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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 705-715, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Their geographical and ethnic characteristics need to be known, in order to enable rational treatment. Objective: To investigate clinical and epidemiological aspects in a series of patients with meningiomas. Methods: Retrospective analysis on the demographic profile, location and histopathology of 993 patients with meningiomas (768 operated and 225 not operated). Results: Meningiomas represented 43.8% of the primary CNS tumors; 6.8% were multiple tumors (14.7% with neurofibromatosis 2) and 0.6% were radiation-induced tumors. The mean ages were 53.0 and 63.9 years for operated and non-operated patients and the female/male ratios were 3.2:1 and 6.3:1. Diagnosis was made later among females. The peak incidences were in the 6th and 7th decades respectively for operated and non-operated patients. The incidence was low at early ages and higher among patients aged 70+ years. The meningiomas were intracranial in 96.5% and most were WHO grade I (88.9%) and transitional. In the spinal canal (3.5%), they occurred mainly in the dorsal region (all grade I; mostly transitional). The racial distribution was 1.0% in Asian-Brazilians, 87% in Caucasians and 12% in African-Brazilians. 83.4% and 51.6% of the patients were estimated to be recurrence-free at 10 and 20 years, and the mortality rate was 3%. Conclusions: Most of the demographic data were similar to what has been observed in other western centers. Differences were higher incidence of meningiomas, female and older predominance in non-operated patients, predominance in Caucasian, and higher association with neurofibromatosis 2.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Meningiomas são os tumores mais frequentes do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Suas características étnicas e geográficas precisam ser conhecidas para o seu tratamento racional. Objetivo: Investigar aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de uma série de pacientes com meningiomas. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva demográfica de 993 pacientes com meningiomas (768 operados e 225 tratados conservadoramente) Resultados: Meningiomas constituíram 43.8% dos tumores primários do SNC. 0.8% deles eram múltiplos (14,7% com neurofibromatose 2) e 0,6% eram radioinduzidos. A idade média e o índice mulheres/homens foram respectivamente 53,0 e 63,9 anos e 3.2:1 e 6.3:1 para pacientes operados e não operados. O diagnóstico foi mais tardio em mulheres. Ocorreram picos de incidências na 6ª e na 7ª décadas respectivamente para pacientes operados e não operados. A incidência foi menor na infância e maior após 70 anos. Meningiomas predominaram no crânio (96.5%), a maioria grau I da OMS, subtipo transicional. Do total, 3.5% ocorreram no canal raquídeo, principalmente na região torácica, todos grau I, a maioria transicional. Em relação à distribuição racial, 1.0% dos meningiomas ocorreu em amarelos, 87% em brancos e 12% em negros. As taxas de sobrevida sem recorrência foram 83.4% e 51.6% em 10 e 20 anos e a mortalidade operatória foi 3%. Conclusões: A maioria dos dados demográficos observados foi similar aos de outros centros ocidentais. As diferenças observadas foram maior incidência, predominância em mulheres e idosos nos pacientes não operados e em caucasianos, e maior associação com neurofibromatose 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Neurofibromatosis 2 , Meningeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Meningioma/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 523-529, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098282

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the morphometric and the pattern of protein and gene expression related to the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in experimental focal cerebral ischemia and the hole of neuroprotection with hypothermia and ketoprofen. For this analysis, 120 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (20 animals each): control - no surgery (20 animals); sham - simulation of surgery (20 animals); ischemic - focal ischemia for 1 hour, without reperfusion (80 animals) and divided into four subgroups with 20 animals each: ischemic + intraischemic hypothermia; ischemic + previous intravenous ketoprofen, and ischemic + hypothermia and ketoprofen. The infarct volume was measured using morphometric analysis of infarct areas defined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and the patterns of expression of the apoptosis genes (Fas, c-Flip, caspase-8 and caspase-3) and the apoptosis protein caspase-3 were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hypo expression of genes of extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was observed: Fas receptor, c-Flip and caspase-8 in the ischemics areas. Increases in the gene and protein caspase-3 in the ischemic areas were also observed, and these increases were reduced by hypothermia and ketoprofen, also noted in the morphometric study. The caspases-3 increase suggests that this gene plays an important role in apoptosis, probably culminating in cell death and that the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia and ketoprofen is involved.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la morfometría y el patrón de expresión de proteínas y genes relacionados con la vía apoptótica extrínseca en la isquemia cerebral focal experimental y el agujero de neuroprotección con hipotermia y ketoprofeno. Se dividieron aleatoriamente 120 ratas en 3 grupos (20 animales cada uno): control - sin cirugía (20 animales); simulación - simulación de cirugía (20 animales); isquemia isquemia focal durante 1 hora, sin reperfusión (80 animales) y dividida en cuatro subgrupos con 20 animales cada uno: isquemia + hipotermia intraisquémica; isquemia + ketoprofeno intravenoso previo, e isquemia + hipotermia y ketoprofeno. El volumen del infarto se midió utilizando un análisis morfométrico de áreas de infarto definidas por cloruro de trifenil tetrazolio y los patrones de expresión de los genes de apoptosis (Fas, c-Flip, caspase-8 y caspase-3) y la proteína de apoptosis caspase-3 fueron evaluados por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real e inmunohistoquímica, respectivamente. Se observó hipoexpresión de genes de la vía extrínseca de la apoptosis: receptor Fas, c-Flip y caspasa-8 en las áreas isquémicas. También se observaron aumentos en el gen y la proteína caspasa-3 en las áreas isquémicas y estos aumentos se redujeron por hipotermia y ketoprofeno, también observado por estudio morfométrico. El aumento de caspasas-3 sugiere que este gen tiene un papel importante en la apoptosis, y probable causa de muerte celular, involucrando el efecto neuroprotector de la hipotermia y el ketoprofeno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Apoptosis/genetics , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/genetics , Caspase 8/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hypothermia, Induced
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 616-621, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098296

