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An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 436-441, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285090


Abstract Background: There are few epidemiological studies of urticaria, published in the indexed literature (PubMed/Medline). Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical data among patients with urticaria/angioedema attending a reference clinic in Brazil. Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven patients were evaluated retrospectively considering demographic data, time course of the disease, triggering symptoms, the presence of angioedema, complementary laboratory tests including total blood count, reactive-C protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, IgE serum levels, and other, as necessary. Results: The most commonly diagnosed type of urticaria was chronic spontaneous urticaria (56.93%). Angioedema was associated with chronic urticaria in 108 patients (40.08%). Study limitations: Unicentered and retrospective. Conclusion: Some relevant findings in this study are the observation of a female prevalence of cases (4-females: 1-man), a result more elevated than demonstrated in previous studies in Europe and Asia, the median age was 43-years old and the delay of time between the diagnosis of urticaria and the admission for treatment in a specialized center was approximately 2-years. Other multicenter studies can better establish these differences in Brazilian patients.

An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 148-154, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248734


Abstract Background: The pathophysiology of urticaria is still poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that the activation of coagulation is correlated with the clinical activity of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria. Coagulation and inflammation are strongly linked. Objectives: To correlate the severity and activity of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria with the levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and autologous serum test in patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria. Methods: The study included 55 patients diagnosed with chronic spontaneous urticaria. D-dimer levels were measured using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay and C-reactive protein levels were measured using the nephelometric method; autologous serum testing was performed on patients who discontinued antihistamine therapy. The severity of the disease was assessed using the urticaria activity score. Results: patients with severe, spontaneous, and difficult-to-control chronic urticaria had elevated serum levels of D-dimer, as well as a positive autologous serum test. Little correlation was demonstrated between the severity of chronic spontaneous urticaria and the levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The authors concluded that patients with severe Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria showed signs of activated fibrinolysis. Most patients with high clinical scores had high D-dimer values. Patients with positive results for the autologous serum test also had more severe Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria and needed more drugs to control the disease. Finally, little correlation was found between C-reactive protein levels and disease severity. Study limitations: The main limitation was the small sample of patients. In the present patients, it was demonstrated that serum D-dimer levels and the autologous serum test can act as predictive markers of severity and activity of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 200-209, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248753


Abstract The technological advancement of the pharmaceutical industry, resulting from the techniques of molecular biology and expansion of the knowledge of immunopathogenesis, has modified the therapeutic arsenal used in dermatology. Scientific research and regulatory standards cause drug costs to rise, thus making their use impossible in most public policies. In order to make high-cost drugs viable in the public health network, the Specialized Pharmaceutical Assistance Component was created. However, despite the frequent incorporation of medications, the constant requirement of drugs through lawsuits leads to exorbitant costs to the state budget. The present work analyzed through a descriptive observational study, the current situation of the Specialized Component and the involvement of medicines used in dermatology, through legal reviews, financial analyses, and medical articles, aiming at future incorporations for the specialty. When assessing the legal demands for dermatological drugs in the state of São Paulo, the specialty still has a low participation and psoriasis is the main disease involved in requiring drugs through the judicial system in the state. New methods of access to raw materials must be created to reduce legal issues. Cost-effectiveness and public planning studies are mandatory for incorporating new dermatological therapies.

Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(3): 101593, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339428


ABSTRACT Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis is a rare medical condition that is caused by the inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the skin of a previously sensitized individual. This clinical form of tuberculosis corresponds to 1-2% of all cases of tuberculosis and due to the paucibacillary characteristic of the lesions, patients can be misdiagnosed, accounting for the chronification of the skin infection. Herein, we report the case of a 26-year-old male farmer, presenting plaques with verrucosa and hyperkeratosis features in the left thigh and buttocks during 15 years. M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR and the patient was treated with standard anti-tuberculosis drugs, with subsequent improvement of the skin lesions.

