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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1095-1100, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762920


In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon γ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43−) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells.

Animals , Male , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology , Immunomodulation/genetics , /genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/physiology , Immunophenotyping/classification , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /immunology , /analysis , Mice, Knockout , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1183-1194, Dec. 2012. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659642


In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

Animals , Male , Mice , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/adverse effects , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , /adverse effects , /immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , Spleen/immunology , Transfection , Tuberculosis Vaccines/adverse effects , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-296332


Tradicional systems for developing drugs and vaccines are failing spectaculary to deliver the goods in the fight against tuberculosis (TB). The disease that afflicts the developing world defies the imagination in its scale. One third of the world's population - 2 billion people - is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 16 million have active TB. Shockingly, TB hit an all-time high in 1999 with 8 million new cases - 95 per cent of them in developing countries - and 2 million deaths. The disease is spreading rapidly throughout the world. The toll is set to rise; AIDS activates the dormant form of the disease, while multidrug resistance is spreading across the planet. The last new drug for TB was introduced over thirty years ago and industry has been reluctant to invest in discovering new families of drugs because of the financial risks in investing in products destined largely for developing country markets. If global health is left to market forces, historians will remember this era as one in which humanity stood idly by while half the planet languished in sickness. Fortunately some researchers have realized this, and are driving forward new models for TB therapy and vaccine discovery. One of the latest sign of this trend is the development of a DNA vaccine for the prevention and treatment of TB by our research group. Over the last few years, some of our experiments in wich mycobacterial antigens were presented to the immune system, as of they were viral antigens (DNA vaccine), have had a significant impact on our understanding of protective immunity against tuberculosis. They also markedly enhanced the prospects for new vaccines. We now know that individual mycobacterial-protein antigens expressed from DNA-vaccine constructs can confer protection equal to that from live BCG vaccine in mice. A critical determinant of the outcome of immunization appears to be the degree to which antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells are generated by the immune response. We have demonstrated that DNA vaccination is an affective way of establishing long lasting cytotoxic T-cell memory and protection against tuberculosis. Moreover, our new preclinical work shows that DNA vaccines, initially designed to prevent infection, can also have a dramatic therapeutic action. In infected mice, the immune response can be caused to switch from one that is relatively inefficient and gives bacterial stasis to one that kills the bacteria, eliminating...

Animals , Lactic Acid/therapeutic use , Polyglycolic Acid/therapeutic use , Th1 Cells/physiology , /physiology , Cytokines/physiology , Microspheres , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Polymers/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/therapy , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use