ABSTRACT

The chronic consumption of alcohol causes a worsening of the events that follow the cerebral ischemia. These events are regulated through the expression of several genes and microRNAs. The aimof this work was To analyze and describe the expression profile of PARP and AIF and miRNA-9 proteins in rats submitted to focal cerebral ischemia, associated or not with chronic alcoholism model. Methods: Twenty adult Wistar rats, subdivided into: control; ischemic; alcoholic and ischemic / alcoholized for immunohistochemical analysis and miRNA-9 gene expression. Results: There was a reduction in the protein expression of PARP-1 and a positive marking for AIF in the ischemic / alcoholized group. The miRNA-9 did not obtain significant expression. The association of ischemia with chronic alcohol use promoted a tendency to low expression of miRNA-9, low expression of PARP-1 and high expression of AIF, indicating an interference in the protective effect of miRNA-9 be observed in the other groups.


El consumo crónico de alcohol provoca un empeoramiento de los eventos que siguen a la isquemia cerebral. Estos eventos están regulados a través de la expresión de varios genes y microRNA. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar y describir el perfil de expresión de las proteínas PARP y AIF y microRNA-9 en ratas sometidas a isquemia cerebral focal, asociadas o no, con el modelo de alcoholismo crónico. Veinte ratas Wistar adultas se dividieron en: grupo control, isquémico alcohólico, e isquémico / alcoholizado para análisis inmunohistoquímico y expresión de genes microRNA-9. Resultados: Hubo una reducción en la expresión de proteínas de PARP-1 y un marcado positivo para AIF en el grupo isquémico / alcoholizado. No se observó una expresión significativa en el microRNA-9. La asociación de la isquemia con el consumo crónico de alcohol promovió una tendencia a la baja expresión de microRNA-9, baja expresión de PARP1 y alta expresión de AIF, lo que indica una interferencia en el efecto protector de microRNA-9 en los otros grupos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Alcoholism/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Rats, Wistar , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/genetics , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 689-695, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the cerebellum of rats submitted to an experimental focal cerebral ischemia, by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours, associated with an alcoholism model. Methods Fifty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into five experimental groups: control group (C): animals submitted to anesthesia only; sham group (S): animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure; ischemic group (I): animals submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours; alcoholic group (A): animals that received daily absolute ethanol diluted 20% in water for four weeks; and, ischemic and alcoholic group (I + A): animals receiving the same treatment as group A and, after four weeks, submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. The cerebellum samples were collected and immunohistochemical analysis of Caspase-9 protein and serum analysis by RT-PCR of microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 and miR155 were performed. Results The expression of Caspase-9 was higher in groups I, A and I + A. In the microRNAs analyses, miR-126 was higher in groups A and I + A, miR-155 was higher in groups I and I + A. Conclusions We conclude that apoptosis occurs in the cerebellar cortex, even if it is distant from the ischemic focus, and that microRNAs 126 and 155 show a correlation with cellular apoptosis in ischemic rats and those submitted to the chronic alcohol model.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cerebelo de ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal experimental, por oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos, seguida de reperfusão por 48 horas, associada a um modelo de alcoolismo. Métodos Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar adultos, subdivididos em cinco grupos experimentais: grupo controle (C): animais submetidos apenas à anestesia; grupo sham (S): animais submetidos à simulação completa do procedimento cirúrgico; grupo isquêmico (I): animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas; grupo alcoólico (A): animais que receberam etanol absoluto diário diluído em 20% em água por quatro semanas; e grupo isquêmico e alcoólico (I + A): animais que recebem o mesmo tratamento do grupo A e, após quatro semanas, submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas. As amostras de cerebelo foram coletadas e a análise imuno-histoquímica da proteína Caspase-9 e a análise sérica por RT-PCR dos microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 e miR155 foram realizadas. Resultados A expressão de Caspase-9 foi maior nos grupos I, A e I + A. Nas análises de microRNAs, o miR-126 foi maior nos grupos A e I + A, o miR-155 foi maior nos grupos I e I + A. Conclusões Concluímos que a apoptose ocorre no córtex cerebelar, mesmo distante do foco isquêmico, e que os microRNAs 126 e 155 mostram uma correlação com a apoptose celular em ratos isquêmicos e submetidos ao modelo crônico de álcool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Alcoholism/pathology , Caspase 9/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebellum/chemistry , Brain Ischemia/blood , Rats, Wistar , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Alcoholism/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 652-663, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histopathological and ultrastructural changes and expression of proteins related to apoptosis CASPASE 3 and XIAP after experimental induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia (90 minutes) due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery in alcoholism model. Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into 5 experimental groups: control group (C); Sham group (S); Ischemic group (I); Alcoholic group (A); and Ischemic and Alcoholized group (I+A): animals submitted to the same treatment of group A and after four weeks were submitted to focal cerebral ischemia during 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion of 48 hours. Were processed for histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry (for the protein expression of CASPASE -3 and XIAP). Results: Greater histopathological changes were observed in the animals of groups I and I+A in the three areas analyzed. The neuronal loss was higher in the medial striatum region of the animals of groups I and I + A. The protein expression of CASPASE -3 was higher than that of XIAP in the groups I and I + A for both proteins. Conclusion: The expression of XIAP was slightly higher where the histopathological changes and expression of CASPASE -3 was less evident.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Alcoholism/pathology , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/analysis , Caspase 3/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Ischemic Attack, Transient/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Middle Cerebral Artery , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Alcoholism/metabolism , Edema , Electromyography/methods , Mitochondria/pathology
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(4): 209-215, Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT One of the different genetic mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis of meningiomas is influenced by interactions between proteins that induce and inhibit apoptosis. Objective To evaluate the expression of c-FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspase 3, 8 and 9, cytochrome c, APAF 1 and Smac/DIABLO genes related to apoptosis pathways. Methods The gene expression was evaluated in 30 meningiomas (WHO grades I and II) and in 10 normal samples (from arachnoid tissue) through PCR-RT. Results The results showed higher expression of anti-apoptotic genes in meningiomas when compared to the control group, which had a low expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Conclusion There is a possible block in the activation of caspases through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in meningiomas. c-FLIP modulates caspase 8 and, by inhibiting its activation due to the lack of connection with the receiver, there is a block to the FAS activation of apoptosis by its extrinsic pathway.