An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 714-720, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142130


Abstract Background: Mohs micrographic surgery is worldwide used for treating skin cancers. After obtaining tumor-free margins, choosing the most appropriate type of closure can be challenging. Objectives: Our aim was to associate type of surgical reconstructions after Mohs micrographic surgery with the characteristics of the tumors as histological subtype, anatomical localization and especially number of surgical stages to achieve complete excision of the tumour. Methods: Transversal, retrospective analyses of medical records. Compilation of data such as gender, age, tumor location, histological subtype, number of stages to achieve clear margins and type of repair used. Results: A total of 975 of facial and extra-facial cases were analyzed. Linear closure was the most common repair by far (39%) and was associated with the smallest number of Mohs micrographic surgery stages. This type of closure was also more common in most histological subtypes and anatomical locations studied. Using Poisson regression model, nose defects presented 39% higher frequency of other closure types than the frequency of primary repairs, when compared to defects in other anatomic sites (p< 0.05). Tumors with two or more stages had a 28.6% higher frequency of other closure types than those operated in a single stage (p< 0.05). Study limitations: Retrospective study with limitations in obtaining information from medical records. The choice of closure type can be a personal choice. Conclusions: Primary closure should not be forgotten especially in surgical defects with fewer stages and in non-aggressive histological subtypes in main anatomic sites where Mohs micrographic surgery is performed.

Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 28(3): 517-521, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137127


Resumo O termo de consentimento informado é fundamental na relação jurídica entre médico e paciente. Visando avaliar seu impacto na sentença judicial, realizou-se estudo retrospectivo de 70 processos de responsabilidade civil envolvendo procedimentos médicos estéticos cirúrgicos e não cirúrgicos com termo de consentimento assinado pelos pacientes. Os casos analisados, julgados entre 2014 e 2016, foram selecionados nos sites dos tribunais brasileiros e classificados em dois grupos: médicos absolvidos (51%) e condenados (49%). No primeiro grupo, 39% das absolvições se embasaram na apresentação adequada do termo de consentimento informado, enquanto, no segundo, 50% dos médicos foram condenados por não o ter incluído. Portanto, o termo de consentimento informado se destaca nos julgamentos de erro médico. O dever de informar é um dos pilares da responsabilidade civil desse profissional e, quando negligenciado, constitui fator substancial para condenação.

Abstract The informed consent form is essential in the physician-patient relationship. To evaluate its impact on court decisions, we conducted a retrospective study of 70 civil suits involving surgical and non-surgical aesthetic medical procedures with an informed consent form signed by patients. The cases, judged between 2014 and 2016, were selected from Brazilian courts websites and classified into two groups: acquitted (51%) and convicted (49%) doctors. In the first group, 39% of acquittals were based on the proper presentation of the informed consent form, whereas in the second 50% of the professionals were convicted for not including the document. The informed consent thus stands out when judging medical errors, and the duty to warn is one of the pillars of the professional liability and, when neglected, becomes a substantial factor for their conviction.

Resumen El formulario de consentimiento informado es fundamental en la relación jurídica entre médico y paciente. Para evaluar su impacto en sentencias judiciales, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con 70 procesos de responsabilidad civil relacionados con procedimientos médicos estéticos quirúrgicos y no quirúrgicos con el formulario de consentimiento firmado por los pacientes. Los casos analizados, juzgados entre 2014 y 2016, fueron seleccionados en los sitios web de los tribunales brasileños y clasificados en dos grupos: médicos absueltos (51%) y condenados (49%). En el primer grupo, el 39% de las absoluciones se basaron en la presentación adecuada del formulario de consentimiento; en el segundo, en el 50% de los casos se condenaron a los médicos por no incluir este documento. Por tanto, el formulario de consentimiento informado se destaca en los juicios por error médico. El deber de informar es uno de los pilares de la responsabilidad civil del médico, y su incumplimiento constituye un factor sustancial de condena.

Duty to Warn , Medical Errors , Damage Liability , Esthetics , Informed Consent
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 480-483, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130900


Abstract Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma is a rare, benign vascular proliferation of unknown etiology. It occurs mainly in middle-aged women and usually affects the acral regions; the lesions appear as discrete, grouped, and asymptomatic violaceous papules. Histopathology shows proliferation and dilated small vessels in the papillary dermis, fibrous stroma with thickened collagen bundles, and multinucleated giant cells. To date, there are approximately 140 cases described in the indexed literature. This report presents the case of a 62-year-old woman with a typical clinical condition, who chose not undergo treatment, considering the benign character of her illness. The clinical and immunohistological aspects of this unusual dermatological entity are emphasized.

An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 493-507, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130925


Abstract Vasculitis is a group of several clinical conditions in which the main histopathological finding is fibrinoid necrosis in the walls of blood vessels. This article assesses the main dermatological aspects relevant to the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of small- and medium-vessel cutaneous and systemic vasculitis syndromes. The most important aspects of treatment are also discussed.

