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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 488-494, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977928

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of metazoan parasites on hematological and biochemical parameters and relative condition factor of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum ) farmed in northern Brazil. A total of 32 juvenile fish were captured from a commercial fish farm located in the municipality of Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state, Brazil. Parasite prevalence was 100% for Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium boegeri and Notozothecium janauachensis, 100% for Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae and 53.13% for Dolops geayi. The greatest mean parasite intensity was found in acantocephalans followed by monogeneans and branchiuran crustaceans. A negative correlation was observed between abundance of N. buttnerae and hematocrit percentage, hemoglobin concentration, total thrombocyte count and glucose and between abundance of the monogenean and glucose concentration. Parasitic infections caused damage in tambaqui in terms of the observed hematological parameters that were characterized by hypochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia, which are important parameters to be used in parasitic diagnosis. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Dolops geayi in farmed tambaqui in the Amazon.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto do parasitismo por metazoários sobre os parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos e fator de condição relativo de tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum) cultivados na região Norte do Brasil. Foram coletados 32 tambaquis em fase de engorda numa piscicultura comercial no município de Rio Preto da Eva, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A prevalência de parasitos foi de 100% para Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium boegeri e Notozothecium janauachensis, 100% para Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae e 53,13% para Dolops geayi. A maior intensidade média foi de acantocéfalos, seguida por monogenéticos e branquiúros. Correlação negativa significativa foi observada entre abundância de N. buttnerae e os parâmetros de hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, trombócitos totais e glicose, bem como entre a abundância de monogenéticos e glicose. A infecção por parasitos metazoários foi capaz de debilitar os tambaquis como observado por meio das alterações hematológicas; sendo este quadro de anemia hipocrômica e trombocitopenia importante para ser utilizado no diagnóstico destas parasitoses. Este estudo foi o primeiro registro da ocorrência de Dolops geayi em tambaquis cultivados na Amazônia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arguloida , Characiformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Aquaculture , Characiformes/blood , Fish Diseases/blood , Helminthiasis, Animal/blood
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 965-972, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886701

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The gill mitochondria-rich cells of the juvenile Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum were analyzed using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 96 h exposure to 0.04 and 0.2 mM nitrite. Although the number of mitochondria-rich cells decreased significantly in the lamellar epithelium, no decrease was found in the interlamellar region of the gill filament. Nitrite exposure caused significant reduction on the apical surface area of individual mitochondria-rich cells (p < 0.05), with a resulting reduction of the fractional area of these cells in both the lamellar and filament epithelium. Swelling of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, nuclear envelope and mitochondria were the main changes found in the mitochondria-rich cells. Cristae lysis and matrix vacuolization characterized the mitochondrial changes. The overall ultrastructural changes indicated cellular functional disruption caused by exposure to nitrite. The changes observed in the gill indicate that the cellular structures involved in the process of energy production become severely damaged by exposure to nitrite indicating irreversible damage conducting to cell death.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Death , Environmental Exposure , Characidae , Gills/cytology , Gills/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nitrites/toxicity
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(3): 225-232, mayo-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626694

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smokefree environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. RESULTS: Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.


OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de una ley de ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en una provincia argentina. MATERIAL y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de serie temporal sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en Santa Fe, 31 meses antes y 29 meses después de la ley. Se utilizó a la provincia vecina de Entre Ríos, sin ley en el momento del estudio, como provincia control. RESULTADOS: El promedio de ventas post-ley tanto en la provincia de Santa Fe como en sus dos ciudades más importantes fue mayor al compararse con el promedio provincial total pre-ley. No se observaron diferencias significativas en las ventas totales al ser comparadas con la provincia de Entre Ríos. CONCLUSIONES: No se demostró evidencia estadísticamente significativa sobre el impacto negativo de la legislación de ambientes 100% libres de humo sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en la provincia de Santa Fe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Argentina , Fossil Fuels , Public Policy , Restaurants/economics , Seasons , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Taxes/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(6): 521-529, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604204

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To morphometrically quantify CD1a+ dentritic cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells in HIV-positive patients with anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and to evaluate the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy and HPV infection on epithelial and subepithelial dendritic cells. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to morphometrically analyze the relative volume of the dendritic cells and the relationship between anal intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer in HIV-positive patients from the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, Brazil. All patients were submitted to biopsies of anorectal mucosa to perform a classic histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, employing antibodies against CD1a and DC-SIGN for the morphometric quantification of dendritic cells. RESULTS: HIV-negative patients displayed a CD1a DC density significantly higher than that of HIV-positives patients (3.75 versus 2.54) (p=0.018), and in patients with severe anal intraepithelial neoplasia had correlated between DC CD1a density with levels of CD4 + cells (p: 0.04) as well as the viral load of HIV-1 (p: 0.035). A not significant rise in the median density of CD1a+ DC was observed in the HIV positive/ HAART positive subgroup compared to the HIV positive/ HAART negative subgroup. The CD1a+ DC were also significantly increased in HIV-negative patients with anorectal condyloma (2.33 to 3.53; p=0.05), with an opposite effect in HIV-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an enhancement of the synergistic action caused by HIV-HPV co-infection on the anal epithelium, weakening the DC for its major role in immune surveillance. Notoriously in patients with severe anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the density of CD1a+ epithelial dendritic cells was influenced by the viral load of HIV-1. Our study describes for the first time the density of subepithelial DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells in patients with anal severe anal intraepithelial neoplasia and points to the possibility that a specific therapy for HIV induces the recovery of the density of epithelial DC.