RESUMO Um dos diferentes mecanismos genéticos envolvidos na carcinogênese de meningiomas é influenciado por interações entre proteínas que induzem e inibem a apoptose. Objetivos Avaliar a expressão de c-FLIP, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspase 3, 8 e 9, citocromo C, APAF 1 e Smac/DIABLO, genes relacionados com as vias da apoptose. Métodos A expressão gênica foi avaliada em trinta amostras de meningiomas (OMS grau I e II) e em dez amostras normais (de aracnóide) por PCR em tempo real. Resultados Os resultados mostraram maior expressão de genes antiapoptóticos em meningiomas quando comparados com controle, em contraste com a menor expressão de genes próapoptóticos. Conclusão Há um possível bloqueio na ativação de caspases através da via intrínseca da apoptose em meningiomas. O c-FLIP modula a caspase 8 e, desse modo, inibindo a sua ativação pela ausência de ligação com o receptor, há um bloqueio na ativação de FAS pela via extrínseca da apoptose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Meningioma/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Grading
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(1): 30-35, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alcohol consumption aggravates injuries caused by ischemia. Many molecular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, including neurotransmitter expression, which is regulated by microRNAs. Objective: To evaluate the microRNA-219 and NMDA expression in brain tissue and blood of animals subjected to cerebral ischemia associated with alcoholism. Methods: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into groups: control, sham, ischemic, alcoholic, and ischemic plus alcoholic. The expression of microRNA-219 and NMDA were analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: When compared to the control group, the microRNA-219 in brain tissue was less expressed in the ischemic, alcoholic, and ischemic plus alcoholic groups. In the blood, this microRNA had lower expression in alcoholic and ischemic plus alcoholic groups. In the brain tissue the NMDA gene expression was greater in the ischemic, alcoholic, and ischemic plus alcoholic groups. Conclusion: A possible modulation of NMDA by microRNA-219 was observed with an inverse correlation between them.


