Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis of small animals, specially cats and dogs. This disease leads toof the mycosis do not present alterations in the blood count. However, animals with the cutaneous disseminated form develop important alterations that can aggravate the disease and evolve the mycosis to a systemic form.


La esporotricosis es la micosis subcutánea de mayor ocurrencia en pequeños animales, específicamente felinos y caninos. Esta enfermedad produce lesiones cutáneas ulceradas de carácter sub agudo o crónico que pueden resultar en el comprometimiento del estado general del animal. Este estudio evalúo alteraciones hematológicas en gatos con esporotricosis, relacionándolas con la forma clínica de la enfermedad. Se ha observado alteraciones hematológicas en 73,3% de los animales, siendo caracterizadas principalmente por leucocitosis por neutrofilia y anemia. Los resultados demuestran que animales con la forma cutánea fija de la micosis no presentan alteraciones en el hemograma, mientras que los animales con la forma cutánea diseminada desarrollan importantes alteraciones que indican el comprometimiento del cuadro clínico con posibilidad de evolución de la micosis para una forma sistémica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hematology/methods , Mycoses , Sporothrix , Sporotrichosis/parasitology , Cats/classification
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(2): 198-200, Mar.-Apr. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-545776

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O Cryptococcus neoformans é uma levedura capsulada, agente etiológico da criptococose em humanos e animais, encontrado em fontes ambientais, incluindo excretas de pombos, é uma importante causa de mortalidade em indivíduos imunodeprimidos em todo o mundo. MÉTODOS: Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência do Cryptococcus neoformans, em excretas de pombos, na Cidade de Pelotas, pesquisou-se 70 ambientes, incluindo prédios, praças e locais ao ar livre, da Cidade de Pelotas, RS. Após a coleta, os excrementos foram adicionados de salina com cloranfenicol, homogeneizados, semeados em ágar Sabouraud com cloranfenicol e ágar Níger e incubados a 32ºC. Para identificação, realizou-se exame direto, prova da fenoloxidase, urease, assimilação de carboidratos e cultura em meio CGB. RESULTADOS: Dos locais estudados (nº =70), em 26 (37,1 por cento) havia excretas de pombos. Estes lugares foram representados por prédios históricos (nº =8), torre de igreja (nº =1), engenhos e armazéns de arroz (nº =7), praça (nº =1) e locais ao ar livre (nº =9), o isolamento de Cryptococcus neoformans ocorreu em 26,9 por cento (nº =7/26), destes locais. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo chama a atenção, para o isolamento do fungo em áreas urbanas, que apresentavam grande acúmulo de excretas, indicando um risco para a saúde pública, especialmente para indivíduos imunocomprometidos.


INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and is the etiological agent for human and animal cryptococcosis. It is found in sources within the environment, including pigeon excrement, and is an important cause of mortality among immunocompromised individuals worldwide. METHODS: Seventy different environments in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, were surveyed for the purpose of investigating Cryptococcus neoformans occurrences in pigeon excreta. The environments included buildings, public squares and outdoor locations in the city. After collection, chloramphenicol saline solution was added to the excreta, which were then homogenized and seeded onto Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and onto Niger agar, and incubated at 32°C. Identification was performed by direct examination and by means of the phenoloxidase and urease tests, carbohydrate assimilation and culturing in CGB medium. RESULTS: Out of the sites investigated (n = 70), 26 (37.1 percent) of them contained pigeon excreta. These included historical buildings (n = 8), a church tower (n = 1), rice mills and warehouses (n = 7), a public square (n = 1) and outdoor locations (n = 9). Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 26.9 percent (n = 7/26) of these locations. CONCLUSIONS: This study draws attention to isolation of this fungus in urban areas that present large accumulations of pigeon excrement. This represents a risk to public health, especially for immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Brazil , Urban Population
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(1): 116-123, Jan.-Mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531742

