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Rev. chil. nutr ; 41(3): 304-311, set. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-728339


Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is caused by a defect of the ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex of the branched amino acids Valine, Isoleucine and Leucine (VIL). The treatment consists of a leucine-restricted diet. Objective: To evaluate the long-term follow-up in children with MSUD. Methodology: 29 records were reviewed of patients with MSUD, of which 24 were clinically identified (> 5th day of life), 4 cases by MSUD family history and one by neonatal screening (< 5th day of life). Leucine (Leu) levels were measured at diagnosis (Biotronic 2000) and during follow-up (mass spectrometry). The number of decompensation events, Total Intellectual Quotient (TIQ, Bayley and Wechsler scale) and nutritional status were also measured. STATA statistical software version 9.2 was applied (p≤0.05). Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 14 days old. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of Leu and alloisoleucin. When comparing the TIQ of 19 cases over 3 years old with their age at diagnosis, it was observed that those cases screened by the 5th day of life had a TIQ 84.6 ± 13, while those diagnosed later had a TIQ 73 ± 17 (p≤0.05). In assessing the number of hospitalizations that occurred during follow-up, we determined that the 5 cases screened early never had a metabolic crisis and had a higher TIQ than those who had had one or more decompensation (92 and 74, respectively, p≤0.05). An inverse correlation was observed between the Leu+Isoleucine value and TIQ. Conclusion: The diagnosis before the 5th day of life and a good metabolic control during follow-up, enables children with MSUD to have normal cognitive development.

La enfermedad de la orina olor a jarabe de arce (EOJA) se produce por un defecto del complejo enzimático deshidrogenasa de los cetoácidos de los aminoácidos ramificados: Valina, Isoleucina, Leucina (VIL). El tratamiento es una dieta restringida en leucina (Leu). Objetivo: evaluar el seguimiento a largo plazo en niños con EOJA. Metodología: Se revisaron 29 fichas de pacientes EOJA, 24 fueron pesquisados por clínica (> 5to día de vida) y 4 casos por antecedentes familiares con EOJA y 1 por pesquisa neonatal (< 5to día de vida). Se midió nivel de Leu al diagnóstico (Biotronic 2000) y durante el seguimiento (Espectrometría de masa), número de descompensaciones, Coeficiente Intelectual Total (CIT) (Escalas de Bayley y Wechsler) y estado nutricional. Se aplicó programa estadístico STATA versión 9.2 (p≤0.05). Resultados: La edad de diagnóstico fue a los 14 días de edad. En todos se confirmó el diagnóstico por los niveles elevados de Leu y presencia de alloisoleucina. Al comparar el CIT de los 19 casos mayores de 3 años con la edad de diagnóstico, se observó que aquellos casos pesquisados antes del 5to día tenían un CIT de 84,6±13, a diferencia de los diagnosticados posteriormente que tenían un CIT=73±17 (p≤0.05). Al evaluar el número de descompensaciones ocurridas durante el seguimiento, se determinó que los 5 casos nunca habían tenido una crisis metabólica, tuvieron un CI mayor que aquellos que habían tenido una o más descompensaciones (92 y 74 respectivamente) (p≤0.05). Cuando se correlacionó el valor de Leu+Iso de seguimiento con el CIT, se observó una correlación inversamente proporcional. Conclusión: el diagnóstico antes de los 5to día de vida y un buen control metabólico durante el seguimiento, permite que los niños con EOJA tengan un desarrollo cognitivo normal.

Child , Child , Intelligence , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Child Development
Rev. chil. nutr ; 34(3): 220-227, sept. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-515293


Introducción: La Academia Americana de Pediatría (AAP) ha clasificado la Fenilquetonuria (PKU) e Hiperfenilalaninemia (HFA) según la tolerancia de la ingesta de fenilalanina (FA) en: PKU clásica: 20 mg FA/kg/día, PKU moderada: 21 y 25 mg FA/kg/día y PKU leve: 25 y 50 mg FA/kg/día, e HFA benigna con dieta normal, manteniendo un nivel plasmático de FA entre 2,0 y 10,0 mg/dl. Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución clínica de 67 niños con valores de FA plasmática entre 2.1 y 6.0 mg/dL en el período neonatal. Resultados: Del total, 29 niños tenía entre 0 y 2 años, 23 entre 2 y 4 años y 15 niños eran mayores de 4 años de edad. El estado nutricional de 45 niños era normal, 14 niños estaban con sobrepeso u obesidad, y 8 casos tenían riesgo nutricional. Se determinó que 4 niños tenían una ingesta menor de 20 mg FA/kg/día, dos niños entre 21 y 25 mg FA/kg/día, 15 casos entre los 26 a 50 mg FA/kg/día y 46 niños estaban con dieta normal. Conclusión: Los recién nacidos con niveles de FA entre 2.1 y 6.0 mg/dl durante el período neonatal, tienen una evolución clínica y nutricional diferente, que puede ir desde una PKU clásica a una HFA benigna, por lo cual se recomienda mantener un control frecuente de FA sanguínea y una vigilancia nutricional, con un mínimo de 2 años de seguimiento.