RESUMO Algumas condições podem agravar os danos causados pelo processo isquêmico, tais como o consumo de álcool, e diversos mecanismos moleculares que estão envolvidos na fisiopatologia da isquemia cerebral, incluindo a expressão de neurotransmissores, e estes podem estar regulados por microRNAs. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão de NMDA e do microRNA-219 no tecido cerebral e no sangue de animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral associada ao alcoolismo. Métodos: 50 ratos Wistar foram divididos em: controle, sham, isquêmico, alcoólico e isquêmico mais alcoólico. A expressão de microRNA-219 e de NMDA foram analisadas por PCR em tempo real. Resultados: Quando comparado com o grupo controle, o microRNA-219 no tecido cerebral foi menos expresso nos grupos isquêmico, alcoólico e associado. No sangue, este microRNA teve menor expressão no grupo alcoólico e no associado. Em relação à expressão do gene do NMDA, em tecido cerebral foi maior nos grupos isquêmico, alcoólico e no associado. Conclusão: Uma possível modulação de NMDA pelo microRNA-219 foi observada, com uma correlação inversa entre eles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Alcoholism/complications , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 629-637, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated histopathological changes, morphometric and expression of proteins CASPASE-3, BCL-2 and XIAP related to apoptosis in the cerebellum after induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, with or without a model of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used and divided into: control group (C), sham group (S), ischemic group (I), alcoholic group (A), and ischemic and alcoholic group (IA). The cerebellum samples collected were stained for histopathological and morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry study. RESULTS: Histopathological changes were observed a greater degree in animals in groups A and IA. The morphometric study showed no difference in the amount of cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum between the groups. The expression of CASPASE-3 was higher than BCL-2 and XIAP in the groups A and IA. CONCLUSION: We observed correlation between histopathological changes and the occurrence of apoptosis in cerebellar cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , Ethanol/pharmacology , Alcoholism/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebellum/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 770-778, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757382

ABSTRACT

Atypical/anaplastic (World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III) are less common and have poorer outcomes than benign meningiomas. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of patients with these tumors.Method Overall/recurrence-free survivals (RFS) and the Karnofsky Performance Scale of 52 patients with grades II (42) and III (9) meningiomas surgically treated were analyzed (uni/multivariate analysis).Results Total/subtotal resections were 60.8%/35.3%. Patients <60 years-old and grade II tumors had longer survival. Grade II tumors, total resection andde novo meningioma had better RFS (univariate analysis). Patients >60 years-old, de novo meningioma and radiotherapy had longer survival and patients <60 years-old and with grade II tumors had longer RFS (multivariate analysis). Recurrence rate was 51% (39.2% Grade II and 66.7% Grade III). Operative mortality was 1.9%.Conclusion Age <60 years-old, grade II tumors and de novomeningiomas were the main predictors for better prognosis among patients with grades II and III meningiomas.


Meningiomas atipicos/anaplásticos (graus II e III da World Health Organization (WHO)) são menos comuns e tem prognóstico pior que os benignos. Este estudo visa analisar o prognóstico de pacientes com estes tumores.Método Sobrevida/sobrevida livre de doença (SLD) e índice de Karnofsky de 52 pacientes com meningiomas graus II (42) e III (9) tratados cirurgicamente foram avaliados (análises uni/multivariada).Resultados Pacientes <60 anos e com tumores grau II tiveram sobrevida mais longa. Tumores grau II , ressecção total e meningioma de novotiveram melhor SLD (análise univariada). Pacientes >60 anos, meningiomade novo e radioterapia tiveram sobrevida mais longa e, pacientes <60 anos e com tumores grau II tiveram SLD mais longa (análise multivariada). Recidiva ocorreu em 51% (39.2% Graus II e 66,7% Graus III). A mortalidade operatória foi 1,9%.Conclusão Idade <60 anos, meningiomas grau II e de novo foram preditores de melhor prognóstico entre pacientes com meningiomas graus II/ III.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Meningeal Neoplasms/surgery , Meningioma/surgery , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Meningeal Neoplasms/mortality , Meningioma/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(7): 528-537, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714589

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical outcome of patients with foramen magnum (FM) meningiomas. Method: Thirteen patients (11 Feminine / 2 Masculine with FM meningiomas operated on through lateral suboccipital approach were studied. Clinical outcome were analyzed using survival (SC) and recurrence-free survival curves (RFSC). Results: All tumors were World Health Organization grade I. Total, subtotal and partial resections were acchieved in 69.2%, 23.1% and 7.7%, respectively, and SC was better for males and RFSC for females. Tumor location, extent of resection and involvement of vertebral artery/lower cranial nerves did not influence SC and RFSC. Recurrence rate was 7.7%. Operative mortality was 0. Main complications were transient (38.5%) and permanent (7.7%) lower cranial nerve deficits, cerebrospinal fluid fistula (30.8%), and transient and permanent respiratory difficulties in 7.7% each. Conclusions: FM meningiomas can be adequately treated in public hospitals in developing countries if a multidisciplinary team is available for managing postoperative lower cranial nerve deficits. .


Objetivo: Analisar as evoluções clínicas de 13 pacientes com meningiomas do forame magno (FM). Método: Foram estudados 13 pacientes com meningiomas do FM (11 Feminino / 2 Masculino) operados por abordagem suboccipital lateral. As evoluções clínicas foram analisadas usando curvas de sobrevida (SC) e de sobrevida livre de doença (RFSC). Resultados: Os 13 tumores eram Grau I da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Ressecções total, subtotal and parcial foram obtidas em 69,2%, 23,1 e 7,7%, respectivamente. A SC foi melhor para homens e a RFSC foi melhor para mulheres. Localização/ extensão da ressecção/envolvimento da artéria vertebral/nervos cranianos baixos não influenciaram a SC/RFSC. A taxa de recorrência foi 7,7%. A mortalidade operatória foi zero. As principais complicações foram déficits de nervos cranianos baixos transitórios (38,5%) e permanentes (7,7%); fístula de líquido cefalorraquidiano (30,8%) e dificuldades respiratórias transitórias e permanentes em 7,7% cada. Conclusões: Meningiomas do FM podem ser adequadamente tratados em hospitais públicos em países em desenvolvimento se houver uma equipe multidisciplinar para cuidar de déficits de nervos cranianos baixos pós-operatórios. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Foramen Magnum/surgery , Meningeal Neoplasms/surgery , Meningioma/surgery , Brazil , Follow-Up Studies , Foramen Magnum/pathology , Hospitals, Public , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningeal Neoplasms/pathology , Meningioma/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
12.
Radiol. bras ; 47(4): 251-255, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-720930