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. krusei (ATCC 34135), C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449) and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646). Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 10(6) CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95 percent), carvacrol (9.42 percent), thymol (8.42 percent) and □-terpineol (7.57 percent). C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 µL mL-1 and 5 µL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 µL mL-1 and 3.54 µL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 µL mL-1 and 2.97 µL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Candida/isolation & purification , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Origanum/analysis , Origanum/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Methods , Mucous Membrane
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 706-710, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539522

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetivou avaliar a atividade in vivo do itraconazol e terbinafina no tratamento da esporotricose cutânea experimental. Foram utilizados 80 ratos Wistar divididos em quatro grupos (TERB20, TERB30, ITRA e CONT) inoculados no coxim plantar esquerdo com 0,2ml de solução contendo 2x103 células de Sporothrix schenckii/ml e tratados com terbinafina (20 e 30mg/kg), itraconazol (10mg/kg) e placebo durante 13 semanas. As lesões do sítio de inoculação foram avaliadas e mensuradas semanalmente, assim como a disseminação das mesmas. Após foi realizada análise micológica e histopatológica. Os resultados demonstraram que os animais do grupo ITRA diferiram estatisticamente em todos os parâmetros avaliados em relação ao CONT. Em relação à terbinafina, não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos tratados e controle. Pode-se confirmar a boa atividade do itraconazol no tratamento da esporotricose e a pouca eficácia da terbinafina nas doses utilizadas, sendo necessários mais estudos com este antifúngico.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of itraconazole and terbinafine for treating experimental cutaneous sporotrichosis. Eighty Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups (TERB20, TERB30, ITRA and CONT). They were inoculated in the left plantar pad with 0.2 ml of solution containing 2x10³ cell/ml of Sporothrix schenckii and treated with terbinafine (20 and 30 mg/kg), itraconazole (10 mg/kg) or placebo for 13 weeks. The lesions at the inoculation site were evaluated and measured weekly, along with their dissemination. Mycological and histopathological analyses were performed subsequently. The results showed that the animals in the ITRA group differed statistically in all parameters evaluated, in relation to CONT. For terbinafine, there were no statistical differences between the treated and control groups. It could be confirmed that itraconazole presented good activity for treating sporotrichosis, while terbinafine was ineffective for this disease at the doses used. However, more studies on the latter antifungal agent are needed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Rats, Wistar , Sporotrichosis/pathology
15.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 46(3): 222-227, 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-536860

ABSTRACT

Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized as a normal inhabitant and an opportunistic pathogen of the external ear canal and skin of dogs and cats. In special clinical conditions, and mainly in the cases of therapeutic failure related to external otitis and dermatitis complicated by this yeast, is recommended testing susceptibility to antifungal drugs. Different approaches of evaluating the susceptibility of yeasts faced to antifungals in laboratory exist, some of them are commercial approaches and others previously standardized by the CLSI (NCCLS,2002). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of 17 samples of M. pachydermatis from canine external otitis using two different in vitro antifungal susceptibility methods: the Etest®and the broth Microdilution Method (MD) with ketoconazole. The mean MIC observed between the 17 samples were 0.103mg/mL to ETEST and 0.0012mg/mL to MD ranging from 0.004 to 0.75mg/mL in ETEST and 0.0019 and 0.03mg/mL in MD using the same samples. By ETEST, two (11.8%) samples were resistant, eight(47.1%) susceptible and seven (41.1%) showed intermediate susceptibility. Through the MD it was observed four (23.5%) resistant samples, seven (41.2%) susceptible and six (35.3%) samples with intermediate susceptibility. Despite of the percentages being equivalent in each rank of susceptibility through the two techniques, the results do not correspond to the same sample. These results showed that there is an urgent need to standardize those values considered as parameters for growth inhibition of this yeast. Then a simple and efficient method could be used routinely in the laboratory practice.