OBJETIVO: Quantificar morfometricamente as células dendríticas DC CD1a+ e DC DC-SIGN+ em pacientes HIV positivos portadores de neoplasia escamosa intraepitelial anal e avaliar os efeitos da infecção pelo HIV, da terapia antirretroviral e da infecção pelo HPV sobre as células dendríticas epiteliais e subepiteliais. MÉTODOS: Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado para analisar morfometricamente o volume relativo das células dendríticas e as relações entre neoplasia intraepitelial anal e o câncer em pacientes HIV positivos da Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, Brasil.Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a biópsia da mucosa retal para realizar uma análise clássica histopatológica e imunohistoquímica utilizando anticorpos contra anti-CD1a e anti-DC-SIGN, para a quantificação morfométrica das células dendríticas. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes HIV negativos apresentaram densidade das DC CD1a+ significativamente maior do que a dos pacientes HIV positivos (3,75 versus 2,54) (p:0,018), e os pacientes com severa apresentaram correlação das DC CD1a com os níveis de células TCD4(p:0,04) assim como a carga viral do HIV-1 (p:0,035). Observamos no subgrupo HIV-positivo/HAART positivo elevação não significativa na mediana da densidade das DC CD1a+ em relação ao grupo HIV-positivo/HAART negativo. As DC CD1a+ também se elevaram nos pacientes HIV negativo portadores de condiloma anorretal(2,33 para 3,53; p:0,05), com efeito inverso nos pacientes HIV positivos. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados confirmam a potencialização da ação sinérgica representada pela coinfecção HIV-HPV sobre o epitélio anal, fragilizando as DC em sua função primordial de vigilância imune. Notoriamente nos pacientes com neoplasia intraepithelial anal grave, a densidade das DC CD1a+ epiteliais sofreu influência da carga viral do HIV-1. Nosso estudo descreveu pela primeira vez a densidade das DC subepiteliais DC-SIGN+ em pacientes com neoplasia intraepithelial anal severa e apontamos para a possibilidade de que a terapia específica para o HIV induza a recuperação da densidade das DC epiteliais.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Condylomata Acuminata/pathology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , HIV Seropositivity/pathology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anal Canal/pathology , Anal Canal/virology , Anus Neoplasms/immunology , Anus Neoplasms/virology , Case-Control Studies , Carcinoma in Situ/immunology , Carcinoma in Situ/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/immunology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Condylomata Acuminata/immunology , Condylomata Acuminata/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity/immunology , Immunohistochemistry , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Prospective Studies , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology
5.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 24(3): 195-201, sept. 1990. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-95826

ABSTRACT

A partir de la preparación de fosfatasa alcalina (EC 3.1.3.1) parcialmente purificada con etanol, de plasma de personas con grupo 0, se separaron cuatro fracciones con actividad enzimática, mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa, con gradiente discontinuo de NaCI. También se extrajo fosfatasa alcalina de hígado, hueso y mucosa intestinal humanos, a fin de caracterizar las distintas formas moleculares. el uso de inhibidores (L-fenil-alcalina y urea) y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida, permitió identificar las isoenzimas presentes en los extractos de tejidos y en los picos de elución cromatográfica de la enzima de plasma. La isoenzima hepática se encuentra en todas las fracciones. La primera eluye con NaCI 40 mM y puede separarse en dos (IA e IB). Ambas contienen las isoenzimas intestinal y ósea, además de formas parcialmente desializadas de la hepática. La segunda fracción (NaCI 60 mM) contiene exclusivamente fosfatasa alcalina hepática. La tercera (NaCI 200 mM), de alto peso molecular, está compuesta por las isoenzimas ósea, intestinal y hepática. El perfil es muy reproducible. La comparación del cromatograma correspondiente a plasma normal con el de un paciente portador de un tumor con metástasis óseas, muestra notables diferencias, indicando la utilidad diagnóstica del método, ya que permite identificar el órgano de origen, en casos de incremento de fosfatasa alcalina en plasma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , DEAE-Cellulose , Isoenzymes/isolation & purification , Bone and Bones/enzymology , Bone Diseases/enzymology , Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose/instrumentation , Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose/methods , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Ethanol , Liver/enzymology , Intestines/enzymology , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Neuraminidase , Phenylalanine , Sodium Chloride , Urea
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