ABSTRACT

As fístulas arteriovenosas da região do seio cavernoso são lesões raras e difíceis de diagnosticar. Elas são classificadas em fístulas durais do seio cavernoso e fístulas carótido-cavernosas diretas. Apesar de apresentarem sintomas semelhantes, o diagnóstico preciso é importante, já que o tratamento é específico para cada uma delas. As alterações encontradas nos exames de imagem são muito semelhantes, tanto nas fístulas durais do seio cavernoso quanto nas fístulas carótido-cavernosas, contudo, é possível diferenciá-las. Dentre os exames de imagem disponíveis (ultrassonografia de órbita com Doppler, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e angiografia com subtração digital), a angiografia é considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico e classificação das fístulas arteriovenosas da região do seio cavernoso. O objetivo deste ensaio é mostrar de modo didático a classificação e o aspecto por imagem das fístulas arteriovenosas do seio cavernoso.


Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae.

13.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(12): 885-891, dez. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the capacity of natural latex membrane to accelerate and improve the regeneration quality of the of rat sciatic nerves. METHODS: Forty male adult Wistar rats were used, anesthetized and operated to cut the sciatic nerve and receive an autograft or a conduit made with a membrane derived from natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis). Four or eight weeks after surgery, to investigate motor nerve recovery, we analyzed the neurological function by walking pattern (footprints analysis and computerized treadmill), electrophysiological evaluation and histological analysis of regenerated nerve (autologous nerve graft or tissue cables between the nerve stumps), and anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles. RESULTS: All functional and morphological analysis showed that the rats transplanted with latex conduit had a better neurological recovery than those operated with autologous nerve: quality of footprints, performance on treadmill (p<0.01), electrophysiological response (p<0.05), and quality of histological aspects on neural regeneration. CONCLUSION: The data reported showed behavioral and functional recovery in rats implanted with latex conduit for sciatic nerve repair, supporting a complete morphological and physiological regeneration of the nerve.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade de uma membrana de látex natural em acelerar e melhorar a qualidade da regeneração do nervo ciático seccionado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos machos adultos da linhagem Wistar, anestesiados e operados com autoenxerto ou com interposição de um tubo confeccionado com uma membrana derivada do latex natural (Havea brasiliensis). Quatro ou oito semanas após a cirurgia, para investigar a recuperação motora do nervo, foram analisadas a função neurológica através do padrão da marcha (análise das pegadas e esteira computadorizada), avaliação eletrofisiológica e análise histológica do nervo regenerado (enxerto de nervo autólogo ou formação de nervo novo entre os cotos nervosos) e músculos gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior. RESULTADOS: Todas as análises morfológicas e funcionais demonstraram que os ratos transplantados com o conduto de látex tiveram recuperação melhor do que aqueles operados com nervo autólogo: qualidade das pegadas impressas, desempenho em esteira (p<0,01), resposta eletrofisiológica (p<0,05), e qualidade histológica da regeneração nervosa. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados apresentados demonstraram recuperação comportamental e funcional nos ratos implantados com o conduto de látex para a reparação do nervo ciático por meio de uma completa regeneração morfológica e fisiológica do nervo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Latex/therapeutic use , Nerve Regeneration , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Nerve Tissue/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Wound Healing/physiology
14.
Coluna/Columna ; 11(3): 242-244, July-Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654891

ABSTRACT

Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system (CNS) are low-grade highly vascularized tumors that may be sporadic or associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Extradural hemangioblastomas are uncommon and those located extra and intradurally are even rarer. This study uses an illustrative case and literature review to discuss the difficulties to consider the correct diagnosis and to select the best surgical approach. A 57 years-old white male patient presented with myelopathy and right C5 radiculopathy. The images showed a lobulated, hourglass shaped, highly enhanced extra/intradural lesion that occupied the spinal canal and widened the C4-C5 right intervertebral foramen. Total resection of the intradural lesion was achieved through a posterior approach, but the extradural part could only be partially removed. Complete improvement was observed after four months of follow-up and the residual tumor has been followed up clinically and radiologically. Even though the preoperative impression was of a spinal schwannoma, the histopathological examination revealed grade I hemangioblastoma as per WHO. Despite their rarity, current complementary exams allow considering the diagnosis of hemangioblastoma preoperatively. That is essential to a better surgical planning in view of the particular surgical features of this lesion.