Malassezia pachydermatis é reconhecida como um habitante normal e patógeno oportunista do meato acústico externo e da pele de cães e gatos. Em condições clínicas especiais e em casos de falha terapêutica relatada em otite externa e dermatite complicada por esta levedura, é recomendado o teste de suscetibilidade antifúngica. Existem diferentes métodos de avaliação da suscetibilidade da levedura frente a antifúngicos em laboratório, alguns métodos comerciais e outros previamente padronizados pelo CLSI (NCCLS, 2002). O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a suscetibilidade de 17 amostras de M.pachydermatis proveniente de otite externa canina por meio de duas técnicas in vitro de antifungigramas: o Etest® e a microdiluição em caldo (MC) com o cetoconazol. A media da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) observada entre as 17 amostras foram 0.103mg/mL para o ETEST e 0.0012mg/mL para a MC variando de 0.004 a0.75mg/mL no ETEST e entre 0.0019 e 0.03mg/mL na MC usando as mesmas amostras. Pelo ETEST, duas (11.8%) amostras foram resistentes, oito (47.1%) sensíveis e sete (41.1%) mostraram sensibilidade intermediária. Na MC foram observadas quatro (23.5%)amostras resistentes, sete (41.2%) sensíveis e seis (35.3%) amostras com sensibilidade intermediária. Apesar das porcentagens de sensibilidade serem semelhantes pelas duas técnicas, os resultados de CIM não correspondem na uma mesma amostra. Estes resultados mostraram que há uma urgente necessidade de padronização dos valores considerados como parâmetros para inibição do crescimento da levedura. Portanto, um método simples e eficiente deveria ser usado rotina na prática de laboratório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Cats , Dogs , Mycoses , Malassezia/isolation & purification
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(4): 734-737, Dec. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-504314

ABSTRACT

Itraconazole is currently considered the drug of choice to treat the diverse clinical presentation of sporotrichosis. On the other hand terbinafine by virtue of its excellent in vitro activity is under comparative evaluation for its therapeutic potential for a wide range of fungal infections. In this study, our aim was to determine the in vivo efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis. 120 rats Wistar received an injection of 2x10³ S. schenckii cells by via the lateral tail vein. After 3 days the animals were treated with terbinafine (250mg/kg) and itraconazole (100 mg/kg) and their respective diluents. In our model, terbinafine and itraconazole were effective in reducing the number of clinical lesions and positive organ cultures. There was statistical difference between the groups treated with the antifungals in relation to the control groups (p<0,05) concerning the clinical alterations, anatomic-pathological findings and in the positive organ cultures of the agent, being that the treated animals resulted in the absence and/or reduction of all the evaluated parameters. As for the treatments, terbinafine showed similar or higher activity that itraconazole in the evaluation of the testicle alteration (p=0,0004), as well as in the positive organ cultures of microorganism from the organ (p=0,0142). With these results it is possible to conclude that the antifungals studied are effective in the treatment of experimental systemic sporotrichosis.


Itraconazol é atualmente considerado a droga de escolha para o tratamento das diferentes formas clínicas da esporotricose. Por outro lado a terbinafina devido a sua excelente atividade in vitro está sendo avaliada quanto ao seu potencial terapêutico frente a diversas infecções fúngicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a eficácia in vivo da terbinafina e itraconazol em um modelo de esporotricose experimental sistêmica. 120 ratos Wistar receberam uma injeção de 2x10³ células de S. schenckii pela veia lateral da cauda. Após 3 dias os animais foram tratados com terbinafina (250mg/kg) e itraconazol (100mg/kg) e os seus respectivos diluentes. No modelo experimental estudado, a terbinafina e itraconazol se mostraram efetivos reduzindo o número de sintomas clínicos e retroisolamento positivo para o agente. Houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos tratados com os antifúngicos em relação aos grupos controle (p<0,05) nas alterações clínicas, achados anatomopatológicos e no retroisolamento do agente, sendo que os animais tratados resultaram na ausência e/ou diminuição de todos os parâmetros avaliados. Quanto aos tratamentos a terbinafina se mostrou com atividade similar ou superior ao itraconazol quando avaliado as alterações anatomopatológicos do testículo (p=0,0004), assim como no retoisolamento do órgão (p=0,0142). Com estes resultados permite-se concluir que os antifúngicos estudados são efetivos no tratamento da esporotricose sistêmica experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antifungal Agents , In Vitro Techniques , Itraconazole , Mycoses , Sporotrichosis , Methods , Rats, Wistar , Methods
17.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 45(3): 174-179, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-487885