An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 355-371, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130873


Abstract The term vasculitis refers to the inflammation of vessel walls. It may range in severity from a self-limited disorder in one single organ to a life-threatening disease due to multiple organ failure. It has many causes, although they result in only a few histological patterns of vascular inflammation. Vessels of any type and in any organ can be affected, a fact that results in a broad variety of signs and symptoms. Different vasculitides with indistinguishable clinical presentations have quite different prognosis and treatments. This condition presents many challenges to physicians in terms of classification, diagnosis, appropriate laboratory workup, and treatment. Moreover, it compels a careful follow-up. This article reviews the Chapel-Hill 2012 classification, etiology, recent insights in pathophysiology, some important dermatological clues for the diagnosis and summarizes treatment of some of these complex vasculitis syndromes.

An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 32-39, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088737


Abstract Background: Macular lymphocytic arteritis most commonly presents as hyperpigmented macules on the lower limbs. The pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear and there is an ongoing debate regarding whether it represents a new form of cutaneous vasculitis or an indolent form of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. Objective: To describe clinical, histopathological, and laboratory findings of patients with the diagnosis of macular lymphocytic arteritis. Methods: A retrospective search was conducted by reviewing cases followed at the Vasculitis Clinic of the Dermatology Department, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, between 2005 and 2017. Seven patients were included. Results: All cases were female, aged 9-46 years, and had hyperpigmented macules mainly on the legs. Three patients reported symptoms. Skin biopsies evidencing a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate affecting arterioles at the dermal subcutaneous junction were found, as well as a typical luminal fibrin ring. None of the patients developed necrotic ulcers, neurological damage, or systemic manifestations. The follow-up ranged from 18 to 151 months, with a mean duration of 79 months. Study limitations: This study is subject to a number of limitations: small sample of patients, besides having a retrospective and uncontrolled study design. Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this series presents the longest duration of follow-up reported to date. During this period, none of the patients showed resolution of the lesions despite treatment, nor did any progress to systemic vasculitis. Similarities between clinical and skin biopsy findings support the hypothesis that macular lymphocytic arteritis is a benign, incomplete, and less aggressive form of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa.

J. vasc. bras ; 19: e20180072, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056671


Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 46 anos de idade, procurou o pronto socorro do Hospital Municipal Universitário apresentando lesões necróticas em membros inferiores associadas à síndrome consumptiva. Após anamnese e exame físico, obteve-se o diagnóstico de vasculite leucocitoclástica de modo imediato e econômico por meio da utilização de algoritmo específico de vasculites primárias, permitindo início precoce da terapêutica adequada. A boa evolução do quadro clínico ratificou a necessidade de se obter diagnóstico definitivo e início rápido da terapêutica.

Abstract A 46-year-old female patient presented at the emergency department of a Municipal University Hospital with necrotic lesions in lower limbs associated with wasting syndrome. She was diagnosed with leukocytoclastic vasculitis after physical examination and history-taking in a fast and cost-effective manner, using an algorithm specifically for primary vasculitis, enabling early and appropriate treatment. The good clinical outcome demonstrates the need to quickly make a definitive diagnosis and start treatment.

J. vasc. bras ; 19: e20190093, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135083


Abstract Livedoid Vasculopathy is a disease characterized by occlusion of the capillaries of the dermis, without inflammatory signs. It begins with purpuric papules or macules that develop into painful ulcers, mainly involving the ankles and feet. In this case report, we describe diagnosis and treatment in a young pregnant patient, with excellent clinical response.

Resumo A vasculopatia livedoide é uma doença caracterizada pela oclusão dos capilares da derme, sem sinais inflamatórios. Tem início com pápulas ou máculas purpúricas que evoluem para úlceras dolorosas, com predominância na topografia de tornozelos e pés. Neste relato de caso, descrevemos o diagnóstico e a terapêutica em uma paciente jovem gestante, com excelente evolução clínica.

An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2,supl.1): 56-66, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011090


