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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. bras. eng. biomed ; 28(3): 238-247, jul.-set. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-659027

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates the mechanical behavior of an uncemented hip stem using finite element analysis. The analysis is focused on the stem-bone interaction which is assessed by simulation of distinct conditions encountered daily on orthopedic practice of hip implants. Logical uncemented femoral stem was used in this work. Three distinct conditions have been modeled: a) exposed neck with fully embedded fins, b) partially exposed anti-rotational fins and c) fully exposed fins, representing real femoral hip conditions. Anthropometric variations and different angulations for the stem neck were investigated for typical body weight of populations submitted to implants. The ratio of mobilized stress to yield stress is shown to be lower than 55% indicating a safety factor against stem failure. Although small displacements are observed in all conditions, the displacement increases with the increase of both the length of exposed fins and the magnitude of applied forces. Even for the extreme condition of fully exposed fins, the prostheses will support the working loads, and the risk of bone fracture still has a safety factor. Stresses and displacements change considerably with neck angulations suggesting that anthropometric variations should be considered in the future to optimize prostheses performance. Numerical analysis of the used uncemented femoral stem demonstrated that small stresses and strains are generated under working load conditions indicating that a proper factor of safety is obtained for the static conditions tested in the present study.


A presente pesquisa avalia o comportamento mecânico da haste femoral não-cimentada Logical através de elementos finitos. Foram analisadas diferentes condições de contorno encontradas na prática ortopédica: a) apenas o colo exposto; b) com as aletas anti-rotatórias parcialmente expostas; e c) com as aletas totalmente expostas. Variações antropométricas foram consideradas pelas diferentes angulações de colo propostas e através de diferentes cargas aplicadas. A haste apresentou um bom coeficiente de segurança. Embora pequenos deslocamentos sejam observados em todas as condições, existe um maior deslocamento com o aumento da exposição das aletas da prótese. Mesmo para a condição extrema com as aletas totalmente expostas, a prótese suporta as cargas de trabalho e ainda há um bom fator de segurança. Tensões e deslocamentos se modificam consideravelmente com as diferentes angulações propostas para o colo, sugerindo que as variações antropométricas devam ser consideradas no futuro para otimizar o desempenho da prótese.

3.
Stomatos ; 18(34): 40-51, Jan.-Jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-693974

ABSTRACT

Mini-screw implants have been commonly used for orthodontic anchorage. However, the behavior of implants may vary according to their location, inclination, loading position and loading direction. The objective of this study was to apply finite element to analyze stress distribution around mini-implants inserted into the buccal cortical bone, in the inferior molar region, when a force of 3 N was applied, varying implant inclination and loading direction, also simulating immediate loading and osseointegration conditions. We carried out a threedimensional analysis of a human cadaveric mandible and of a 9 mm length, 1.5 mm diameter titanium implant. The implant model was introduced into the buccal cortical bone, between the first and second mandibular molars. Finite-element analysis of the implant-bone structure was carried out applying a constant force of 3 N at varying angles (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees), and in five different positions along the bone surface axis (perpendicularly, vertically at ± 10 degrees, and horizontally at ± 20 degrees). Out of all combinations tested, stress affected only the cortical bone, not being intense enough to cause cortical bone resorption. Stress distribution varied slightly (8.55 to 38.74 Mpa) due to implant inclination and loading direction. Immediate loading generated greater tensions (12.70 to 38.74 Mpa) when compared to osseointegration (8.55 to 21.44 Mpa). A force of 3 N did not result in a tension that could cause cortical bone resorption. Immediate loading resulted in greater tensions to the bone, regardless of implant inclination and loading direction.


Mini-implantes têm sido utilizados para ancoragem ortodôntica e seu comportamento pode variar de acordo com a sua localização e inclinação, com a posição e a direção da carga aplicada. Este estudo analisou a distribuição de tensões ao osso em torno de mini-implantes inseridos no osso cortical na região de molares inferiores, quando uma carga de 3 N é aplicada, variando a inclinação do implante e a direção da força,assim como situações de carga imediata e osseointegração. Uma mandíbula humana e um implante de titânio com 9 mm de comprimento e 1,5mm de diâmetro foram modelados, com o implante introduzido na face vestibular entre o primeiro e o segundo molares. Este modelo foi analisado pelo método de elementos finitos aplicando força constante de 3N com angulagens de 15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 graus, com o implante perpendicular ao osso e com inclinação vertical de 10 graus e horizontal de 20 graus. Em todas as combinações testadas a tensão afetou apenas o osso cortical, porém não apresentou intensidade suficiente para resultar em reabsorção óssea. Sua distribuição variou (8,55 a 38,74 Mpa) em função da inclinação do implante e da direção da carga. A situação de carga imediata gerou maiores tensões (12,70 a 38.74 Mpa) quando comparada à osseointegração (8,55 a 21,44 Mpa). Conclui-se que uma força de 3N não resulta em tensão que possa causar reabsorção da cortical óssea e que a carga imediata produz maior tensão ao osso, independentemente da inclinação do implante e da direção da força.


Subject(s)
Dental Implants , Finite Element Analysis , Orthodontics
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