ABSTRACT

Espécies fúngicas do gênero Aspergillus são frequentemente associadas com alta mortalidade de aves marinhas em cativeiro. Tendo em vista que a aspergilose geralmente é adquirida pela inalação dos propágulos fúngicos presentes no ar, o estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade do ar quanto às espécies de Aspergillus, das instalações internas de um centro de reabilitação de animais marinhos que frequentemente recebe pingüins, gaivotas, albatrozes e petréis acometidos por alguma moléstia. Oitenta e um dias de colheitas foram realizados distribuídos em um período de aproximadamente dois anos, através da exposição de placas de Petri contendo Agar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol no ambiente, as quais foram posteriormente incubadas a 25ºC. As colônias identificadas como pertencentes ao gênero Aspergillus, foram classificadas quanto à espécie através da avaliação macro e micro morfológica associada a uma chave de identificação. Foram obtidos 43 isolados classificados em sete espécies distintas, sendo A. fumigatus a predominante correspondendo a 27,9%, seguida de A. niger, A. flavus e outras quatro espécies de Aspergillus sp., demonstrando que as aves marinhas estão expostas a espécies fúngicas com potencial patogênico, o que enfatiza a necessidade de um controle microbiológico no ambiente onde são mantidos os animais em cativeiro.


Aspergillosis in captivity seabirds is often associated with elevated rates of mortality. The infection is usually acquired by inhalation of airborne fungal conidia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus species in the indoor environment of a rehabilitation centre for marine animals in Southern Brazil. This centre continuously receives injured penguins, seagulls, albatrosses and petrels. Petri dishes plates with Agar Sabouraud dextrose and chloramphenicol were left open for 15 minutes in 3 distinct points in the rehabilitation centre and then incubated at 25ºC. During a period of two years the indoor air was sampled in 81 occasions. A total of 43 isolates belonging to 7 different Aspergillus species were recovered. Aspegillus fumigatus was the predominant species (27.9%), followed by A. niger (25.6%), and A. flavus (16.3%). Four other Aspergillus species were isolated. This study demonstrates that seabirds were exposed to pathogenic Aspergillus species in our rehabilitation centre, reinforcing the need for a strict microbiology control of the indoor air in the captivity environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Air Pollution , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Marine Fauna , Spheniscidae/microbiology
18.
RBCF, Rev. bras. ciênc. farm. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 105-109, jan.-mar. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-451936

ABSTRACT

Levando em consideração a importância do itraconazol e da terbinafina na terapia antifúngica, o estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de itraconazol (100 mg/kg) e terbinafina (250 mg/kg) em ratos albinos wistar através das análises das enzimas hepáticas (ALT e ALP), hemograma completo e estudo histopatológico de diferentes órgãos. Os fármacos foram administrados pela via oral, uma vez ao dia, por um período de 30 dias, quando foi coletado sangue e realizado a necrópsia dos animais experimentais. Os valores detectados das enzimas hepáticas e do hemograma foram compatíveis aos índices fisiológicos para a espécie estudada não sendo observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos experimentais. A histopatologia não revelou nenhuma anormalidade, porém 25 por cento dos animas tratados com terbinafina morreram imediatamente após a administração do fármaco. Com esses resultados concluiu-se que as doses administradas dos fármacos não alteraram as enzimas hepáticas avaliadas, assim como o hemograma, sendo, no entanto, necessários mais estudos que possibilitem considerar doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol como alternativa terapêutica viável para o tratamento de micoses sistêmicas.