Abstract: Background: Urticarias are frequent diseases, with 15% to 20% of the population presenting at least one acute episode in their lifetime. Urticaria are classified in acute ( ≤ 6 weeks) or chronic (> 6 weeks). They may be induced or spontaneous. Objectives: To verify the diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), according to the experience of Brazilian experts, regarding the available guidelines (international and US). Methods: A questionnaire was sent to Brazilian experts, with questions concerning diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for CSU in adults. Results: Sixteen Brazilian experts answered the questionnaire related to diagnosis and therapy of CSU in adults and data were analyzed. Final text was written, considering the available guidelines (International and US), adapted to the medical practices in Brazil. Diagnostic work up in CSU is rarely necessary. Biopsy of skin lesion and histopathology may be indicated to rule out other diseases, such as, urticarial vasculitis. Other laboratory tests, such as complete blood count, CRP, ESR and thyroid screening. Treatment of CSU includes second-generation anti-histamines (sgAH) at licensed doses, sgAH two, three to fourfold doses (non-licensed) and omalizumab. Other drugs, such as, cyclosporine, immunomodulatory drugs and immunosuppressants may be indicated (non-licensed and with limited scientific evidence). Conclusions: Most of the Brazilian experts in this study partially agreed with the diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations of the International and US guidelines. They agreed with the use of sgAH at licensed doses. Increase in the dose to fourfold of sgAH may be suggested with restrictions, due to its non-licensed dose. Sedating anti-histamines, as suggested by the US guideline, are indicated by some of the Brazilian experts, due to its availability. Adaptations are mandatory in the treatment of CSU, due to scarce or lack of other therapeutic resources in the public health system in Brazil, such as omalizumab or cyclosporine.

Humans , Adult , Urticaria/diagnosis , Urticaria/drug therapy , Consensus , Societies, Medical , Urticaria/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Chronic Disease , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclosporins/therapeutic use , Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating/therapeutic use , Dermatology , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 35, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088609


Abstract The panniculitides remain as one of the most challenging areas for clinicians, as they comprise a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases involving the subcutaneous fat with potentially-shared clinical and histopathological features. Clinically, most panniculitides present as red edematous nodules or plaques. Therefore, in addition to a detailed clinical history, a large scalpel biopsy of a recent-stage lesion with adequate representation of the subcutaneous tissue is essential to specific diagnosis and appropriate clinical management. Herein we review the panniculitides of particular interest to the rheumatologist.

Humans , Polyarteritis Nodosa/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis , Erythema Nodosum/diagnosis , Rheumatology
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(1): 74-89, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735743


Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/pathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Skin Tests , Urticaria/classification , Urticaria/etiology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(1): 57-61, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736361


There are few studies on the role of innate immune response in dermatophytosis. An investigation was conducted to define the involvement of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in localized (LD) and disseminated (DD) dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum. Fifteen newly diagnosed patients, eight patients with LD and seven with DD, defined by involvement of at least three body segments were used in this study. Controls comprised twenty skin samples from healthy individuals undergoing plastic surgery. TLR2 and TLR4 were quantified in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. A reduced expression of TLR4 in the lower and upper epidermis of both LD and DD patients was found compared to controls; TLR2 expression was preserved in the upper and lower epidermis of all three groups. As TLR4 signaling induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils recruitment, its reduced expression likely contributed to the lack of resolution of the infection and the consequent chronic nature of the dermatophytosis. As TLR2 expression acts to limit the inflammatory process and preserves the epidermal structure, its preserved expression may also contribute to the persistent infection and limited inflammation that are characteristic of dermatophytic infections.

A literatura sobre o papel da resposta imune inata em dermatofitose é escassa. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a participação dos receptores do tipo Toll 2 e 4 (TLRs) 2 e 4 em pacientes com dermatofitose localizada (LD) e disseminada (DD, definida como lesões em pelo menos três segmentos corpóreos distintos), causadas por Trichophyton rubrum. Foram analisados cortes histológicos de 15 pacientes recém-diagnosticados, oito com LD e sete com DD. O grupo controle foi composto por 20 amostras de pele de indivíduos saudáveis submetidos a cirurgia plástica. TLR-2 e TLR-4 foram quantificados em lesões cutâneas por imunohistoquímica. Encontramos uma expressão reduzida de TLR-4 na epiderme superior e inferior nos dois grupos, LD e DD, quando comparados com o grupo controle; a expressão de TLR-2 foi preservada na epiderme superior e inferior de todos os três grupos. Como a sinalização por TLR-4 induz produção de citocinas inflamatórias e recrutamento de neutrófilos, a menor expressão desta molécula provavelmente contribui para a não resolução da infecção e conseqüente natureza persistente da dermatofitose. Como a sinalização via TLR-2 tem sido descrita como fator de regulação do processo inflamatório e de preservação da estrutura epidérmica, a sua expressão inalterada nas lesões dos pacientes com DD e DL pode contribuir também para a persistência da infecção e do reduzido processo inflamatório que são característicos das infecções por dermatófitos.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Tinea/metabolism , /metabolism , /metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Tinea/pathology