Introduction: The American Academy of Pediatric (AAP) has classified Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Hyperphenylalaninaemias (HPhe) according to tolerance of phenylalanine (Phe) intake in: Classic PKU (20 mg Phe/kg/day), moderate PKU (between 21 and 25 mg Phe/kg/day) and mild PKU (between 25 and 50 mg Phe/kg/day), and benign HPhe with normal diet, maintaining blood Phe levels between 2,0 and 10,0 mg/dL. Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution of 67 children with blood Phe values between 2,1 and 6.0 mg/dl in the neonatal period. Results: Of the total, 29 children were aged between 0 and 2 years, 23 between 2 and 4 years and 15 children were older than 4 years of age. The nutritional state of 45 children was normal, 14 children were overweight or obese, and 8 were at nutritional risk. Four children had Phe intake below 20 mg/kg/day, two children between 21 and 25 mg/kg/day; 15 cases between 26 to 50 mg/kg/day and 46 children were on normal diet. Conclusion: Newborns with blood Phe levels between 2,1 and 6,0 mg/dl in the neonatal period, had a different clinical and nutritional evolution, which could go from the classic PKU to a benign HPhe. Thus, it is recommended to keep a frequent control of plasmatic Phe levels and nutritional monitoring for a minimum of 2 years of follow up.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/metabolism , Phenylketonurias/blood , Body Mass Index , Chile , Clinical Evolution , Follow-Up Studies , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/deficiency , Phenylalanine/administration & dosage , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
Rev. méd. Chile ; 135(5): 631-635, mayo 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-456680


The glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 SD) (OMIM 606777) is an inborn error of metabolism of brain glucose transport. The characteristic clinical manifestations are seizures, hypotonia, developmental delay, microcephaly and hypoglycorrhachia. We report a girl with normal weight and height at birth. At 6 weeks of age she started with convulsions reaching up to 20 myoclonic seizures a day. She was treated with valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine without response. Blood analysis including aminoacids and acylcarnitines were all normal. The brain MRI showed frontal atrophy with an increased subarachnoidal space and Electroencephalography was abnormal. Blood glucose was 84 mg/dl and spinal fluid glucose 26 mg/dl with a ratio of 0.31 (Normal Ratio >0.65+00.1). These results suggested the diagnosis of GLUT-1 SD, and was confirmed with erythrocyte glucose uptake of 44 percent (Normal range 80-100 percent). A molecular study found the mutation 969del, C971T in exon 6 of the gene Glut-1. Treatment with a ketogenic diet was started immediately and after 7 days with this diet seizures ceased. Anticonvulsants were progressively suspended. At present, the patient is 6 years old, she continues on a ketogenic diet and supplements with L-carnitine, lipoic acid, vitamins and minerals. Growth and development are normal with an intelligence quotient of 103. It is concluded that it is necessary to include GLUT-1 SD in the differential diagnosis of children with early seizures that are non responsive to pharmacological treatment.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diet therapy , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Glucose Transporter Type 1/deficiency , Ketones/metabolism , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/blood , Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Carnitine/therapeutic use , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Syndrome , Seizures/diet therapy , Seizures/drug therapy
Rev. méd. Chile ; 131(11): 1280-1287, nov. 2003. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-358947


Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to of a defect in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (12q22-24.1) leading to hyperphenylalaninemia. Treatment consists in a low phenylalanine (Phe) diet. Aim: To evaluate the evolution of early diagnosed PKU children, receiving direct breast feeding, and a special formula without Phe, during their first six months of life. Patients and methods: Nineteen PKU children diagnosed in the neonatal period (19.29±13.8 days of age), treated with breast feeding and formula without Phe since diagnosis, were studied. Intake of calories, proteins and dietary Phe were quantified. Blood Phe, nutritional status and psychomotor development were also measured. Results: The diet that these children received during the 6 months period of study, had a mean of 127±19.9 Kcal/kg/day, 1.95±0.3 g protein/kg/day and 35.3±9.5 mg Phe/kg/day. Fifteen children maintained the blood level of Phe under 8 mg/dl, considered an excellent metabolic control. Only 4 cases had intermittently high levels, between 10-12 mg/dl. At 6 months of age, 74% of the children maintained breast feeding as the only source of Phe. Sixty three percent had a normal nutritional status, 5.2% were at nutritional risk and 31.6% were overweight. Eighty one percent had a normal mental development. Conclusions: The use of direct breast feeding allows a good metabolic control and improves growth and development of early diagnosed PKU children (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 1280-87).

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/administration & dosage , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/blood , Proteins/administration & dosage , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Retrospective Studies
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 62(5): 309-14, sept.-oct. 1991. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-104760


Con el objeto de identificar un factor etiológico se aplicó un protocolo de estudio sistemático en 16 lactantes que presentaban espasmos masivos. En dos pacientes hubo antecedentes familiares relevantes, en tanto que cinco presentaron afecciones perinatales o postnatales graves. Diez niños presentaron retardo psicomotor y ocho otras crisis previo al inicio de EM. El examen físico reveló microcefalia, dismorfias, manchas hipopigmentadas de la piel, síndrome piramidal. Las técnicas de neuro-imagen demostraron hallazgos positivos en 9 casos, atrofia en 7, porencefalia en 3, calcificaciones en uno y agenesia del cuerpo calloso en uno. El laboratorio permitió el diagnóstico de dos casos con enfermedades metabólicas: hiperlactatemia y enfermedad de orina olor a jarabe de arce. Dos pacientes se catalogaron como criptogenéticos y 14 como sintomáticos. Entre los últimos en doce casos se identificó razonablemente una etiología. Este estudio enfatiza el valor de la búsqueda etiológica en EM, puesto que aporta el tratamiento específico y/o consejo genético en algunos pacientes

Female , Infant , Humans , Male , Spasms, Infantile/etiology , Clinical Protocols , Spasms, Infantile/diagnosis
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 61(6): 309-12, nov.-dic. 1990. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-98147


Se describe el programa para la detección de fenilquetonuria neonatal, que se está desarrollando desde hace 17 meses en el Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Central, utilizando el ensayo de inhibición bacteriana de Guthrie como prueba de rastreo. Durante este período se han analizado 15.214 muestras de sangre de recién nacido, consiguiéndose coberturas de 94,4%. De esta manera, en las muestras estudiadas, se han detectado dos casos de hiperfenilalaninemia transitoria, uno de hiperfenilalaninemia benigna y uno de fenilquetonuria clásica, en quien se inició el tratamiento nutricional a los 13 días de vida

Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Neonatal Screening , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Chile , Phenylketonurias/prevention & control , Phenylketonurias/therapy
Pediatría (Santiago de Chile) ; 32(4): 190-2, oct.-dic. 1989.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-82482


Se presenta un caso de hipofosfatasia en un lactante de sexo masculino. Se confirmó el diagnóstico por presentar un raquitismo con fosfatasas alcalinas séricas disminuídas y fosfoetanolamina en orina elevada. Se describen sus características, posible tratamiento con sobrecarga de fosfato oral y se analiza su pronóstico

Infant , Humans , Male , Hypophosphatasia/diagnosis , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hypophosphatasia/drug therapy , Phosphates/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 59(1): 53-6, ene.-feb. 1988. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-58726


Se describe el caso de un lactante galactosémico, que manifiesta su enfermedad en el primer mes de vida, caracterizándose por mal progreso ponderal, acidosis, ictericia, hepatoesplenomegalia, daño neurológico y ausencia de cataratas. El diagnóstico se confirmó mediante cromatografía de azúcares en orina, la que demostró galactosuria previa administración de galactosa en la dieta. Su tratamiento consistió en supresión de la ingesta de galactosa; con él se consiguió mejoría parcial de la función hepática, pero no del daño neurológico

Infant , Humans , Male , Galactosemias/diagnosis , Galactose/urine , Chromatography , Neurologic Manifestations/etiology