Taking into account the importance of the itraconazole and terbinafine in the antifungal therapy, the study has as objective evaluate the effects of high itraconazole doses (100 mg/kg) and terbinafine (250 mg/kg) in rats albino Wistar through the analyses of the hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP), complete blood count and histopathologic study of different organs. The drugs were administered orally once a day, for a period of 30 days, when blood was collected and accomplished the necropsy of the experimental animals. The detected values of the hepatic enzymes and of the blood count were compatible to the physiologic indexes for the studied species with no statistical differences among the experimental groups. The histopathologic exam did not reveal any abnormality, however 25 percent of the treated with terbinafine died immediately after the administration of the drug. With those results we concluded that the administered doses of the drugs did not alter the appraised hepatic enzymes, as well as the blood count. However, more studies are needed to consider high doses of the terbinafine and itraconazole as viable treatment alternative for systemic mycosis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Mycoses , Analysis of Variance , Cell Count
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 40(1): 60-62, jan.-fev. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-449171

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetiva determinar a atividade in vitro da terbinafina e itraconazol através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo (NCCLSM27-A2) adaptado para um fungo dimórfico frente a 12 isolados de Sporothrix schenckii, sendo seis de esporotricose felina, três de esporotricose humana, um isolado de cão e dois isolados humanos provenientes do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC). O inóculo e as concentrações antifúngicas foram distribuídas em microplacas, as quais foram incubadas a 35°C por cinco dias, quando foi realizada a leitura da concentração inibitória mínima. A concentração inibitória mínima para a terbinafina variou de 0,055µg/ml a 0,109µg/ml e para o itraconazol de 0,219µg/ml a 1,75µg/ml, sendo que para ambos os fármacos as CIMs entre os isolados do IOC foi de 0,875µg/ml. O estudo demonstrou uma alta suscetibilidade do Sporothrix schenckii frente à terbinafina, necessitando mais estudos que correlacionem os testes in vitro frente ao fármaco com a resposta clínica em pacientes com esporotricose.


The study objective was to determine the in vitro activity of terbinafine and itraconazole through the microdilution technique in broth (NCCLSM27-A2), adapted for dimorphic fungus, in relation to 12 isolates of Sporothrix schenckii. Six were from feline sporotrichosis, three from human sporotrichosis, one from a dog and two from human isolates originating from Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The inoculum and antifungal concentrates were distributed on microplates that were incubated at 35°C for five days. Minimum inhibitory concentration readings were made at the end of this period. The MIC for terbinafine ranged from 0.055µg/ml to 0.109µg/ml, and the MIC for itraconazole ranged from 0.219µg/ml to 1.75µg/ml. For both drugs, the MIC from the isolates from IOC was 0.875µg/ml. The present study demonstrates the high susceptibility of Sporothrix schenckii to terbinafine. Further studies to correlate the in vitro susceptibility tests with the clinical response of patients with sporotrichosis are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Sporothrix/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Sporothrix/isolation & purification
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 36(2): 201-204, Apr.-June 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-421726

ABSTRACT

As leveduras são organismos comensais da pele, trato genital e gastrointestinal, e de outras mucosas de mamíferos. O gênero Candida vem sendo isolado freqüentemente de animais domésticos e silvestres. O isolamento de Candida spp da mucosa vaginal de mulheres é freqüente, porém na espécie canina são escassos os estudos referentes à microbiota fúngica vaginal, especialmente do gênero candida, não se tendo conhecimento de sua relacão com o ciclo reprodutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar leveduras do gênero Candida em fêmeas caninas hígidas e identificar as espécies isoladas, relacionando-as com as diferentes fases do ciclo estral. Foram analisadas 224 amostras obtidas da mucosa vaginal de 14 fêmeas caninas. Candida spp foi observada em 83 (37 per center) amostras, destas, nove (42,9per center) foram obtidas no proestro, 14 (43,8 per center) no estro, 31 (62 per center) no diestro, 24 (21,1 per center) no anestro e cinco (71,4 per center) de gestantes. Nas amostras caracterizadas, C. parapsilosis foi a espécie isolada com maior freqüência (21,7 per center), seguida de C. guillermondii (8,4 per center), C. kefir (6 per center) e C. albicans (4,8 per center). Com base neste estudo pode-se concluir que Candida spp faz parte da microbiota vaginal de fêmeas caninas hígidas, e que o isolamento é influenciado pelo ciclo reprodutivo.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Candida , Dogs , Estrous Cycle , In Vitro Techniques , Yeasts , Methods , Sampling Studies
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