Hemangioblastomas do sistema nervoso central são lesões de baixo grau de malignidade, altamente vascularizadas, que podem se apresentar esporadicamente ou associadas com a doença de Von Hippel-Lindau. Hemangioblastomas extradurais são incomuns e os extra e intradurais são ainda mais raros. Este estudo usa um caso ilustrativo e revisão da literatura para discutir as dificuldades de considerar o diagnóstico correto e selecionar a melhor abordagem cirúrgica. Um paciente do sexo masculino, branco, com 57 anos de idade apresentou-se com mielopatia e radiculopatia de C5 à direita. As imagens mostraram lesão extra-intradural lobulada, em forma de ampulheta, com alta impregnação após contraste, que ocupava o canal vertebral e estreitava o forame intervertebral de C4-C5 à direita. A ressecção total da lesão intradural foi alcançada através de abordagem posterior, mas a porção extradural só pôde ser parcialmente removida. Melhora total dos sintomas foi observada após quatro meses e o tumor residual tem sido seguido clínica e radiologicamente. Embora a impressão pré-operatória tenha sido de um schwannoma espinal, o exame histopatológico revelou hemangioblastoma grau I, segundo a OMS. Apesar de sua raridade, exames complementares atuais permitem o correto diagnóstico pré-operatório. Isto é essencial para melhor programação cirúrgica, tendo em vista as características particulares desta lesão.


Hemangioblastomas del sistema nervioso central (SNC) son tumores altamente vascularizados, de grado bajo, que pueden ser esporádicos o vinculados a la enfermedad de Von Hippel-Lindau. Hemangioblastomas extradurales no son comunes, y aquellos localizados extra e intraduralmente son aún más raros. Este estudio usa un caso ilustrativo y la revisión de la literatura para analizar las dificultades cuanto a considerar el diagnóstico correcto y para seleccionar el mejor abordaje quirúrgico. Un paciente, hombre blanco de 57 años de edad, presentaba mielopatía con radiculopatía C5 derecha. Las imágenes mostraban lesión extra/intradural, muy acrecentada, con forma de ampolla y lobulada, la cual ocupaba el conducto espinal y ensanchaba el agujero intervertebral derecho C4-C5. La resección de la lesión intradural fue conseguida mediante un abordaje posterior, pero la parte extradural solamente pudo ser removida parcialmente. La mejoría completa fue observada después de cuatro meses de seguimiento y el tumor residual ha sido acompañado clínica y radiológicamente. Aunque la impresión preoperatoria era de schwannoma espinal, el examen histopatológico reveló hemangioblastoma grado I según la Organización Mundial de la Salud. A pesar de su rareza, los actuales exámenes complementarios permiten considerar, preoperativamente, el diagnóstico de hemangioblastoma. Esto es esencial para hacer un mejor planeamiento quirúrgico, teniendo en cuenta los aspectos quirúrgicos peculiares de esta lesión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spinal Cord Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Hemangioblastoma , von Hippel-Lindau Disease
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(8): 609-616, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neuroprotection of mild hypothermia, applied in different moments, in temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS: Rats was divided into Control (C), Sham (S), Ischemic-control(IC), Pre-ischemic Hypothermia (IH1), Intra-ischemic Hypothermia (IH2), and Post-ischemic Hypothermia (IH3) groups. Morphometry was performed using the KS400 software (Carl Zeiss®) in coronal sections stained by Luxol Fast Blue. Ischemic areas and volumes were obtained. RESULTS: Statistically, blue areas showed difference for C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 and IC vs. IH2 (p=0.0001; p=0.01; p=0.03), and no difference between C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 and IH vs. IH2 (p=0.39; p=0.85; p=0.63). Red areas showed difference between C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 and IC vs. IH2 (p=0.0001; p=0.009; p=0.03), and no difference between C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 and IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0.48; p=0.27; p=0.68). Average ischemic areas and ischemic volumes showed difference between IC vs. IH1 and IC vs. IH2 (p=0.0001 and p=0.0011), and no difference between IC vs. IH3 and IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0.57; p=0.79). CONCLUSION: Pre-ischemic and intra-ischemic hypothermia were shown to be similarly neuroprotective, but this was not true for post-ischemic hypothermia.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a neuroproteção da hipotermia leve, aplicada em diferentes momentos, durante isquemia cerebral focal temporária em ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram divididos em grupos: Controle (C), Sham (S), Controle-isquêmico (IC), Hipotermia Pré-isquêmica (IH1), Hipotermia Intra-isquêmica (IH2) e Hipotermia Pós-isquêmica (IH3). A morfometria foi realizada em secções coronais coradas por Luxol Fast Blue através do programa KS400 (Carl Zeiss®). Foram calculados áreas e volumes isquêmicos. RESULTADOS: Estatisticamente, áreas azuis demonstraram diferença entre os grupos C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 e IC vs. IH2 (p=0,0001; p=0,01; p=0,03), e nenhuma diferença entre C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 e IH vs. IH2 (p=0,39; p=0,85; p=0,63). Áreas vermelhas demonstraram diferença entre C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 e IC vs. IH2 (p=0,0001; p=0,009; p=0,03), e nenhuma diferença entre C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 e IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0,48; p=0,27; p=0,68). Áreas isquêmicas médias e volumes isquêmicos demonstraram diferença entre os grupos IC vs. IH1 e IC vs. IH2 (p=0,0001 and p=0,0011), e nenhuma diferença entre IC vs. IH3 and IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0,57; p=0,79). CONCLUSÃO: Hipotermias pré-isquêmica e intra-isquêmica demonstraram neuroproteção em grau semelhante, o que não ocorreu com hipotermia pós-isquêmica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/complications , Body Temperature , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion/methods , Sodium Chloride , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.2): 8-14, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602637

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the ventricular enlargement and myelination of the corpus callosum in adult dogs after four and eight weeks of kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus. METHODS: 36 dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 - without hydrocephalus, 2 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the fourth week, and 3 - kaolin-induction of hydrocephalus until the eighth week. Ventricular ratios and volumes were calculated using magnetic resonance images, and myelination of the corpus callosum were histologically evaluated using solocromo-cianin stain. RESULTS: Radiological hydrocephalus was observed in 93.75 percent and overall mortality was 38.4 percent. Ventricular volumes and ratios were higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 and similar when measures in the fourth and eighth weeks were compared in the group 3. Indices of luminescence in the knee and in the splenium of the corpus callosum were higher in group 2 than in group 1 indicating that there was loss of myelin in group 2, and similar in groups 1 and 3, showing a tendency to remyelination after 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: The corpus callosum of dogs with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus responds with demyelination of the knee and splenium by the fourth week with a tendency to remyelination by the eighth week.


OBJETIVO: Analisar a dilatação ventricular e a mielinização do corpo caloso em cães adultos após quatro e oito semanas da indução de hidrocefalia por caulin. MÉTODOS: 36 cães foram aleatoriamente divididos em 3 grupos: 1- sem hidrocefalia, 2- quatro semanas de hidrocefalia induzida por caulin, 3- oito semanas de hidrocefalia induzida por caulin. As razões e volumes ventriculares foram calculados utilizando imagens de ressonância magnética, e, a mielinização do corpo caloso por estudo histológico (coloração com solocromo- cianina). RESULTADOS: Hidrocefalia foi observada radiologicamente em 93,75 por cento e a mortalidade global foi de 38,4 por cento. Os volumes e as razões ventriculares foram maiores nos grupos 2 e 3 em relação ao grupo 1 e semelhantes nas quarta e oitava semanas no grupo 3. Índices de luminescência no joelho e no esplênio do corpo caloso foram maiores no grupo 2 em relação ao grupo 1, indicando que houve perda de mielina no grupo 2, e semelhantes nos grupos 1 e 3, mostrando uma tendência à remielinização em torno de 8 semanas. CONCLUSÃO: O corpo caloso de cães com hidrocefalia induzida por caulin responde com desmielinização no joelho e esplênio em torno de quatro semanas com tendência à remielinização em torno da oitava semana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Cerebral Ventricles/physiopathology , Corpus Callosum/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology , Kaolin , Aluminum Silicates , Cerebral Ventricles/pathology , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Hydrocephalus/chemically induced , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelin Sheath/physiology , Organ Size , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.2): 133-140, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Verify the presence of the rostral lamina of the corpus callosum, and set parameters for neuroendoscopy. METHODS: Relationship of the floor of the frontal horn of lateral ventricle and the hypothalamic-septal region were studied after sagittal and axial sections of the brains. Measurements were compared using F and Student t tests. The correlations between anterior-posterior diameter of the interventricular foramen / anterior-posterior diameter of the fornix column, and between anterior-posterior diameter of the interventricular foramen / length of the rostral lamina were performed by Pearson index test. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in measurements performed in both hemispheres (p<0.05). Positive correlations were observed between the anterior-posterior diameter of the interventricular foramen / anterior-posterior diameter of the fornix column (R = 0.35), and between the anterior-posterior diameter of the interventricular foramen / length of the rostral lamina (R = 0.23). CONCLUSION: Rostral lamina was observed in all brains. It was possible to perform an endoscopic fenestration in the rostral lamina, communicating safely the lateral ventricle with a polygonal subcallosal cistern.


OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença da lâmina rostral do corpo caloso e padronizar parâmetros para a realização de neuroendoscopia. MÉTODOS: A relação do assoalho do corno frontal do ventrículo lateral e a região hipotálamo-septal lateral foi estudada através de secções sagitais e axiais dos cérebros. As medidas foram comparadas utilizando os testes F e t-Student. As correlações entre diâmetro ântero-posterior do forame interventricular / diâmetro ântero-posterior da coluna do fornix, e entre o diâmetro ântero-posterior do forame interventricular / comprimento da lâmina rostral foram estudadas pelo teste de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas medidas realizadas em ambos hemisférios (p <0.05). Correlações positivas foram observadas entre diâmetros ântero-posteriores do forame interventricular / coluna do fornix (R = 0.35), os diâmetros ântero-posteriores do forame interventricular / comprimento da lâmina rostral (R = 0.23). CONCLUSÃO: A lâmina rostral foi observada em todos espécimes. Foi possível realizar uma fenestração endoscópica na lâmina rostral, comunicando com segurança o ventrículo lateral a uma cisterna poligonal subcalosa.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Corpus Callosum/anatomy & histology , Neuroendoscopy/methods , Septum Pellucidum/anatomy & histology , Feasibility Studies , Medical Illustration , Organ Size
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(4): 592-596, Aug. 2010. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555240

ABSTRACT

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to other proteins to shepherd them across membranes and direct them to specific locations within a cell. Several injurious stimuli can induce Hsp70 expression, including ischemia. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of expression of protein (immunohistochemistry) and gene (real-time PCR) Hsp70 in experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 hour and the role of neuroprotection with hypothermia (H) and ketoprofen (K). The infarct volume was measured using morphometric analysis defined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. It was observed increases in the protein (p=0.0001) and gene (p=0.0001) Hsp70 receptor in the ischemic areas that were reduced by H (protein and gene: p<0.05), K (protein: p<0.001), and H+K (protein: p<0.01 and gene: p<0.05). The Hsp70 increases in the ischemic area suggests that the Hsp70-mediated neuroexcitotoxicity plays an important role in cell death and that the neuroprotective effect of both, H and K are directly involved with the Hsp70.


Proteínas de choque térmico (HSPs) são chaperones moleculares que se ligam a outras proteínas para atravessar as membranas e encaminhá-las para locais específicos dentro de uma célula. Vários estímulos nocivos podem induzir a expressão de Hsp70, incluindo isquemia. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o padrão de expressão protéica (imunohistoquímica) e gênica (PCR em tempo real) de Hsp70 na isquemia cerebral focal experimental em ratos pela oclusão da artéria cerebral média durante 1 hora e o papel da neuroproteção com hipotermia (H) e cetoprofeno (C). O volume de infarto foi calculado através da análise morfométrica definido por cloreto de trifenil tetrazólio. Foi observado aumento na expressão proteína (p=0,0001) e gênica (p=0,0001) de Hsp70 nas áreas isquêmicas que foram reduzidas pela H (proteína e gene: p<0,05), C (proteína: p<0,001) e H+K (proteína: p<0,01 e gene: p<0,05). O aumento de Hsp70 na área isquêmica sugere que a neuroexcitotoxicidade mediada pela Hsp70 desempenha um papel importante na morte celular e que o efeito neuroprotetor tanto da H quanto do C está diretamente envolvido com a Hsp70.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , /metabolism , Hypothermia, Induced , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/metabolism , Ketoprofen/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/therapy
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(4): 613-618, Aug. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555244

ABSTRACT

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) may have aggressive symptoms, especially if there is direct cortical venous drainage. We report our preliminary experience in transarterial embolization of DAVFs with direct cortical venous drainage (CVR) using Onyx®. METHOD: Nine patients with DAVFs with direct cortical venous drainage were treated: eight type IV and one type III (Cognard). Treatment consisted of transarterial embolization using Onyx-18®. Immediate post treatment angiographies, clinical outcome and late follow-up angiographies were studied. RESULTS: Complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved in all patients with only one procedure and injection in only one arterial pedicle. On follow-up, eight patients became free from symptoms, one improved and no one deteriorated. Late angiographies showed no evidence of recurrent DAVF. CONCLUSION: We recommend that transarterial Onyx® embolization of DAVFs with direct cortical venous drainage be considered as a treatment option, while it showed to be feasible, safe and effective.


As fistulas arteriovenosas durais (FAVDs) podem se manifestar com sintomas agressivos, especialmente se existe drenagem cortical direta. Relatamos nossa experiência preliminar na embolização transarterial de FAVDs com drenagem cortical direta usando Onyx®. MÉTODO: Nove pacientes com FAVDs com drenagem cortical direta foram tratados: oito do tipo IV e uma do tipo III (Cognard). O tratamento consistiu na embolização transarterial usando Onyx-18®. Angiografias imediatas pós-tratamento, evolução clínica e angiografias de controle tardias foram estudadas. RESULTADOS: A oclusão completa da fístula foi alcançada em todos pacientes através de um só procedimento e injeção em apenas um pedículo arterial. No seguimento, oito pacientes ficaram livres de sintomas, um melhorou e nenhum deteriorou. Angiografias tardias de controle não mostraram evidência de FAVD recorrente. CONCLUSÃO: Nós recomendamos que a embolização transarterial com Onyx® das FAVDs com drenagem cortical direta, seja considerada como uma opção terapêutica, uma vez que mostrou ser factível, segura e efetiva.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/therapeutic use , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Polyvinyls/therapeutic use , Cerebral Angiography , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Drainage/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
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